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Genus Ehrlichia

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 10
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Ehrlichia Moshkovski 1945, genus. (Type genus of the family ¤ Ehrlichiaceae Moshkovski 1945 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the tribe ¤ Ehrlichieae Philip 1957 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Ehrlichia canis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1935) Moshkovski 1945 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: "Rickettsia (subgen. Ehrlichia)" Moshkovski 1937, "Nicollea" (in part) Macchiavello 1947, possibly "Donatienella" Rousselot 1948.
Etymology: N.L. fem. n. Ehrlichia, named after Paul Ehrlich, a German bacteriologist.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: MOSHKOVSKI (S.D.): Cytotropic inducers of infection and the classification of the Rickettsiae with Chlamydozoa (in Russian, English summary). Advances in Modern Biology (Moscow), 1945, 19, 1-44.

Ehrlichia Moshkovski 1945 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Type species: ¤ Ehrlichia canis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1935) Moshkovski 1945 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia (subgen. Ehrlichia)" Moshkovski 1937, "Nicollea (in part) Macchiavello 1947, possibly "Donatienella" Rousselot 1948.
Etymology: N.L. fem. n. Ehrlichia, named after Paul Ehrlich, a German bacteriologist.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Dumler et al. 2001, Ehrlichia Moshkovski 1945 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Cowdria Moshkovski 1947 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia canis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1935) Moshkovski 1945, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture isolated.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia canis" Donatien and Lestoquard 1935, "Ehrlichia (Rickettsia) canis" (sic) Moshkovski 1937, "Nicollea canis" Macchiavello 1947, "Kurlovia (Ehrlichia) canis" Zhdanov 1953.
Etymology: L. gen. n. canis, of the dog.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 DONATIEN (A.) and LESTOQUARD (F.): Existence en Algérie d'une Rickettsia du chien. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 1935, 28, 418-419. 2 MOSHKOVSKI (S.D.): Cytotropic inducers of infection and the classification of the Rickettsiae with Chlamydozoa (in Russian, English summary). Advances in Modern Biology (Moscow), 1945, 19, 1-44.

Note: Several strains have been isolated since the Approved Lists 1980. According to Rule 18f, Dumler et al. 2001designated the strain Oklahoma as the type strain of this species (see below).

Ehrlichia canis (Donatien and Lestoquard 1935) Moshkovski 1945 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Oklahoma.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia canis" Donatien and Lestoquard 1935, "Ehrlichia (Rickettsia) canis" (sic) Moshkovski 1937, "Nicollea canis" Macchiavello 1947, "Kurlovia (Ehrlichia) canis" Zhdanov 1953.
Etymology: L. gen. n. canis, of the dog.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia chaffeensis Anderson et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Arkansas = ATCC CRL-10679.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M73222.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. chaffeensis, pertaining to Fort Chaffee in western Arkansas, where the patient from whom the first isolate was prepared was identified.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 41. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 327-328.
Effective publication: ANDERSON (B.E.), DAWSON (J.E.), JONES (D.C.) and WILSON (K.H.): Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a new species associated with human ehrlichiosis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1991, 29, 2838-2842.
Validation List no. 41 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In Validation List no. 41, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC CRL 10679 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

Ehrlichia chaffeensis Anderson et al. 1992 emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Arkansas = ATCC CRL-10679.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M73222.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. chaffeensis, pertaining to Fort Chaffee in western Arkansas, where the patient from whom the first isolate was prepared was identified.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia equi Lewis et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) non cultivable, description: Lewis et al. 1975.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Etymology: L. gen. n. equi, of the horse.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222.
Effective publication: LEWIS (G.E.J.), HUXSOLL (D.L.), RISTIC (M.) and JOHNSON (A.J.): Experimentally induced infections of dogs, cats and nonhuman primates with Ehrlichia equi, etiologic agent of equine ehrlichiosis. Am. J. Vet. Res., 1975, 36, 85-88.
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online

Note: Several strains have been isolated from 1975 but no type strain has been designated.

¤ Anaplasma phagocytophilum corrig. (Foggie 1949) Dumler et al. 2001.

