Genus Clostridium

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 203 (+ 1 rejected name)
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 5

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Clostridiales Prévot 1953 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the family ¤ Clostridiaceae Pribram 1933 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Clostridium butyricum Prazmowski 1880 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. klôstêr, a spindle; N.L. neut. dim. n. Clostridium, a small spindle.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PRAZMOWSKI (A.): Untersuchung über die Entwickelungsgeschichte und Fermentwirking einiger Bacterien-Arten. Inaugural Dissertation. Hugo Voigt, Leipzig, 1880, pp. 1-58.]

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Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27555 = CIP 104302 = DSM 599 = JCM 1381 = NCTC 10984.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77842.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. absonum, inharmonius, not accordant with; intended to mean deviating from Clostridium perfringens.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [NAKAMURA (S.), SHIMAMURA (T.), HAYASE (M.) and NISHIDA (S.): Numerical taxonomy of saccharolytic clostridia, particularly Clostridium perfringens-like strains: descriptions of Clostridium absobnum sp. n. and Clostridium paraperfringens. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 419-429.]

¤ Clostridium sardiniense corrig. Prévot 1938 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wang et al. 2005.

Note: According to Wang et al. 2005, Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wang et al. 2005.
Reference: WANG (X.), MAEGAWA (T.), KARASAWA (T.), OZAKI (E.) and NAKAMURA (S.): Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 and Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 are heterotypic synonyms: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of phospholipase C and 16S rRNA sequences, and DNA relatedness. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1193-1197.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aceticum (ex Wieringa 1940) Gottschalk and Braun 1981, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 35044 = DSM 1496.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18183.
Synonym: "Clostridium aceticum" Wieringa 1940.
Etymology: L. n. acetum, vinegar; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. aceticum, related to acetic acid, which it produces.
Reference: GOTTSCHALK (G.) and BRAUN (M.): Revival of the name Clostridium aceticum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 476.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium acetireducens Örlygsson et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 30A = DSM 10703.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X79862.
Etymology: L. neut. n. acetum, vinegar; L. part. adj. reducens, reducing; L. part. adj. acetireducens, vinegar- or acetic acid-reducing.
Reference: ÖRLYGSSON (J.), KROONEMAN (J.), COLLINS (M.D.), PASCUAL (C.) and GOTTSCHAL (J.C.): Clostridium acetireducens sp. nov., a novel amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing anaerobic bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 454-459.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Örlygsson et al. 1996, the type strain is incorrectly cited as DSM 7310.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 1192.

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Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. 1926, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 824 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10639 = CCUG 42182C = CECT 508 = DSM 792 = IFO (now NBRC) 13948 = JCM 1419 = KCTC 1790 = LMG 5710 = NCCB 84048 = NCCB 29024 = NCIMB 13357 = NRRL B-527 = VKM B-1787.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AE001437.
Synonyms: "Clostridium acetonobutylicum" Prévot 1938, "Clostridium acetobutyricum" Prévot 1940.
Etymology: N.L. n. acetonum, acetone; N.L. adj. butylicum, butylic; N.L. neut. adj. acetobutylicum, referring to production of acetone and butyl alcohol.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [McCOY (E.), FRED (E.B.), PETERSON (W.H.) and HASTINGS (E.G.): A cultural study of the acetone butyl alcohol organisms. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1926, 39, 457-483.]

Note: The strain NCIMB 8052 (= ATCC 51743 = IAM 19013), originally deposited and catalogued as the type strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum, is not equivalent to ATCC 824 or DSM 792. The strain NCIMB 8052 is in fact ¤ Clostridium beijerinckii.
References:
1 WILKINSON (S.R.), YOUNG (M.), GOODACRE (R.), MORRIS (J.G.), FARROW (J.A.E.) AND COLLINS (M.D.): Phenotypic and genotypic differences between certain strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1995, 125, 199-204.
Original article Online
2 NCIMB Catalogue Search

