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Genus Myxococcus

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 8
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Myxococcus Thaxter 1892, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Myxococcales Tchan et al. 1948 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the family ¤ Myxococcaceae Jahn 1924).
Type species: ¤ Myxococcus fulvus (Cohn 1875) Jahn 1911 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. muxa, mucus, slime; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. masc. n. Myxococcus, slime coccus.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: THAXTER (R.): On the Myxobacteriaceae, a new order of Schizomycetes. Botanical Gazette, 1892, 17, 389-406.

Myxococcus Thaxter 1892 emend. Lang and Stackebrandt 2009.
Type species: ¤ Myxococcus fulvus (Cohn 1875) Jahn 1911 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. muxa, mucus, slime; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. masc. n. Myxococcus, slime coccus.
Reference: LANG (E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Emended descriptions of the genera Myxococcus and Corallococcus, typification of the species Myxococcus stipitatus and Myxococcus macrosporus and a proposal that they be represented by neotype strains. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2122-2128.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Myxococcus coralloides Thaxter 1892, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25202= DSM 2259.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ811588.
Synonyms: "Chondrococcus coralloides" (Thaxter 1892) Jahn 1924, "Myxococcus clavatus" Quehl 1906, "Myxococcus digitatus" Quehl 1906, "Myxococcus polycystus" Kofler 1913, "Myxococcus exiguus" Kofler 1913, "Chondrococcus polycystus" (Kofler 1913) Krzemieniewska and Krzemieniewski 1926.
Etymology: Gr. n. korallon, coral; L. suff. -oides [from Gr. suff. -eides (from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure)], ressembling, similar; N.L. masc. adj. coralloides, coral-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: THAXTER (R.): On the Myxobacteriaceae, a new order of Schizomycetes. Botanical Gazette, 1892, 17, 389-406.

¤ Corallococcus coralloides (Thaxter 1892) Reichenbach 2007, comb. nov.

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Myxococcus disciformis Thaxter 1904, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CMU-1 = ATCC 33172.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M94374.
Synonym: "Angiococcus disciformis" (Thaxter 1904) Jahn 1924.
Etymology: Gr. n. diskos, anything quoit-shaped, a disk; L. adj. suffix -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. masc. adj. disciformis, disk-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: THAXTER (R.): Notes on the Myxobacteriaceae. Botanical Gazette, 1904, 37, 405-416.

¤ Angiococcus disciformis (Thaxter 1904) Hook et al. 1980, comb. nov.

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Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 38 = ATCC 51243= CIP 107135 = DSM 4946 = IAM 13189 = JCM 6245 = NBRC 100081.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ768130.
Etymology: L. part. adj. flavescens (from L. v. flavesco), becoming golden yellow, turning light yellow.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 33. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 212.
Effective publication: YAMANAKA (S.), KAWAGUCHI (A.) and KOMAGATA (K.): Isolation and identification of myxobacteria from soils and plant materials with special reference to DNA base composition, quinone system, and cellular fatty acid composition, and with a description of a new species, Myxococcus flavescens. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 1987, 33, 247-265.
Validation List no. 33 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: On the Validation List no. 33, the type strain JCM 6245 is erroneously cited as JCM 624 (sic).

¤ Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Lang et al. 2008, Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: LANG (E.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), STRÄUBLER (B.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Reclassification of Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990VP as a later synonym of Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892AL. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2607-2609.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Myxococcus fulvus (Cohn 1875) Jahn 1911, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25199= NBRC 100333 = NCIMB 13349.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ768117.
Synonym: "Micrococcus fulvus" Cohn 1875.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. fulvus, deep yellow, reddish yellow, gold-colored, tawny.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 COHN (F.): Untersuchungen über Bacterien. II. Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 1875, 1, 141-207. 2 JAHN (E.): Myxobacteriales. Kryptogamenflora der Mark Brandenburg, 1911, 5, 187-206.

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Myxococcus macrosporus (Krzemieniewska and Krzemieniewski 1926) Zahler and McCurdy 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Windsor M271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonym: "Chondrococcus macrosporus" Krzemieniewska and Krzemieniewski 1926, not "Myxococcus macrosporus" Zukal 1897.
Etymology: Gr. adj. makros, long, large; Gr. n. spora, a seed and in biology a spore; N.L. masc. adj. macrosporus, with large spore.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 KRZEMIENIEWSKA (H.) and KRZEMIENIEWSKI (S.): Miksobakterje Polski (Die Myxobakterien von Polen). Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 1926, 4, 1-54. 2 ZAHLER (S.A.) and McCURDY (H.D.): Genus I. Myxococcus Thaxter 1892, 403. In: R.E. BUCHANAN and N.E GIBBONS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1974, pp. 79-83.

