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Genus Wolbachia

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 3
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Wolbachia Hertig 1936, genus. (Type genus of the tribe ¤ Wolbachieae Philip 1955 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Wolbachia pipientis Hertig 1936 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. fem. n. Wolbachia, named after S. Burt Wolbach, who described the rickettsial agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and, in collaboration with Marshall Hertig, studied the rickettsia-like microorganisms of insects.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: HERTIG (M.): The rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis (gen. et sp. n.) and associated inclusions of the mosquito, Culex pipiens. Parasitology, 1936, 28, 453-486.

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Wolbachia melophagi (Nöller 1917) Philip 1956, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Synonym: "Rickettsia melophagi" Nöller 1917.
Etymology: N.L. n. Melophagus, a genus of wingless flies commonly called sheep keds; N.L. gen. n. melophagi, of Melophagus.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 NÖLLER (W.): Blut- und Insektenflagellaten Züchtung auf Platten. Archiv fur Schiffs und Tropenhygiene, 1917, 21, 53-94. 2 PHILIP (C.B.): Comments on the classification of the order Rickettsiales. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1956, 2, 261-270.

Note: The exact phylogenetic position of Wolbachia melophagi is not yet known. 16S rRNA sequence referred to as Wolbachia melophagi shows high identity with the 16S rRNA of species in the genus Bartonella. According to Dumler et al. 2001 [1], and to Lo et al. 2007 [2], Wolbachia melophagi should be removed from the genus Wolbachia.
References:
1 DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 LO (N.), PARASKEVOPOULOS (C.), BOURTZIS (K.), O'NEILL (S.L.), WERREN (J.H.), BORDENSTEIN (S.R.) and BANDI (C.): Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 654-657.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Wolbachia persica Suitor and Weiss 1961, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC VR-331.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M21292.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. persica, Persian; here, named after Argas persicus, the reputed host tick.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SUITOR Jr. (E.C.) and WEISS (E.): Isolation of a rickettsialike microorganism (Wolbachia persica n. sp.) from Argas persicus (Oken). Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1961, 108, 95-106.

Notes:
1 In the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 331 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).
2 According to Forsman et al. 1994 [1], Noda et al. 1997 [2], and Niebylski et al. 1997 [3], Wolbachia persica should be reclassified as a species of the genus Francisella. Dumler et al. 2001 [4], and Lo et al. 2007 [5] also propose to remove Wolbachia persica from the genus Wolbachia.
References:
1 FORSMAN (M.), SANDSTRÖM (G.), SJÖSTEDT (A.): Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of Francisella strains and utilization for determination of the phylogeny of the genus and for identification of strains by PCR. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 38-46.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 NODA (H.), MUNDERLOH (U.G.) and KURTTI (T.J.): Endosymbionts of ticks and their relationship to Wolbachia spp. and tick-borne pathogens of humans and animals. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1997, 63, 3926-3932.
Original article Online
3 NIEBYLSKI (M.L.), PEACOCK (M.G.), FISCHER (E.R.), PORCELLA (S.F.) and SCHWAN (T.G.): Characterization of an endosymbiont infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, as a member of the genus Francisella. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1997, 63, 3933-3940.
Original article Online
4 DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online
5 LO (N.), PARASKEVOPOULOS (C.), BOURTZIS (K.), O'NEILL (S.L.), WERREN (J.H.), BORDENSTEIN (S.R.) and BANDI (C.): Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 654-657.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Wolbachia pipientis Hertig 1936, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not availble.
Etymology: N.L. n. pipiens -entis (from L. part. adj. pipiens, peeping) specific epithet of the host mosquito, Culex pipiens; N.L. gen. n. pipientis, of pipiens.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: HERTIG (M.): The rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis (gen. et sp. n.) and associated inclusions of the mosquito, Culex pipiens. Parasitology, 1936, 28, 453-486.

Note: Lo et al. propose that all the intracellular symbionts known to closely cluster with Wolbachia pipientis are officially given this name, pending further genomic and phylogenetic analyses. This proposal was the consensus reached at the international conference on Wolbachia pipientis (Heron Island, Australia, August 2004).
Reference: LO (N.), PARASKEVOPOULOS (C.), BOURTZIS (K.), O'NEILL (S.L.), WERREN (J.H.), BORDENSTEIN (S.R.) and BANDI (C.): Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 654-657.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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