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Genus Photorhabdus

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 4
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 17

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Photorhabdus Boemare et al. 1993, gen. nov.
Type species: ¤ Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Boemare et al. 1993.
Etymology: Gr. n. phos photos, light; Gr. fem. n. rhabdos, rod; N.L. fem. n. Photorhabdus, bioluminescent rod-shaped bacterium.
Valid publication: BOEMARE (N.E.), AKHURST (R.J.) and MOURANT (R.G.): DNA relatedness between Xenorhabdus spp. (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, and a proposal to transfer Xenorhabdus luminescens to a new genus, Photorhabdus gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 249-255.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus asymbiotica Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 3265-86 = ATCC 43950= CIP 106331 = DSM 15149.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z76755.
Etymology: Gr. pref. a, not; N.L. fem. adj. symbiotica (from Gr. n. sumbios, a companion, partner) living together; N.L. fem. adj. asymbiotica, not symbiotic.
Valid publication: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Photorhabdus asymbiotica Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999 emend. Akhurst et al. 2004.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 3265-86 = ATCC 43950= CIP 106331 = DSM 15149.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z76755.
Etymology: Gr. pref. a, not; N.L. fem. adj. symbiotica (from Gr. n. sumbios, a companion, partner) living together; N.L. fem. adj. asymbiotica, not symbiotic.
Reference: AKHURST (R.J.), BOEMARE (N.E.), JANSSEN (P.H.), PEEL (M.M.), ALFREDSON (D.A.) and BEARD (C.E.): Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1301-1310.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica (Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999) Akhurst et al. 2004, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 3265-86 = ATCC 43950= CIP 106331 = DSM 15149.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z76755.
Etymology: Gr. pref. a, not; N.L. fem. adj. symbiotica (from Gr. n. sumbios, a companion, partner) living together; N.L. fem. adj. asymbiotica, not symbiotic.
Valid publication: AKHURST (R.J.), BOEMARE (N.E.), JANSSEN (P.H.), PEEL (M.M.), ALFREDSON (D.A.) and BEARD (C.E.): Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1301-1310.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original authorship, Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. australis Akhurst et al. 2004, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 9802892 = ACM 5210 = CIP 108025.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY280572.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. australis, southern; this subspecies was detected in the southern hemisphere.
Valid publication: AKHURST (R.J.), BOEMARE (N.E.), JANSSEN (P.H.), PEEL (M.M.), ALFREDSON (D.A.) and BEARD (C.E.): Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1301-1310.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus heterorhabditis Ferreira et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SF41=ATCC BAA-2479=DSM 25263.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: HQ142626.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: N/A.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. heterorhabditis, of the nematode Heterorhabditis.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: FERREIRA, T., VAN REENEN, C. A., ENDO, A., TAILLIEZ, P., PAGÈS, S., SPRÖER, C., MALAN, A. P. and DICKS, L. M. T. 2014. Photorhabdus heterorhabditis sp. nov., a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis zealandica. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 1540-1545.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Boemare et al. 1993, comb. nov. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Hb = ATCC 29999= CIP 106429 = DSM 3368.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X82248.
Basonym: ¤ Xenorhabdus luminescens Thomas and Poinar 1979 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. luminescens, luminescing, named for its luminescence.
Valid publication: BOEMARE (N.E.), AKHURST (R.J.) and MOURANT (R.G.): DNA relatedness between Xenorhabdus spp. (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, and a proposal to transfer Xenorhabdus luminescens to a new genus, Photorhabdus gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 249-255.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Boemare et al. 1993, Photorhabdus luminescens is cited as Photorhabdus luminescens (Poinar and Thomas 1979) (sic) Boemare et al. 1993.

Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Boemare et al. 1993 emend. Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Hb = ATCC 29999= CIP 106429 = DSM 3368.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X82248.
Basonym: ¤ Xenorhabdus luminescens Thomas and Poinar 1979 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. luminescens, luminescing, named for its luminescence.