Notes:
1 In 2005, H. Reichenbach [1] proposed the new combination ¤ Corallococcus macrosporus (basonym Myxococcus macrosporus). However, the type strain was designated as Cc m8 (= DSM 14697 = CIP 109128), not as strain Windsor M271. Consequently, in Validation List 115 [2], Corallococcus macrosporus was cited as ¤ Corallococcus macrosporus Reichenbach 2007, sp. nov.
References:
1 REICHENBACH (H.): Genus II. Corallococcus gen. nov. (Chondrococcus Jahn 1924, 85). In: D.J. BRENNER, N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY and G. M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 2 (The Proteobacteria), part C (The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria), Springer, New York, 2005, pp. 1079-1082.
2 Validation List no. 115. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 893-897.
Validation List no. 115 in IJSEM Online
2 The type strain of the species Myxococcus macrosporus is not available from any established culture collection or any other source. In 2009, E. Lang and E. Stackebrandt request that strain Cc m8 = CIP 109128 = DSM 14697 be formally recognized as the neotype strain for the species Myxococcus macrosporus, replacing the designated type strain Windsor M271. Opinion pending.
Reference: LANG (E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Emended descriptions of the genera Myxococcus and Corallococcus, typification of the species Myxococcus stipitatus and Myxococcus macrosporus and a proposal that they be represented by neotype strains. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2122-2128.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 According to Rule 18c, the proposal of a neotype strain does not require a Request for an Opinion.

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Myxococcus stipitatus Thaxter 1897, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Windsor M78.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonym: "Myxococcus ovalisporus" Krzemienievska and Krzemieniewski 1926.
Etymology: L. masc. n. stipes -itis, trunk, branch of a tree, stalk; L. masc. suff. -atus, suffix denoting provided with; N.L. masc. adj. stipitatus, stalked.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: THAXTER (R.): Further observations on the Myxobacteriaceae. Botanical Gazette, 1897, 23, 395-411.

Notes:
1 The type strain of the species Myxococcus stipitatus is not available from any established culture collection or any other source. in 2009, E. Lang and E. Stackebrandt request that strain Mx s8 = DSM 14675 = JCM 12634 be formally recognized as the neotype strain for the species Myxococcus stipitatus, replacing the designated type strain Windsor M78. Opinion pending.
Reference: LANG (E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Emended descriptions of the genera Myxococcus and Corallococcus, typification of the species Myxococcus stipitatus and Myxococcus macrosporus and a proposal that they be represented by neotype strains. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2122-2128.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 According to Rule 18c, the proposal of a neotype strain does not require a Request for an Opinion.

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Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) M22 = ATCC 25203= DSM 2260 = NBRC 100334 = NCIMB 13350.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ768119.
Etymology: L. part. adj. virescens, becoming green.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: THAXTER (R.): On the Myxobacteriaceae, a new order of Schizomycetes. Botanical Gazette, 1892, 17, 389-406.

Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Lang et al. 2008.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) M22 = ATCC 25203= DSM 2260 = NBRC 100334 = NCIMB 13350.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ768119.
Etymology: L. part. adj. virescens, becoming green.
Reference: LANG (E.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), STRÄUBLER (B.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Reclassification of Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990VP as a later synonym of Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892AL. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2607-2609.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Lang et al. 2008, Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990.
Reference: LANG (E.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), STRÄUBLER (B.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Reclassification of Myxococcus flavescens Yamanaka et al. 1990VP as a later synonym of Myxococcus virescens Thaxter 1892AL. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2607-2609.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Myxococcus xanthus Beebe 1941, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25232= CCUG 2079 = CIP 107069 = IFO (now NBRC) 13542.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ768116.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. xanthus (from Gr. masc. adj. xanthos), yellow.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: BEEBE (J.M.): The morphology and cytology of Myxococcus xanthus n. sp. Journal of Bacteriology, 1941, 42, 193-223.

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