Clostridium acetobutylicum McCoy et al. 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Keis et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 824 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10639 = CCUG 42182C = CECT 508 = DSM 792 = IFO (now NBRC) 13948 = JCM 1419 = KCTC 1790 = LMG 5710 = NCCB 84048 = NCCB 29024 = NCIMB 13357 = NRRL B-527 = VKM B-1787.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AE001437.
Etymology: N.L. n. acetonum, acetone; N.L. adj. butylicum, butylic; N.L. neut. adj. acetobutylicum, referring to production of acetone and butyl alcohol.
Reference: KEIS (S.), SHAHEEN (R.) and JONES (D.T.): Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2095-2103.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium acidisoli Kuhner et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CK74 = ATCC BAA-167 = DSM 12555.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ237756.
Etymology: L. adj. acidus, acidic; L. n. solum, soil; N.L. gen. n. acidisoli, of acidic soil.
Reference: KUHNER (C.H.), MATTHIES (C.), ACKER (G.), SCHMITTROTH (M.), GÖβNER (A.S.) and DRAKE (H.L.): Clostridium akagii sp. nov. and Clostridium acidisoli sp. nov.: acid-tolerant, N2-fixing clostridia isolated from acidic forest soil and litter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 873-881.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aciditolerans Lee et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW/YJL-B3 = ATCC BAA-1220 = DSM 17425.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ114945.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum (from L. adj. acidus, sour), an acid; L. part. adj. tolerans, tolerating; N.L. part. adj. aciditolerans, acid-tolerating.
Reference: LEE (Y.J.), ROMANEK (C.S.) and WIEGEL (J.): Clostridium aciditolerans sp. nov., an acid-tolerant spore-forming anaerobic bacterium from constructed wetland sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 311-315.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium acidurici corrig. (Liebert 1909) Barker 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 7906 = CIP 104303 = DSM 604 = NCCB 46094.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59084.
Synonym: "Bacillus acidi-urici" Liebert 1909.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum uricum, uric acid; N.L. gen. n. acidurici, of uric acid.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 LIEBERT (F.): Het afbreken van urinezuur door bakterien. Verslagen van de gewone vergadering der wis- en natuurkundige afdeeling. K. Akademie van wetenschappen te Amsterdam, 1909, 17, 990-1001. 2 BARKER (H.A.): The fermentation of definite nitrogenous compounds by members of the genus Clostridium. Journal of Bacteriology, 1938, 36, 322-323.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium acidiurici (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium aerotolerans van Gylswyk and van der Toorn 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain X8A62 = ATCC 43524 = DSM 5434.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76163.
Etymology: Gr. n. aer aeros, air, gas; L. part. adj. tolerans, tolerating; N.L. part. adj. aerotolerans, air-tolerating.
Reference: VAN GYLSWYK (N.O.) and VAN DER TOORN (J.J.T.K.): Clostridium aerotolerans sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium from corn stover and from the rumina of sheep fed corn stover. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 102-105.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Clostridium aerotolerans van Gylswyk and van der Toorn 1987 emend. Chamkha et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain X8A62 = ATCC 43524 = DSM 5434.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76163.
Etymology: Gr. n. aer aeros, air, gas; L. part. adj. tolerans, tolerating; N.L. part. adj. aerotolerans, air-tolerating.
Reference: CHAMKHA (M.), GARCIA (J.L.) and LABAT (M.): Metabolism of cinnamic acids by some Clostridiales and emendation of the descriptions of Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium celerecrescens and Clostridium xylanolyticum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2105-2111.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aestuarii Kim et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain HY-45-18 = IMSNU 40129 = JCM 13194 = KCTC 5147.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ126679.
Etymology: L. gen. n. aestuarii, of a tidal flat.
Reference: KIM (S.), JEONG (H.) and CHUN (J.): Clostridium aestuarii sp. nov., from tidal flat sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1315-1317.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium akagii Kuhner et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CK58 = ATCC BAA-166 = DSM 12554.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ237755.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. akagii, of Akagi, named after James M. Akagi, who worked for more than three decades at the University of Kansas on the physiology of various anaerobic bacteria.
Reference: KUHNER (C.H.), MATTHIES (C.), ACKER (G.), SCHMITTROTH (M.), GÖβNER (A.S.) and DRAKE (H.L.): Clostridium akagii sp. nov. and Clostridium acidisoli sp. nov.: acid-tolerant, N2-fixing clostridia isolated from acidic forest soil and litter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 873-881.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aldenense Warren et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain RMA 9741 = ATCC BAA-1318 = CCUG 52204.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ279736.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. aldenense, pertaining to R.M. Alden Research Laboratory.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 115. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 893-897. [WARREN (Y.A.), TYRRELL (K.L.), CITRON (D.M.) and GOLDSTEIN (E.J.C.): Clostridium aldenense sp. nov. and Clostridium citroniae sp. nov. isolated from human clinical infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2006, 44, 2416-2422.]
Validation List no. 115 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium aldrichii Yang et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain P-1 = ATCC 49358 = DSM 6159 = OGI (now OCM) 112.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71846.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. aldrichii, of Aldrich, named for Henry C. Aldrich, a professor of the University of Florida, Gainesville, for his contributions to ultrastructural research on the strictly anaerobic bacteria.
Reference: YANG (J.C.), CHYNOWETH (D.P.), WILLIAMS (D.S.) and LI (A.): Clostridium aldrichii sp. nov., a cellulolytic mesophile inhabiting a wood-fermenting anaerobic digester. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 268-272.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium algidicarnis Lawson et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DSM 15099 = NCIMB 702931 (formerly NCFB 2931).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF127023.
Etymology: L. adj. algidus, cold; L. gen. n. carnis, of flesh, of meat; N.L. gen. n. algidicarnis, of cold meat.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 52. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 197-198. [LAWSON (P.), DAINTY (R.H.), KRISTIANSEN (N.), BERG (J.) and COLLINS (M.D.): Characterization of a psychrotrophic Clostridium causing spoilage in vacuum-packed cooked pork: description of Clostridium algidicarnis sp. nov. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 1994, 19, 153-157.]
Validation List no. 52 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium algidixylanolyticum Broda et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SPL73 = ATCC BAA-156 = DSM 12273.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF092549.
Etymology: L. adj. algidus cold; N.L. n. xylanum, xylan; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. algidixylanolyticum, cold xylan-dissolving.
Reference: BRODA (D.M.), SAUL (D.J.), BELL (R.G.) and MUSGRAVE (D.R.): Clostridium algidixylanolyticum sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, xylan-degrading, spore-forming bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 623-631.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium algoriphilum Shcherbakova et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 14D1 = DSM 16153 = VKM B-2271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY117755.
Etymology: L. n. algor -oris, cold, coldness; N.L. neut. adj. philum (from Gr. neut. adj. philon), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. algoriphilum, cold-loving.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 134. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1477-1479 [SHCHERBAKOVA (V.A.), CHUVILSKAYA (N.A.), RIVKINA (E.M.), PECHERITSYNA (S.A.), LAURINAVICHIUS (K.S.), SUZINA (N.E.), OSIPOV (G.A.), LYSENKO (A.M.), GILICHINSKY (D.A.) and AKIMENKO (V.K.): Novel psychrophilic anaerobic spore-forming bacterium from the overcooled water brine in permafrost: description Clostridium algoriphilum sp. nov. Extremophiles, 2005, 9, 239-246.]
Validation List no. 134 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium alkalicellulosi corrig. Zhilina et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Z-7026 = DSM 17461 = VKM 2349.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY959944.
Etymology: Arabic article al, the; Arabic n. qaliy, ashes of saltwort, soda; N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; N.L. gen. n. alkalicellulosi, of alkaline cellulose, intended to mean that the bacterium utilizes cellulose under alkaline conditions.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 109. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 925-927. [ZHILINA (T.N.), KEVBRIN (V.V.), TOUROVA (T.P.), LYSENKO (A.M.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.) and ZAVARZIN (G.A.): Clostridium alkalicellum sp. nov., an obligately alkaliphilic cellulolytic bacterium from a soda lake in the Baikal region. Microbiology (Mikrobiologiya), 2005, 74, 557-566.]
Validation List no. 109 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online (abstract)

Notes:
1 The original spelling of the specific epithet, alkalicellum (sic), has been corrected on validation according to Rule 61.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 109 (footnote ‡). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 925-927.
Validation List no. 109 in IJSEM Online
2 In the effective publication, the type strain VKM B-2349 is erroneously cited as VKM 2349. The culture collection accession number DSM 17461 has been provided on request for validation.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 109 (footnote §). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 925-927.
Validation List no. 109 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aminophilum Paster et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain F = ATCC 49906 = DSM 10710.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L04165.
Etymology: chem. term. amino, amino; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. aminopilum, loving amino acids.
Reference: PASTER (B.J.), RUSSELL (J.B.), YANG (C.M.J.), CHOW (J.M.), WOESE (C.R.) and TANNER (R.): Phylogeny of the ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Clostridium sticklandii, and Clostridium aminophilum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 107-110.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium aminovalericum Hardman and Stadtman 1960, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 13725 = CIP 104304 = DSM 1283 = JCM 11016 = JCM 1421.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73436.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum amminovalericum, aminovaleric acid; L. neut. adj. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. aminovalericum, referring to ability to ferment aminovaleric acid strongly.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HARDMAN (J.K.) and STADTMAN (T.C.): Metabolism of ω-amino acids. II. Fermentation of Δ-aminovaleric acid by Clostridium aminovalericum n. sp. Journal of Bacteriology, 1960, 79, 549-552.]

