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Genus Eperythrozoon

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 5
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Eperythrozoon Schilling 1928, genus.
Type species: ¤ Eperythrozoon coccoides Schilling 1928 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. pref. epi-, on; Gr. adj. eruthros, red; Gr. neut. n. zoon, living being, animal; N.L. neut. n. Eperythrozoon, presumably intended to mean animals on red (blood cells).
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCHILLING (V.): Eperythrozoon coccoides, eine neue durch splenektomie aktivierbare dauerinfektion der weissen maus. Klinische Wochenschrift, 1928, 7, 1853-1855.

Notes:
1 Species of the genus Eperythrozoon are cell-wall-less uncultivated parasitic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that these haemotrophic bacteria are closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect their phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that ¤ Eperythrozoon suis and ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii be transferred to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma as ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" and ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii", respectively.
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii'. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify ¤ Eperythrozoon suis and ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii as "Candidatus" is not acceptable; they would lose standing in nomenclature [1]! Later, ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" and ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii" will be renamed ¤ Mycoplasma suis and ¤ Mycoplasma wenyonii, respectively [2].
References:
1 ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233.
Notification List in IJSEM Online
2 NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Revision of haemotrophic Mycoplasma species names. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 683.
Original article by Neimark et al. 2002 in IJSEM Online
3 In the March 2004 issue of the IJSEM, Neimark et al. propose that ¤ Eperythrozoon ovis be reclassified as ¤ Mycoplasma ovis comb. nov.
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), HOFF (B.) and GANTER (M.): Mycoplasma ovis comb. nov. (formerly Eperythrozoon ovis), an epierythrocytic agent of haemolytic anaemia in sheep and goats. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 365-371.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 In the May 2005 issue of the IJSEM, Neimark et al. propose that ¤ Eperythrozoon coccoides be reclassified as ¤ Mycoplasma coccoides (Schilling 1928) Neimark et al. 2005, comb. nov. The transfer of ¤ Eperythrozoon coccoides (the type species of the genus Eperythrozoon) to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma means that the genera Eperythrozoon and ¤ Mycoplasma are heterotypic synonyms. According to Rule 44, the name of the genus must be Eperythrozoon because Eperythrozoon Schilling 1928 (Approved Lists 1980) has priority over ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). In the paper by Neimark et al. 2005, the authors added a request for an Opinion concerning this problem. Consequently, according to Rule 28b(2), ¤ Mycoplasma coccoides (Schilling 1928) Neimark et al. 2005 is not validly published.
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), PETERS (W.), ROBINSON (B.L.) and STEWART (L.B.): Phylogenetic analysis and description of Eperythrozoon coccoides, proposal to transfer to the genus Mycoplasma as Mycoplasma coccoides comb. nov. and Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1385-1391.
Original article in IJSEM Online
5 The last remaining validly published species in the genus Eperythrozoon, ¤ Eperythrozoon parvum, is not available and there is no assurance, it can be found in a reasonable amount of time. Since all the other species of Eperythrozoon have now been shown to be Mycoplasma species, it seems likely ¤ Eperythrozoon parvum would prove to be a mycoplasma but there is no direct evidence and it cannot be determined when a specimen of this bacterium can be found and studied.
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), PETERS (W.), ROBINSON (B.L.) and STEWART (L.B.): Phylogenetic analysis and description of Eperythrozoon coccoides, proposal to transfer to the genus Mycoplasma as Mycoplasma coccoides comb. nov. and Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1385-1391.
Original article in IJSEM Online
6 In a Letter to the Editor (IJSEM), Uilenberg et al. propose that the validly published names Eperythrozoon and Mycoplasma may continue to be used as separate genera, within the class Mollicutes, possibly in one and the same family, the Mycoplasmataceae.
Reference: UILENBERG (G.), THIAUCOURT (F.) and JONGEJAN (F.): Letter to the Editor. Mycoplasma and Eperythrozoon (Mycoplasmataceae). Comments on a recent paper. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 13-14.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Eperythrozoon coccoides Schilling 1928, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Synonym: "Gyromorpha musculi" Dinger 1928.
Etymology: N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. coccoides, coccus-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCHILLING (V.): Eperythrozoon coccoides, eine neue durch splenektomie aktivierbare dauerinfektion der weissen maus. Klinische Wochenschrift, 1928, 7, 1853-1855.

¤ Mycoplasma coccoides (Schilling 1928) Neimark et al. 2005, comb. nov. (illegitimate new combination).

Note: The transfer of Eperythrozoon coccoides (the type species of the genus Eperythrozoon) to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma means that the genera Eperythrozoon and ¤ Mycoplasma are heterotypic synonyms. According to Rule 44, the name of the genus must be Eperythrozoon because Eperythrozoon Schilling 1928 (Approved Lists 1980) has priority over ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). In the paper by Neimark et al. 2005, the authors added a request for an Opinion concerning this problem. Consequently, according to Rule 28b(2), ¤ Mycoplasma coccoides (Schilling 1928) Neimark et al. 2005 is not validly published.