Note: According to Dumler et al. 2001, Ehrlichia equi Lewis et al. 1988 is a later synonym of ¤ Anaplasma phagocytophilum corrig. (Foggie 1949) Dumler et al. 2001.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia ewingii Anderson et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Stillwater (Attempts to cultivate Ehrlichia ewingii in tissue culture have been unsuccessful. The type specimen is the Stillwater strain which was originally obtained from the blood of a naturally infected dog.).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M73222.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ewingii, of Ewing, named in honor of Sidney A. Ewing for his pioneering work with this agent.
Valid publication: ANDERSON (B.E.), GREENE (C.E.), JONES (D.C.) and DAWSON (J.E.): Ehrlichia ewingii sp. nov., the etiologic agent of canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 299-302.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Ehrlichia ewingii Anderson et al. 1992 emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Stillwater (Attempts to cultivate Ehrlichia ewingii in tissue culture have been unsuccessful. The type specimen is the Stillwater strain which was originally obtained from the blood of a naturally infected dog.).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M73222.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ewingii, of Ewing, named in honor of Sidney A. Ewing for his pioneering work with this agent.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia minasensis Cabezas-Cruz et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) UFMG-EV=DSM 100393=TCB-TBB-0018.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: JX629805.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. minasensis, pertaining to Minas Gerais.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: CABEZAS-CRUZ, A., ZWEYGARTH, E., VANCOVA, M., BRONISZEWSKA, M., GRUBHOFFER, L., PASSOS, L. M., RIBEIRO, M. F., ALBERDI, P. and DE LA FUENTE, J. 2016. Ehrlichia minasensis sp. nov., isolated from the tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1426-1430.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia muris Wen et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Asuke = AS145 = ATCC VR-1411.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U15527.
Etymology: L. gen. n. muris, of the mouse; the species was first isolated from a mouse.
Valid publication: WEN (B.), RIKIHISA (Y.), MOTT (J.), FUERST (P.A.), KAWAHARA (M.) and SUTO (C.): Ehrlichia muris sp. nov., identified on the basis of 16S rRNA base sequences and serological, morphological, and biological characteristics. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 250-254.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Ehrlichia muris Wen et al. 1995 emend. Dumler et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Asuke = AS145 = ATCC VR-1411.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U15527.
Etymology: L. gen. n. muris, of the mouse; the species was first isolated from a mouse.
Reference: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia phagocytophila (Foggie 1949) Philip 1962, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Webster.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U02521.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia phagocytophila ovis" Foggie 1949, "Rickettsia phagocytophila" Foggie 1951, "Cytoecetes phagocytophila" (Foggie 1949) Foggie 1962, "Cytoecetes bovis" Tuomi 1966.
Etymology: N.L. n. phagocytum (from Gr. v. phagein, to eat up, devour; and Gr. n. kutos, hollow, a vessel and, in biology, a cell), a phagocyte; N.L. fem. adj. phila (from Gr. fem. adj. philoê, friend, loving; N.L. fem. adj. phagocytophila, phagocytes loving; intended to mean attractive to phagocytes.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 FOGGIE (A.): Studies on tick-borne fever in sheep. Journal of General Microbiology, 1949, 3, V-VI (Communication). 2 PHILIP (C.B.): Appendix G. Summary of tickborne rickettsioses. Report 2nd Meeting FAOIE Expert Panel on Tick-borne Diseases of Livestock, Cairo, United Nations, Rome, 1962, pp. 41-43.

Note: In the Approved Lists 1980, no type strain was designated (no culture isolated). However, several strains have been isolated since the Approved Lists 1980. According to Rule 18f, Dumler et al. 2001designated the strain Webster as the type strain of the new combination ¤ Anaplasma phagocytophilum (see below).

¤ Anaplasma phagocytophilum corrig. (Foggie 1949) Dumler et al. 2001, comb. nov.

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Ehrlichia risticii Holland et al. 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Illinois = HRC-IL = ATCC VR-986.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M21290.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. risticii, of Ristic, named after from Miodrag Ristic.
Valid publication: HOLLAND (C.J.), WEISS (E.), BURGDORFER (W.), COLE (A.I.) and KAKOMA (I.): Ehrlichia risticii sp. nov.: etiological agent of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (synonym, Potomac horse fever). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 524-526.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain ATCC VR-986 is deaccessioned.
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (November 06, 2001).

¤ Neorickettsia risticii (Holland et al. 1985) Dumler et al. 2001, comb. nov.

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Ehrlichia ruminantium (Cowdry 1925) Dumler et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Welgevonden.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CR767821 (complete genome).
Basonym: ¤ Cowdria ruminantium (Cowdry 1925) Moshkovski 1947 (Approved Lists 1980).
Other synonyms: "Rickettsia ruminantium" Cowdry 1925, "Kurlovia ruminantium" (Cowdry 1925) Zhdanov 1953, "Nicollea ruminantium" (Cowdry 1925) Macchiavello 1947.
Etymology: L. part. adj. ruminans -antis, ruminating; N.L. gen. pl. n. ruminantium, of ruminants.
Valid publication: DUMLER (J.S.), BARBET (A.F.), BEKKER (C.P.J.), DASCH (G.A.), PALMER (G.H.), RAY (S.C.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and RURANGIRWA (F.R.): Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, description of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and 'HGE agent' as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2145-2165.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Ehrlichia sennetsu (Misao and Kobayashi 1956) Ristic and Huxsoll 1984, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Miyayama = ATCC VR-367.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M73219 (complete genome NC_007798).
Basonym: ¤ Rickettsia sennetsu Misao and Kobayashi 1956 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. n. sennetsu, from Japanese, meaning glandular fever.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357.
Effective publication: RISTIC (M.) and HUXSOLL (D.L.): Genus Ehrlichia. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 704-709.
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

Note: The new combination Ehrlichia sennetsu (Misao and Kobayashi 1956) Ristic and Huxsoll 1984 [basonym: Rickettsia sennetsu Misao and Kobayashi 1956 (Approved Lists 1980)] was proposed by Ristic and Huxsoll in 1984 then validly published by announcement in Validation List no. 15. In the effective publication and in Validation List no. 15, no type strain was designated. However, strain ATCC VR-367 is the type strain of the basonym Rickettsia sennetsu and this strain is available at the ATCC. So, the type strain of Ehrlichia sennetsu should be the strain ATCC VR-367.
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.) and KUDO (T.): Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1933-1938.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Neorickettsia sennetsu (Misao and Kobayashi 1956) Dumler et al. 2001, comb. nov.

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