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Clostridium amygdalinum Parshina et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BR-10 = ATCC BAA-501 = DSM 12857.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY353957.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. amygdalinum, of or from almonds, referring to the smell of benzaldehyde, which is reduced by the type strain.
Reference: PARSHINA (S.N.), KLEEREBEZEM (R.), SANZ (J.L.), LETTINGA (G.), NOZHEVNIKOVA (A.N.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.), LYSENKO (A.M.) and STAMS (A.J.M.): Soehngenia saccharolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Clostridium amygdalinum sp. nov., two novel anaerobic, benzaldehyde-converting bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1791-1799.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium amylolyticum Song and Dong 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SW408 = AS 1.5069 = CGMCC 1.5069 = JCM 14823.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU037903.
Etymology: Gr. n. amulon, starch; Gr. adj. lutikos, able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. amylolyticum, starch-dissolving.
Reference: SONG (L.) and DONG (X.): Clostridium amylolyticum sp. nov., isolated from H2-producing UASB granules. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2132-2135.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium arbusti Jung et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SL206 = JCM 14858 = KCTC 5449.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU816420.
Etymology: L. gen. n. arbusti, of an orchard, isolated from pear orchard soil.
Reference: JUNG (M.Y.), PARK (I.S.), KIM (W.), KIM (H.L.), PAEK (W.K.) and CHANG (Y.H.): Clostridium arbusti sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from pear orchard soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 2231-2235.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium arcticum (ex Jordan and McNicol 1979) Cato et al. 1988, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Jordan and McNicol n° III.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonym: "Clostridium arcticum" Jordan and McNicol 1979.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. arcticum, related to the Arctic.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222. [CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.]
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 In Validation List no. 25, this name is incorrectly cited as Clostridium articum (sic).
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.) and KUDO (T.): Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1933-1938.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The type strain is currently not available from a recognized culture collection.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Clostridium argentinense Suen et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27322.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X68316.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. argentinense, pertaining to Argentina.
Reference: SUEN (J.C.), HATHEWAY (C.L.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: a genetically homogeneous group composed of all strains of Clostridium botulinum toxin group G and some nontoxigenic strains previously identified as Clostridium subterminale or Clostridium hastiforme. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 375-381.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium asparagiforme Mohan et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain N6 = CCUG 48471 = DSM 15981.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ582080.
Etymology: L. n. asparagus, asparagus; L. suff. -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. asparagiforme, having the shape of asparagus stems.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 117. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1933-1934. [MOHAN (R.), NAMSOLLECK (P.), LAWSON (P.A.), OSTERHOFF (M.), COLLINS (M.D.), ALPERT (C.A.) and BLAUT (M.): Clostridium asparagiforme sp. nov., isolated from a human faecal sample. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2006, 29, 292-299.]
Validation List no. 117 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium aurantibutyricum Hellinger 1944, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17777 = CIP 104305 = DSM 793.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ358641.
Etymology: N.L. adj. aurantius, orange; N.L. n. acidum butyricum, butyric acid; N.L. neut. adj. aurantibutyricum, probably intended to mean the orange-colored organism producing butyric acid.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HELLINGER (E.): Studies on a pink butyric acid Clostridium. Commemorative Volume to Dr. Weizmann's 70th Birthday. Private print November 1944, pp. 37-46.]

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Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27638 = CCUG 24033 = CIP 104306 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14541 = DSM 601 = JCM 1385.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X68174.
Synonym: "Inflabilis barati" (sic) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. baratii, of Barat, named in honor of Barat, French bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91. 2 HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.). In: E.P. CATO, C.S. CUMMINS, L.V. HOLDEMAN, J.L. JOHNSON, W.E.C. MOORE, R.M. SMIBERT and L.D.S. SMITH (editors): Outline of Clinical Methods in Anaerobic Bacteriology, 2nd revision, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Anaerobe Laboratory, Blacksburg, Virginia, 1970, pp. 57-66.]

Notes:
1 The original spelling, Clostridium barati (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.
2 According to Cato et al. 1982, Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium paraperfringens Nakamura et al. 1970 (Approved Lists 1980), and an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium perenne (Prévot 1940) McClung and McCoy 1957 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CATO (E.P.), HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Clostridium perenne and Clostridium paraperfringens: later subjective synonyms of Clostridium barati. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 77-81.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium barkeri Stadtman et al. 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25849 = CIP 104307 = DSM 1223 = JCM 1389 = VKM B-1775.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M23927.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. barkeri, of Barker, named after Professor H.A. Barker, American biochemist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [STADTMAN (E.R.), STADTMAN (T.C.), PASTAN (I.) and SMITH (L.D.S.): Clostridium barkeri sp. n. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 110, 758-760.]

¤ Eubacterium barkeri (Stadtman et al. 1972) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium bartlettii Song et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain WAL 16138 = ATCC BAA-827 = CCUG 48940.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY438672.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. bartlettii, of Bartlett, to honor John G. Bartlett, M.D. for his contributions to the role of intestinal flora in disease and to our knowledge of infectiuos diseases in general.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 99. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1425-1426. [SONG (Y.L.), LIU (C.X.), McTEAGUE (M.), SUMMANEN (P.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Clostridium bartlettii sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Anaerobe, 2004, 10, 179-184.]
Validation List no. 99 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Intestinibacter bartlettii (Song et al. 2004) Gerritsen et al. 2014, comb. nov.

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Clostridium beijerinckii Donker 1926, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25752 = CIP 104308 = DSM 791 = JCM 1390 = LMG 5716 = NCTC 13035.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X68179.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. beijerinckii, of Beijerinck, named for M. W. Beijerinck, Dutch bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [DONKER (H.J.L.): Bijdrage tot de Kennis der Boterzuur-, Butylacoholen acetonigistingen. Dissertations Delft. W.D. Meinema, Delft, 1926.]

Note: According to Cato et al. 1986, Clostridium beijerinckii Donker 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of "Clostridium rubrum" Ng and Vaughn 1963 [reference strain: ATCC 14949 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 9503].
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

Clostridium beijerinckii Donker 1926 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Keis et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25752 = CIP 104308 = DSM 791 = JCM 1390 = LMG 5716 = NCTC 13035.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X68179.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. beijerinckii, of Beijerinck, named for M. W. Beijerinck, Dutch bacteriologist.
Reference: KEIS (S.), SHAHEEN (R.) and JONES (D.T.): Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2095-2103.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium bifermentans (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 638 = CCUG 36626 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14542 = CIP 104309 = DSM 14991 = JCM 1386 = NCIMB 10716 = NCTC 13019.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB075769.
Synonyms: "Bacillus bifermentans sporogenes" Tissier and Martelly 1902, "Bacillus bifermentans" Weinberg and Séguin 1918, "Martellillus bifermentans" (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Heller 1922.
Etymology: L. pref. bis, twice; L. part. adj. fermentans, fermenting; N.L. part. adj. bifermentans, fermenting both carbohydrates and amino acids.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WEINBERG (M.) and SÉGUIN (P.): La gangrène gazeuse. Bactériologie, Reproduction expérimentale, Séreothérapie. Masson et Cie, Paris, 1918, pp. 1-444. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Clostridium bifermentans (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Chamkha et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 638 = CCUG 36626 = BCRC 14542 = CIP 104309 = DSM 14991 = JCM 1386 = NCIMB 10716 = NCTC 13019.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB075769.
Etymology: L. pref. bis, twice; L. part. adj. fermentans, fermenting; N.L. part. adj. bifermentans, fermenting both carbohydrates and amino acids.
Synonyms: "Bacillus bifermentans sporogenes" Tissier and Martelly 1902, "Bacillus bifermentans" Weinberg and Séguin 1918, "Martellillus bifermentans" (Weinberg and Séguin 1918) Heller 1922.
References: List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 1. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 7-8. [CHAMKHA (M.), BHARAT (B.K.C.), GARCIA (J.L.) and LABAT (M.): Isolation of Clostridium bifermentans from oil mill wastewaters converting cinnamic acid to 3-phenylpropionic acid and emendation of the species. Anaerobe, 2001, 7, 189-197.]
List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 1 in IJSEM Online - Original article Online