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Eperythrozoon ovis Neitz et al. 1934, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Etymology: L. fem. n. ovis -is, a sheep; L. gen. n. ovis, of a sheep.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: NEITZ (W.O.), ALEXANDER (R.A.) and DU TOIT (P.J.): Eperythrozoon ovis (sp. nov.). Infection in sheep. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science, 1934, 3, 263-274.

¤ Mycoplasma ovis (Neitz et al. 1934) Neimark et al. 2004, comb. nov.

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Eperythrozoon parvum Splitter 1950, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Etymology:   L. neut. adj. parvum, small.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SPLITTER (E.J.): Eperythrozoon suis, n. sp. and Eperythrozoon parvum n. sp. two new blood parasites of swine. Science (Washington), 1950, 111, 513-514.

Note: See the note for ¤ Eperythrozoon.

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Eperythrozoon suis Splitter 1950, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Etymology: L. n. sus suis, a pig; L. gen. n. suis, of a pig.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SPLITTER (E.J.): Eperythrozoon suis, n. sp. and Eperythrozoon parvum n. sp. two new blood parasites of swine. Science (Washington), 1950, 111, 513-514.

¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" Neimark et al. 2001.

Notes:
1 Strains of Eperythrozoon suis are cell-wall-less uncultivated parasitic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. 16S rRNA gene sequence has been determined for this species and phylogenetic analysis shows that this haemotrophic bacteria is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that Eperythrozoon suis be transferred to the genus Mycoplasma as ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis". Neimark et al. 2001 form the new name haemosuis to avoid confusion with "Mycoplasma suis" (sic). However, the name "Mycoplasma suis" has no standing in nomenclature!
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii'. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 It is important to note that names included in the category Candidatus have no standing in bacterial nomenclature (see the file ¤ "List of Candidatus" or Candidatus in the file ¤ "Definitions and abbreviations"). So, according to the Associate Editor, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify Eperythrozoon suis as "Candidatus" is not acceptable; it would lose standing in nomenclature.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233.
Notification List in IJSEM Online

¤ Mycoplasma haemosuis Neimark et al. 2002, nom. nov. [Illegitimate name! See ¤ Mycoplasma suis corrig. (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.].

Notes:
1 In 2001, Neimark et al. proposed the transfer of Eperythrozoon suis to the genus Mycoplasma with the Candidatus status: ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" Neimark et al. 2001. The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published names to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" to Mycoplasma haemosuis nom. nov.
2 In violation of Rules 34a, 41a and 51b (2), the specific epithet suis is changed to haemosuis in the absence of the same epithet used for a different species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929. Consequently, ¤ Mycoplasma haemosuis (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002 is illegitimate and the correct name should be Mycoplasma suis (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.

¤ Mycoplasma suis corrig. (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.

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Eperythrozoon wenyonii Adler and Ellenbogen 1934, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Synonym: "Haemobartonella wenyonii" (Adler and Ellenbogen 1934) Weinman 1944.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. wenyonii, of Wenyon, named after C.M. Wenyon, an investigator of these organisms.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ADLER (S.) and ELLENBOGEN (V.): A note on two new blood parasites of cattle, Eperythrozoon and Bartonella. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 1934, 47, 220-221.

¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii" Neimark et al. 2001.

Notes:
1 Strains of Eperythrozoon wenyonii are cell-wall-less uncultivated parasitic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes. 16S rRNA gene sequence has been determined for this species and phylogenetic analysis shows that this haemotrophic bacteria is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980) [1, 2]. To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 [2] propose that Eperythrozoon wenyonii be transferred to the genus Mycoplasma as ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii".
References:
1 NEIMARK (H.) and KOCAN (K.M.): The cell wall-less rickettsia Eperythrozoon wenyonii is a Mycoplasma. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1997, 156, 287-291.
Original article Online
2 NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii'. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 It is important to note that names included in the category Candidatus have no standing in bacterial nomenclature (see the file ¤ "List of Candidatus" or Candidatus in the file ¤ "Definitions and abbreviations"). So, according to the Associate Editor, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify Eperythrozoon wenyonii as "Candidatus" is not acceptable; it would lose standing in nomenclature.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233.
Notification List in IJSEM Online

¤ Mycoplasma wenyonii (Adler and Ellenbogen 1934) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.

Note: In 2001, Neimark et al. proposed the transfer of Eperythrozoon wenyonii to the genus Mycoplasma with the Candidatus status, ¤ "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii" Neimark et al. 2001. The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published names to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii" to Mycoplasma wenyonii comb. nov.

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