Reference: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) FRG04 = CIP 105564 = DSM 15138.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ007359.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. akhurstii, of Akhurst, named after Dr. R. Akhurst, a major contributor to the bacteriological symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes.
Valid publication: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis Tailliez et al. 2010, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) HG29 = CIP 109949 = DSM 22391.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU930345.
Etymology: N.L. fem adj. caribbeanensis, of or belonging to the Caribbean islands (Guadeloupe), the source of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora from which the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: TAILLIEZ (P.), LAROUI (C.), GINIBRE (N.), PAULE (A.), PAGÈS (S.) and BOEMARE (N.): Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1921-1937.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. hainanensis Tailliez et al. 2010, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) C8404 = CIP 109946 = DSM 22397.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU930342.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. hainanensis, of or belonging to the Hainan island (China), the source of the nematode (Heterorhabditis species) from which the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: TAILLIEZ (P.), LAROUI (C.), GINIBRE (N.), PAULE (A.), PAGÈS (S.) and BOEMARE (N.): Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1921-1937.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii Hazir et al. 2004, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 1121 = DSM 15194 = NCIMB 13951.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ560630.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. kayaii, of Kaya, to honour Harry K. Kaya for his scientific contributions to the biology of entomopathogenic nematodes and biological control agents.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 98. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1005-1006.
Effective publication: HAZIR (S.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), LANG (E.), SCHUMANN (P.), EHLERS (R.U.) and KESKIN (N.): Two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens, isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii subsp. nov. and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2004, 27, 36-42.
Validation List no. 98 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kleinii An and Grewal 2011, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) KMD37 = ATCC BAA-2104 = DSM 23513.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HM072284.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. kleinii of Klein; this subspecies is named after Dr. Michael D. Klein in recognition of his contributions to insect pathology and nematology.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 139. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1011-1013.
Effective publication: AN (R) and GREWAL (P.S.): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kleinii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). Curr. Microbiol., 2011, 62, 539-543.
Validation List no. 139 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The accession number ATCC BAA-2104 has been provided at the time of request for valid publication of the name.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 139 (footnote **). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1011-1013.
Validation List no. 139 in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TT01 = CIP 105565 = DSM 15139.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ007404.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. laumondii, of Laumond, named after Dr. C. Laumond, a major contributor to the use of entomopathogenic nematode/bacterial complexes for insect pest control.
Valid publication: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Hb = ATCC 29999= CIP 106429 = DSM 3368.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X82248.
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. luminescens, luminescing, named for its luminescence.
Valid publication: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Boemare et al. 1993, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. luminescens (Thomas and Poinar 1979) Boemare et al. 1993 is automatically created by the valid publication of ¤ Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, and the valid publication of ¤ Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. noenieputensis Ferreira et al. 2013, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AM7 = ATCC BAA-2407 = DSM 25462.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: JQ424880.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. noenieputensis, of or belonging to the settlement Noenieput, close to the Namibian border in South Africa, the location of the farm Springbokvlei, the source of the nematode.
Valid publication: FERREIRA (T.), VAN REENEN (C.), PAGÈS (S.), TAILLIEZ (P.), MALAN (A.P.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. noenieputensis subsp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium associated with a novel Heterorhabditis species related to Heterorhabditis indica. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 1853-1858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis Hazir et al. 2004, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 39-8 = CIP 108426 = DSM 15199 = NCIMB 13952.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ560634.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. thracensis, referring to Thracia, Thrace, Western part of Turkey from which the type strain has been isolated.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 98. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1005-1006.
Effective publication: HAZIR (S.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), LANG (E.), SCHUMANN (P.), EHLERS (R.U.) and KESKIN (N.): Two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens, isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii subsp. nov. and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2004, 27, 36-42.
Validation List no. 98 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Photorhabdus temperata subsp. thracensis (Hazir et al. 2004) Tailliez et al. 2010, comb. nov.