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Clostridium bolteae Song et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain WAL 16351 = ATCC BAA-613 = CCUG 46953 = JCM 12243.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ508452.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. bolteae, of Bolte, to honor the American Ellen Bolte, who first proposed a bacterial role in late-onset autism and stimulated work in this area.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 92. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 935-937. [SONG (Y.), LIU (C.), MOLITORIS (D.R.), TOMZYNSKI (T.J.), LAWSON (P.A.), COLLINS (M.D.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Clostridium bolteae sp. nov., isolated from human sources. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2003, 26, 84-89.]
Validation List no. 92 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25763 = CIP 104310.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L37585.
Synonyms: "Bacillus botulinus" van Ermengem 1896, "Ermengemillus botulinus" (van Ermengem 1896) Heller 1922, "Botulobacillus botulinus" (van Ermengem 1896) Orla-Jensen 1909.
Etymology: L. n. botulus, sausage; L. neut. suff. -inum, suffix used with the sense of belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. botulinum, pertaining to sausage.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 Van ERMENGEM (E.): Untersuchungen über Fälle von Fleischvergiftung mit Symptomen von Botulismus. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1896, 19, 442-444. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923, nom. cons.
References:
1 OLSEN (I.), JOHNSON (J.L.), MOORE (L.V.H.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 414.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: VIIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 240-241 (Original article in IJSEM Online). 3 JUDICIAL OPINION 69: Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 339.
Original article (Judicial Opinion 69) in IJSEM Online

Note: Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980), ¤ Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980), and ¤ Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) are genetically related at the species level and Clostridium putrificum has priority. Olsen et al. 1995, propose rejection of the name Clostridium putrificum on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56a (5) as a nomen periculosum, and conservation of the name Clostridium botulinum (Rule 23a note 4, Rule 56b note 2), and conservation of the name Clostridium sporogenes for the nontoxigenic strains on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56b note 2.

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Clostridium bowmanii Spring et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain A-1/C-an/C1 = ATCC BAA-581 = DSM 14206.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ506119.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. bowmanii, of Bowman, in honour of the microbiologist John P. Bowman, who has made important contributions to our knowledge of the diversity of psychrophilic bacteria.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium bryantii Stieb and Schink 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CuCal = DSM 3014A (co-culture with Desulfovibrio sp., E70) = DSM 3014B (co-culture with Methanospirillum hungatei, strain M1h).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. bryantii, of Bryant, named after Marvin P. Bryant, who pioneered studies on syntrophic methanogenic associations.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 18. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 375-376. [STIEB (M.) and SCHINK (B.): Anaerobic oxidation of fatty acids by Clostridium bryantii sp. nov., a sporeforming, obligately syntrophic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol., 1985, 140, 387-390.]
Validation List no. 18 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Syntrophospora bryantii (Stieb and Schink 1985) Zhao et al. 1990, comb. nov.

¤ Syntrophomonas bryantii (Stieb and Schink 1985) Wu et al. 2006, comb. nov.

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Clostridium butyricum Prazmowski 1880, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 19398 = CCUG 4217 = CIP 103309 = DSM 10702 = HAMBI 482 = IAM 14194 = IFO (now NBRC) 13949 = JCM 1391 = KCTC 1786 = KCTC 1871 = LMG 1217 = NCCB 89156 = NCIMB 7423 = NCTC 7423 = VKM B-1773.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ458420.
Synonyms: "Bacillus amylobacter" van Tieghem 1877, "Metallacter amylobacter" (van Tieghem 1877) Trevisan 1879, "Bacterium navicula" Reinke and Berthold 1879, "Bacillus butyricus" (Prazmowski 1880) Flügge 1886, "Bacillus navicula" (Reinke and Berthold 1879) Chester 1898, "Amylobacter navicula" (Reinke and Berthold 1879) Wehmer 1898, "Clostridium naviculum" (Reinke and Berthold 1879) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: Gr. n. bouturon (Latin transliteration butyrum), butter; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. butyricum, related to butter, butyric.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PRAZMOWSKI (A.): Untersuchung über die Entwickelungsgeschichte und Fermentwirking einiger Bacterien-Arten. Inaugural Dissertation. Hugo Voigt, Leipzig, 1880, pp. 1-58.]

Note: According to Cato et al. 1986, Clostridium butyricum Prazmowski 1880 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of "Clostridium pseudotetanicum" (Prévot 1938) Smith and Hobbs 1974 [reference strain: ATCC 25779 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 10630].
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium cadaveris (Klein 1899) McClung and McCoy 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25783 = CCUG 24035 = CIP 104314 = DSM 1284 = JCM 1392.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB542932.
Synonyms: "Bacillus cadaveris" Klein 1899, "Plectridium cadaveris" (Klein 1899) Prévot 1938, not "Clostridium cadaveris" Sternberg 1890.
Etymology: L. n. cadaver, dead body; L. gen. n. cadaveris, of a corpse.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 KLEIN (E.): Ein Beitrag zur Bakteriologie der Leichenverwesung. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1899, 25, 278-284. 2 McCLUNG (L.S.) and McCOY (E.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 634-693.]

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Clostridium caenicola Shiratori et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain EBR596 = DSM 19027 = NBRC 102590.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB221372.
Etymology: L. n. caenum, mud, sludge; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), dweller; N.L. n. caenicola, sludge dweller.
Reference: SHIRATORI (H.), SASAYA (K.), OHIWA (H.), IKENO (H.), AYAME (S.), KATAOKA (N.), MIYA (A.), BEPPU (T.) and UEDA (K.): Clostridium clariflavum sp. nov. and Clostridium caenicola sp. nov., moderately thermophilic, cellulose-/cellobiose-digesting bacteria isolated from methanogenic sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1764-1770.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium caminithermale Brisbarre et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DVird3 = CIP 107654 = DSM 15212.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF458779.
Etymology: L. n. caminus, chimney; N.L. adj. thermalis, pertaining to hot springs; N.L. neut. adj. caminithermale, of a thermal chimney, describing the site of sampling.
Reference: BRISBARRE (N.), FARDEAU (M.L.), CUEFF (V.), CAYOL (J.L.), BARBIER (G.), CILIA (V.), RAVOT (G.), THOMAS (P.), GARCIA (J.L.) and OLLIVIER (B.): Clostridium caminithermale sp. nov., a slightly halophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Atlantic deep-sea hydrothermal chimney. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1043-1049.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium carboxidivorans Liou et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain P7 = ATCC BAA-624 = DSM 15243.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733710.
Etymology: N.L. n. carboxidum, carbon monoxide; L. part. adj. vorans, devouring; N.L. part. adj. carboxidivorans, carbone monoxide-devouring.
Reference: LIOU (J.S.C.), BALKWILL (D.L.), DRAKE (G.R.) and TANNER (R.S.): Clostridium carboxidivorans sp. nov., a solvent-producing clostridium isolated from an agricultural settling lagoon, and reclassification of the acetogen Clostridium scatologenes strain SL1 as Clostridium drakei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2085-2091.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium carnis (Klein 1904) Spray 1939, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25777 = CIP 104315 = DSM 1293 = JCM 1393 = NCTC 13036.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59091.
Synonyms: "Bacillus carnis" Klein 1904, "Plectridium carnis" Prévot 1938.
Etymology: L. gen. n. carnis, of flesh.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 KLEIN (E.): Ein neuer tierpathogener Mikrobe-Bacillus carnis. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1904, 35, 459-461. 2 SPRAY (R.S.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski. In: D.H. BERGEY, R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and A.P. HITCHENS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 5th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1939, pp. 743-790.]

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Clostridium cavendishii Bowman et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BL-28 = DSM 21758 = NRRL B-51352.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ196621.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. cavendishii, of Cavendish, named after Henry Cavendish (1731–1810), the British chemist who has been credited with the discovery of hydrogen.
Reference: BOWMAN (K.S.), DUPRÉ (R.E.), RAINEY (F.A.) and MOE (W.M.): Clostridium hydrogeniformans sp. nov. and Clostridium cavendishii sp. nov., hydrogen-producing bacteria from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 358-363.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium celatum Hauschild and Holdeman 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27791 = CIP 104316 = DSM 1785 = JCM 1394 = NCTC 12746.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77844.
Etymology: L. neut. part. adj. celatum, hidden.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HAUSCHILD (A.H.W.) and HOLDEMAN (L.V.): Clostridium celatum sp. nov., isolated from normal human feces. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 478-481.]

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Clostridium celerecrescens Palop et al. 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 18A = ATCC 49205 = CECT 954 = DSM 5628.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71848.
Etymology: L. adj. celer -eris -ere, fast; L. v. crescere, to grow; N.L. part. adj. celericrescens, fast-growing.
Reference: PALOP (M.L.L.), VALLES (S.), PIÑAGA (F.) and FLORS (A.): Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium celerecrescens sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 68-71.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Clostridium celerecrescens Palop et al. 1989 emend. Chamkha et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 18A = ATCC 49205 = CECT 954 = DSM 5628.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71848.
Etymology: L. adj. celer -eris -ere, fast; L. v. crescere, to grow; N.L. part. adj. celericrescens, fast-growing.
Reference: CHAMKHA (M.), GARCIA (J.L.) and LABAT (M.): Metabolism of cinnamic acids by some Clostridiales and emendation of the descriptions of Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium celerecrescens and Clostridium xylanolyticum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2105-2111.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium cellobioparum Hungate 1944, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 15832 = DSM 1351 = JCM 1422 = LMG 5589.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71856.
Synonym: "Clostridium cellobioparus" (sic) Hungate 1944.
Etymology: N.L. n. cellobiosum, cellobiose; L. verb. paro, to prepare, to provide; N.L. adj. suff. -parus, producing; N.L. neut. adj. cellobioparum, cellobiose-producing.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HUNGATE (R.E.): Studies on cellulose fermentation. I. The culture and physiology of an anaerobic cellulose-digesting bacterium. Journal of Bacteriology, 1944, 48, 499-513.]

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Clostridium cellulofermentans He et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AS 1.1775; available from CCCCM (accession number not given).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; L. part. adj. fermentans, fermenting; N.L. part. adj. cellulofermentans, cellulose fermenting.
Reference: HE (Y.L.), DING (Y.F.) and LONG (Y.Q.): Two cellulolytic Clostridium species: Clostridium cellulosi sp. nov. and Clostridium cellulofermentans sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 306-309.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain is currently not available from a recognized culture collection.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Clostridium cellulolyticum Petitdemange et al. 1984, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain H10 = ATCC 35319 = DSM 5812.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71847.
Etymology: N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. cellulolyticum, cellulose-dissolving.
Reference: PETITDEMANGE (E.), CAILLET (F.), GIALLO (J.) and GAUDIN (C.): Clostridium cellulolyticum sp. nov., a cellulolytic, mesophilic species from decayed grass. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 155-159.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium cellulosi He et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AS 1.1777; available from CCCCM (accession number not given).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09177.
Etymology: N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; N.L. gen. n. cellulosi, of cellulose.
Reference: HE (Y.L.), DING (Y.F.) and LONG (Y.Q.): Two cellulolytic Clostridium species: Clostridium cellulosi sp. nov. and Clostridium cellulofermentans sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 306-309.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium cellulovorans Sleat et al. 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 743B = ATCC 35296 = DSM 3052.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP002160 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. n. cellula, a small store-room and in biology a cell; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. part. adj. cellulovorans, cell-devouring.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 17. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 223-225. [SLEAT (R.), MAH (R.A.) and ROBINSON (R.): Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium cellulosolvens sp. nov. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1984, 48, 88-93.]
Validation List no. 17 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium chartatabidum Kelly et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 163 = CIP 104882 = DSM 5482.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71850.
Etymology: L. n. charta, a leaf of the Egyptian papyrus, paper; L. adj. tabidus, dissolving; N.L. neut. adj. chartatabidum, paper-dissolving.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 57. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 625-626. [KELLY (W.J.), ASMUNDSON (R.V.) and HOPCROFT (D.H.): Isolation and characterization of a strictly anaerobic, cellulolytic spore former: Clostridium chartatabidum sp. nov. Arch. Microbiol., 1987, 147, 169-173.]
Validation List no. 57 in IJSEM Online (PDF format) - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium chauvoei (Arloing et al. 1887) Scott 1928, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 10092 = CIP 104317 = DSM 7528 = NCTC 13023.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U51843.
Synonyms: "Bacillus chauvoei" Arloing et al. 1877, "Clostridium feseri" Trevisan 1885, "Bacterium chauvoei" Arloing et al. 1887, "Bacillus chauvaei" (sic) (Arloing et al. 1887) Trevisan 1889, "Bacillus feseri" (Trevisan 1885) Kitt 1893, "Bacillus carbonis" Migula 1895, "Bacillus anthracis symptomatici" Kruse 1896, "Clostridium chauvaei" (sic) (Arloing et al. 1887) Scott 1928.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. chauvoei, of Chauveau, named after Professor J.A.B. Chauveau, French bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 ARLOING (S.), CORNEVIN (?) and THOMAS (?): Le charbon symptomatique du bœuf. 2nd ed. Asselin and Houzeau, Paris, 1887, pp. 1-281. 2 SCOTT (J.P.): The etiology of blackleg and methods of determining Clostridum chauvoei from other anaerobic organisms found in cases of blackleg. Cornell Veterinarian, 1928, 18, 259-271.]

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Clostridium chromiireducens Inglett et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain GCAF-1 = DSM 23318 = KCTC 5935.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY228334.
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. chromium, chromium; L. part. adj. reducens (from L. v. reducere), drawing backwards, bringing back to a state or condition and, in chemistry, converting to a reduced oxidation state; N.L. part. adj. chromiireducens, chromium reducing.
Reference: INGLETT (K.S.), BAE (H.S.), ALDRICH (H.C.), HATFIELD (K.) and OGRAM (A.V.): Clostridium chromiireducens sp. nov., isolated from Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2626-2631.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium citroniae Warren et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain RMA 16102 = ATCC BAA-1317 = CCUG 52203.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ279737.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. citroniae, of Citron, named after Diane M. Citron for numerous contributions to clinical anaerobic bacteriology as a clinical microbiologist and educator.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 115. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 893-897. [WARREN (Y.A.), TYRRELL (K.L.), CITRON (D.M.) and GOLDSTEIN (E.J.C.): Clostridium aldenense sp. nov. and Clostridium citroniae sp. nov. isolated from human clinical infections. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2006, 44, 2416-2422.]
Validation List no. 115 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The epithet citroniae is not in accordance with the Recommendation 6(10) of the Bacteriological Code.