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Photorhabdus temperata Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) XlNach = CIP 105563.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ007405.
Etymology: L. fem. part. adj. temperata, moderate, because this species grows at moderate temperatures.
Valid publication: FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea Tóth and Lakatos 2008, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 3107 = DSM 19724 = NCAIM B 02271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU136626.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. cinerea, resembling ashes, because this subspecies produces a grey pigment that colours the growing medium and infected insects.
Valid publication: TÓTH (T.) and LAKATOS (T.): Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2579-2581.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. khanii Tailliez et al. 2010, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) C1 = NC19 = CIP 109947 = DSM 3369.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY278657.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. khanii, of Khan, named in honour of A. Khan, who described the nematode Chromonema heliothidis = Heterorhabditis bacteriophora recovered from prepupal and pupal specimens of the corn earworm, Heliothis zea, from Clayton, North Carolina, 1971.
Valid publication: TAILLIEZ (P.), LAROUI (C.), GINIBRE (N.), PAULE (A.), PAGÈS (S.) and BOEMARE (N.): Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1921-1937.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. stackebrandtii An and Grewal 2011, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) GPS11 = ATCC BAA-2077 = DSM 23271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF467859.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. stackebrandtii of Stackebrandt; this subspecies is named after Dr. Erko Stackebrandt in recognition of his contribution to bacteriology.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 139. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1011-1013.
Effective publication: AN (R.) and GREWAL (P.S.): Photorhabdus temperata subsp. stackebrandtii subsp. nov. (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae). Curr. Microbiol., 2010, 61, 291-297.
Validation List no. 139 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The accession numbers ATCC BAA-2077 and DSM 23271 have been provided at the time of request for valid publication of the name.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 139 (footnote ‡‡). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1011-1013.
Validation List no. 139 in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. tasmaniensis Tailliez et al. 2010, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) T327 = CIP 109948 = DSM 22387.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU930339.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. tasmaniensis, of or belonging to Tasmania (Australia), the source of the nematode Heterorhabditis zealandica from which the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: TAILLIEZ (P.), LAROUI (C.), GINIBRE (N.), PAULE (A.), PAGÈS (S.) and BOEMARE (N.): Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1921-1937.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999) Tóth and Lakatos 2008, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) XlNach = CIP 105563. 
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ007405.
Etymology: L. fem. part. adj. temperata, moderate, because this species grows at moderate temperatures
Reference: TÓTH (T.) and LAKATOS (T.): Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2579-2581.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999) Tóth and Lakatos 2008 was first proposed by Fischer-Le Saux et al. in 1999 [1]. This subspecies name was illegitimate because it was the only named subspecies in the species Photorhabdus temperata Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999. Later, Tóth and Lakatos [2] proposed the subspecies Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea Tóth and Lakatos 2008. According to Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46) of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the valid publication of Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea automatically creates another subspecies, Photorhabdus temperata subsp. temperata (Fischer-Le Saux et al. 1999) Tóth and Lakatos 2008.
References:
1 FISCHER-LE SAUX (M.), VIALLARD (V.), BRUNEL (B.), NORMAND (P.) and BOEMARE (N.E.): Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1645-1656.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 TÓTH (T.) and LAKATOS (T.): Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2579-2581.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Photorhabdus temperata subsp. thracensis (Hazir et al. 2004) Tailliez et al. 2010, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 39-8 = CIP 108426 = DSM 15199 = NCIMB 13952.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ560634.
Basonym: ¤ Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis Hazir et al. 2004.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. thracensis, referring to Thracia, Thrace, Western part of Turkey from which the type strain has been isolated.
Valid publication: TAILLIEZ (P.), LAROUI (C.), GINIBRE (N.), PAULE (A.), PAGÈS (S.) and BOEMARE (N.): Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. hainanensis subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. khanii subsp. nov., P. temperata subsp. tasmaniensis subsp. nov., and the reclassification of P. luminescens subsp. thracensis as P. temperata subsp. thracensis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1921-1937.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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