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Clostridium clariflavum Shiratori et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain EBR45 = EBR-02E-0045 = DSM 19732 = NBRC 101661.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB186359, CP003065 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. adj. clarus -a -um, clear, bright, shining, brilliant; L. neut. adj. flavum, yellow; N.L. neut. adj. clariflavum, bright yellow, the colour of the colonies or pigment.
Reference: SHIRATORI (H.), SASAYA (K.), OHIWA (H.), IKENO (H.), AYAME (S.), KATAOKA (N.), MIYA (A.), BEPPU (T.) and UEDA (K.): Clostridium clariflavum sp. nov. and Clostridium caenicola sp. nov., moderately thermophilic, cellulose-/cellobiose-digesting bacteria isolated from methanogenic sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1764-1770.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium clostridioforme corrig. (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Kaneuchi et al. 1976, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25537 = CCUG 16791 = CIP 104318 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14545 = DSM 933 = JCM 1291 = NCIMB 11018 = NCTC 11224 = VPI 0316.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59089.
Synonyms: "Bacterium clostridiiforme" Burri and Ankersmit 1906, "Eggerthella clostridiiformis" (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Beerens et al. 1962, "Ristella clostridiiformis" (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Prévot 1938, "Bacteroides clostridiiformis" (Burri and Ankersmit 1906) Holdeman and Moore 1970.
Etymology: Gr. n. klôstêr, a spindle; Gr. dim. suff. -idion; N.L. neut. n. clostridium, a small spindle; L. suff. -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. clostridioforme, in the form of a
small spindle, spindle-shaped.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 BURRI (R.) and ANKERSMIT (P.): Bacterium clostridiiforme. In: P. Ankersmit (ed.): Untersuchung über die Bakterien im Verdauungskanal des Rindes. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1906, 40, 100-118. 2 KANEUCHI (C.), WATANABE (K.), TERADA (A.), BENNO (Y.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Taxonomic study of Bacteroides clostridiiformis subsp. clostridiiformis (Burri and Ankersmit) Holdeman and Moore and of related organisms: proposal of Clostridium clostridiiforme (Burri and Andersmit) comb. nov. and Clostridium symbiosum (Stevens) comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 195-204 (Erratum: International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 341).]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium clostridiiforme (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium coccoides Kaneuchi et al. 1976, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 29236 = DSM 935 = JCM 1395 = NCTC 11035.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB571656.
Etymology: N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. coccoides, berry-shaped.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [KANEUCHI (C.), BENNO (Y.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Clostridium cocoides, a new species from the feces of mice. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 482-486.]

¤ Blautia coccoides (Kaneuchi et al. 1976) Liu et al. 2008, comb. nov.

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Clostridium cochlearium (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17787 = CCUG 31665 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14471 = CIP 104319 = DSM 1285 = JCM 1396 = NCCB 73036 = NCIMB 10633 = NCTC 13027.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59093.
Synonyms: "Bacillus cochlearius" Douglas et al. in Bulloch et al. 1919, "Clostridium cochlearum" (sic) (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923.
Etymology: L. n. cochlear, spoon; L. neut. suff. -arium, suffix used with the sense of belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. cochlearium, resembling a spoon.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 DOUGLAS (S.R.), FLEMING (A.) and COLEBROOK (L.): Studies in wound infections. Medical Research Council (Great Britain) Special Report Series, 1919, 57, 1-159. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Note: According to Nakamura et al. 1979, Clostridium cochlearium (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium lentoputrescens Hartsell and Rettger 1934 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: NAKAMURA et al. 1979 cited by CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium cocleatum Kaneuchi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain I50 = ATCC 29902 = DSM 1551 = NCTC 11210 = JCM 1397.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18188.
Etymology: L. n. coclea, a snail shell or whirlpool; L. neut. adj. cocleatum, in the shape of a snail shell or whirlpool.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [KANEUCHI (C.), MIYAZATO (T.), SHINJO (T.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Taxonomic study of helically coiled, sporeforming anaerobes isolated from the intestines of humans and other animals: Clostridium cocleatum sp. nov. and Costridium spiroforme sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 1-12.]

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Clostridium colicanis Greetham et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 3WC2 = CCUG 44556 = DSM 13634.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ420008.
Etymology: L. n. colum, colon, gut; L. gen. n. canis, of the dog; N.L. gen. n. colicanis, of the gut of a dog.
Reference: GREETHAM (H.L.), GIBSON (G.R.), GIFFARD (C.), HIPPE (H.), MERKHOFFER (B.), STEINER (U.), FALSEN (E.) and COLLINS (M.D.): Clostridium colicanis sp. nov., from canine faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 259-262.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium colinum (ex Berkhoff et al. 1974) Berkhoff 1985, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 72042 = ATCC 27770 = CCUG 21927 = DSM 6011 = JCM 5831.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76748.
Synonym: "Clostridium colinum" Berkhoff et al. 1974.
Etymology: N.L. n. Colinus, a zoological genus name; N.L. neut. adj. colinum, referring to the most susceptible host, the quail (Colinus virginianus).
Reference: BERKHOFF (H.A.): Clostridium colinum sp. nov., nom. rev., the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis (quail disease) in quail, chickens, and pheasants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 155-159.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium collagenovorans Jain and Zeikus 1988, sp. nov.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73439.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SG = ATCC 49001 = DSM 3089.
Etymology: N.L. n. collagenum (from Fr. n. collagène), collagen; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. part. adj. collagenovorans, collagen-devouring.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 26. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 328-329. [JAIN (M.K.) and ZEIKUS (J.G.): Taxonomic distinction of two new protein specific, hydrolytic anaerobes: isolation and characterization of Clostridium proteolyticum sp. nov. and Clostridium collagenovorans sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1988, 10, 134-141.]
Validation List no. 26 in IJSM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium cylindrosporum (ex Barker and Beck 1942) Andreesen et al. 1985, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Barker and Beck HC-1 = ATCC 7905 = DSM 605 = IFO (now NBRC) 13695 = NCCB 46096.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18179.
Synonym: "Clostridium cylindrosporum" Barker and Beck 1942.
Etymology: Gr. n. kulindros, a cylinder; Gr. n. sporos, a seed; N.L. neut. adj. cylindrosporum, cylinder-spored.
Reference: ANDREESEN (J.R.), ZINDEL (U.) and DÜRRE (P.): Clostridium cylindrosporum (ex Barker and Beck 1942) nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 206-208.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Prévot 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AS 1.2184 = ATCC 9689 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10642 = CCUG 4938 = CIP 104282 = DSM 1296 = JCM 1296 = LMG 15861 = NCIMB 10666 = NCTC 11209.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB075770.
Synonym: "Bacillus difficilis" Hall and O'Toole 1935.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. difficile, difficult (referring to “the unusual difficulty that was encountered in its isolation and study”).
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HALL (I.C.) and O'TOOLE (E.): Intestinal flora in newborn infants with a description of a new pathogenic anaerobe, Bacillus difficilis. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 1935, 49, 390-402. 2 PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91.]

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Clostridium diolis Biebl and Spröer 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SH1 = DSM 15410 = ATCC BAA-557.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ458418.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. diolis, of a diol, intended to mean producing a diol.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 91. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 627-628. [BIEBL (H.) and SPRÖER (C.): Taxonomy of the glycerol fermenting clostridia and description of Clostridium diolis sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2002, 25, 491-497.]
Validation List no. 91 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In the effective publication, a different DSM accession number is given because the strain was originally a patent strain deposited as Clostridium butyricum DSM 5431.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 91 (footnote ‡). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 627-628.
Validation List no. 91 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium disporicum Horn 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DS1 = ATCC 43838 = DSM 5521 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 12424.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18176.
Etymology: Gr. pref. di, two; Gr. n. sporos, seed; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. disporicum, pertaining to two spores.
Reference: HORN (N.): Clostridium disporicum sp. nov., a saccharolytic species able to form two spores per cell, isolated from a rat cecum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 398-401.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium drakei Liou et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SL1 = ATCC BAA-623 = DSM 12750.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18813.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. drakei, of Drake, in recognition of Harold L. Drake's contributions to our understanding of the physiology and ecology of acetogens.
Reference: LIOU (J.S.C.), BALKWILL (D.L.), DRAKE (G.R.) and TANNER (R.S.): Clostridium carboxidivorans sp. nov., a solvent-producing clostridium isolated from an agricultural settling lagoon, and reclassification of the acetogen Clostridium scatologenes strain SL1 as Clostridium drakei sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2085-2091.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium durum Smith and Cato 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27763 = DSM 1735 = VPI 6563.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77846.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. durum, hard, resistant, indicating ability to survive for long period of time.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SMITH (L.D.S.) and CATO (E.P.): Clostridium durum, sp. nov., the predominant organism in a sediment core from the Black Sea. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1974, 20, 1393-1397.]

¤ Paenibacillus durus corrig. (Smith and Cato 1974) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

¤ Paenibacillus azotofixans (Seldin et al. 1984) Ash et al. 1994., comb. nov.

¤ Paenibacillus durus corrig. (Smith and Cato 1974) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium estertheticum Collins et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51377 = CIP 105093 = DSM 8809 = NCIMB 12511.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: S46734.
Etymology: N.L. n. ester, ester; Gr. neut. adj. thetikon, positive; N.L. neut. adj. estertheticum, ester-positive intended to mean ester-producing.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 44. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 188-189. [COLLINS (M.D.), RODRIGUES (U.M.), DAINTY (R.H.), EDWARDS (R.A.) and ROBERTS (T.A.): Taxonomic studies on a psychrophilic Clostridium from vacuum-packed beef: description of Clostridium estertheticum sp. nov. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1992, 96, 235-240.]
Validation List no. 44 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Clostridium estertheticum Collins et al. 1993 emend. Spring et al. 2003.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51377 = CIP 105093 = DSM 8809 = NCIMB 12511.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: S46734.
Etymology: N.L. n. ester, ester; Gr. neut. adj. thetikon, positive; N.L. neut. adj. estertheticum, ester-positive intended to mean ester-producing.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 In the paper by Spring et al. 2003, Clostridium estertheticum Collins et al. 1993 is erroneously cited as Clostridium estertheticum Collins et al. 1992.
2 Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Clostridium estertheticum subsp. estertheticum (Collins et al. 1993) Spring et al. 2003, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51377 = CIP 105093 = DSM 8809 = NCIMB 12511.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: S46734.
Etymology: N.L. n. ester, ester; Gr. neut. adj. thetikon, positive; N.L. neut. adj. estertheticum, ester-positive intended to mean ester-producing.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Collins et al. 1993, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 In the paper by Spring et al. 2003, Collins et al. 1993 is erroneously cited as Collins et al. 1992.

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Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense (Kalchayanand et al. 1993) Spring et al. 2003, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain NK1 = ATCC 51254 = DSM 14864.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ506115.
Basonym: ¤ Clostridium laramiense corrig. Kalchayanand et al. 1993.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. laramiense, referring to the city of Laramie, WY, USA.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium fallax (Weinberg and Séguin 1915) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 19400 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14512 = CCUG 4853 = DSM 2631 = JCM 1398 = NCIMB 10634 = NCTC 8380.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59088.
Synonyms: "Bacillus fallax" Weinberg and Séguin 1915, "Vallorillus fallax" (Weinberg and Séguin 1915) Heller 1922.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. fallax, deceptive.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WEINBERG (M.) and SÉGUIN (P.): Flore microbienne de la gangrène gazeuse. Le B. fallax. Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie, Paris, 1915, 78, 686-689. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

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Clostridium felsineum (Carbone and Tombolato 1917) Bergey et al. 1939, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17788 = DSM 794 = JCM 1399.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF270501.
Synonyms: "Bacillus felsineus" Carbone and Tombolato 1917, "Clostridium felsinus" (sic) (Carbone and Tombolato 1917) Bergey et al. 1930, "Clostridium felsinae" (Carbone and Tombolato 1917) Bergey et al. 1934.
Etymology: L. n. Felsina, ancient Latin name for Bologna, Italy; N.L. neut. adj. felsineum, pertaining to Bologna.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 CARBONE (D.) and TOMBOLATO (A.): Sulfa macerazione rustica della canapa. Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie Italiane, 1917, 50, 563-575. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), BREED (R.S.), MURRAY (E.G.D.) and HITCHENS (A.P.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 5th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1939, pp. 1-1032.]

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Clostridium fervidum corrig. Patel et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Rt4-B1 = ATCC 43204 = DSM 5463.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09187.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. fervidum, glowing hot, burning.
Reference: PATEL (B.K.C.), MONK (C.), LITTLEWORTH (H.), MORGAN (H.W.) and DANIEL (R.M.): Clostridium fervidus sp. nov., a new chemoorganotrophic acetogenic thermophile. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 123-126.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, fervidus (sic), has been corrected by Euzéby 1998.
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.): Taxonomic note: necessary correction of specific and subspecific epithets according to Rules 12c and 13b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1073-1075.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Caloramator fervidus (Patel et al. 1987) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium fimetarium Kotsyurbenko et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Z-2189 = CIP 105360 = DSM 9179.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF126687.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. fimetarium, inhabiting manure.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 60. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 242. [KOTSYURBENKO (O.R.), NOZHEVNIKOVA (A.N.), OSIPOV (G.A.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): A new psychroactive bacterium Clostridium fimetarium isolated from cattle manure digested at low temperature. Mikrobiologiya, 1995, 64, 804-810.]
Validation List no. 60 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium formicaceticum corrig. Andreesen et al. 1970, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27076 = DSM 92.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HF679208.
Etymology: L. n. formica, an ant; N.L. adj. formicus, pertaining to ants, to formic acid; L. n. acetum, wine-vinegar; N.L. adj. aceticus, pertaining to vinegar, to acetic acid; N.L. neut.
adj. formicaceticum, pertaining to formic and acetic acids.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [ANDREESEN (J.R.), GOTTSCHALK (G.) and SCHLEGEL (H.G.): Clostridium formicoaceticum nov. spec. Isolation, description and distinction from C. aceticum and C. thermoaceticum. Archiv fur Mikrobiologie, 1970, 72, 154-174.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium formicoaceticum (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium frigidicarnis Broda et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SPL77A = ATCC BAA-154 = DSM 12271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF069742.
Etymology: L. adj. frigidus, cool; L. n. caro carnis, flesh meat; N.L. gen. n. frigidicarnis, of cool meat.
Reference: BRODA (D.M.), LAWSON (P.A.), BELL (R.G.) and MUSGRAVE (D.R.): Clostridium frigidicarnis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium associated with "blown pack" spoilage of vacuum-packed meats. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1539-1550.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium frigoris Spring et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain D-1/D-an/II = ATCC BAA-579 = DSM 14204.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ506116.
Etymology: L. gen. n. frigoris, of the cold.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium ganghwense Kim et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain HY-42-06 = IMSNU 40127 = JCM 13193 = KCTC 5146.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY903294.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. ganghwense, pertaining to Ganghwa Island in South Korea, the geographical origin of the type strain.
Reference: KIM (S.), JEONG (H.), KIM (S.) and CHUN (J.): Clostridium ganghwense sp. nov., isolated from tidal flat sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 691-693.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium gasigenes Broda et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DB1A = ATCC BAA-158 = CIP 106517 = DSM 12272.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF092548.
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. gasum, gas;Gr. v. gennaô, produce, engender; N.L. neut. adj. gasigenes, gas-producing.
Reference: BRODA (D.M.), SAUL (D.J.), LAWSON (P.A.), BELL (R.G.) and MUSGRAVE (D.R.): Clostridium gasigenes sp. nov., a psychrophile causing spoilage of vacuum-packed meat. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 107-118.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium ghonii corrig. Prévot 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25757 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14548 = CCUG 9282 = DSM 15049 = JCM 1400 = NCIMB 10636.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB542933.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ghonii, of Ghon, named after Professor Ghon, German bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium ghoni (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium glycolicum Gaston and Stadtman 1963, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 14880 = DSM 1288 = JCM 1401 = NCIMB 10632 = NCTC 13026.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76750.
Etymology: N.L. n. glycol, glycol; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of related to, belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. glycolicum, pertaining to glycol, referring to the ability to ferment ethylene glycol.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [GASTON (L.W.) and STADTMAN (E.R.): Fermentation of ethylene glycol by Clostridium glycolicum sp. n. Journal of Bacteriology, 1963, 85, 356-362.]

Clostridium glycolicum Gaston and Stadtman 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Chamkha et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 14880 = DSM 1288 = JCM 1401 = NCIMB 10632 = NCTC 13026.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76750.
Etymology: N.L. n. glycol, glycol; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of related to, belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. glycolicum, pertaining to glycol, referring to the ability to ferment ethylene glycol.
Reference: CHAMKHA (M.), LABAT (M.), PATEL (B.K.C.) and GARCIA (J.L.): Isolation of a cinnamic acid-metabolizing Clostridium glycolicum strain from oil mill wastewaters and emendation of the species description. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2049-2054.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum Sakuma et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ZM35 = DSM 17593 = JCM 13368.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB233029.
Etymology: N.L. n. glycyrrhizinum, glycyrrhizin (a sugar from the roots of Glycyrrhiza species); N.L. adj. lyticus -a -um (from Gr. adj. lutikos -ê -on), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. glycyrrhizinilyticum, glycyrrhizin dissolving.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 112. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2507-2508. [SAKUMA (K.), KITAHARA (M.), KIBE (R.), SAKAMOTO (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum sp. nov., a glycyrrhizin-hydrolysing bacterium isolated from human faeces. Microbiol. Immunol., 2006, 50, 481-485.]
Validation List no. 112 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium grantii Mountfort et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain A-1 = CIP 105529 = DSM 8605.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X75272.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. grantii, of Grant, named after William Donaldson Grant for his contribution to our understanding of marine polysaccharide degradation.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 57. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 625-626. [MOUNTFORT (D.O.), RAINEY (F.A.), BURGHARDT (J.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Clostridium grantii sp. nov., a new obligately anaerobic, alginolytic bacterium isolated from mullet gut. Arch. Microbiol., 1994, 162, 173-179.]
Validation List no. 57 in IJSEM Online (PDF format) - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium haemolyticum (Hall 1929) Scott et al. 1935, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 9650 = DSM 5565 = JCM 1402 = NCTC 13022.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB037910.
Synonyms: "Clostridium hemolyticus bovis" Vawter and Records 1927, "Bacillus hemolyticus" Hall 1929.
Etymology: Gr. n. haima (Latin transliteration haema), blood; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. hemolyticum, blood-dissolving, hemolytic.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HALL (I.C.): The occurrence of Bacillus sordellii in icterohemoglobinuria of cattle in Nevada. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1929, 45, 156-162. 2 SCOTT (J.), TURNER (A.W.) and VAWTER (L.R.): Gas edema diseases. Twelfth International Veterinary Congress, 1935, 2, 168-182.]

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Clostridium halophilum corrig. Fendrich et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M1 = ATCC 49637 = DSM 5387.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77837.
Etymology: Gr. n. hals halos, salt; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. halophilum, salt-loving.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 39. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 580-581. [FENDRICH (C.), HIPPE (H.) and GOTTSCHALK (G.): Clostridium halophilium sp. nov. and C. litorale sp. nov., an obligate halophilic and a marine species degrading betaine in the Stickland reaction. Arch. Microbiol., 1990, 154, 127-132.]
Validation List no. 39 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium halophilium (sic), has been corrected by Hippe 1991.
References: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSB: Validation List no. 39 (footnote c). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 580-581. [HIPPE (H.): Personal communication to the Associate Editor, IJSB]
Validation List no. 39 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium hastiforme MacLennan 1939, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 33268 = CCUG 21837 = DSM 5675 = NCTC 11832 = VPI 12193.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80841.
Etymology: L. n. hasta, a spear; L. suff. -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. hastiforme, spear-shaped.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [MacLENNAN (J.D.): The nonsaccharolytic plectridial anaerobes. Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 1939, 49, 535-548.]

¤ Tissierella praeacuta (Tissier 1908) Collins and Shah 1986.

Note: According to Bae et al. 2004, Clostridium hastiforme MacLennan 1939 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Tissierella praeacuta (Tissier 1908) Collins and Shah 1986.
Reference: BAE (J.W.), PARK (J.R.), CHANG (Y.H.), RHEE (S.K.), KIM (B.C.) and PARK (Y.H.): Clostridium hastiforme is a later synonym of Tissierella praeacuta. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 947-949.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium hathewayi Steer et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 1313 = DSM 13479 = CCUG 43506.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ311620.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. hathewayi, of Hatheway, to honor the late American microbiologist Charles L. Hatheway in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the Clostridium botulinum group of organisms.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690. [STEER (T.), COLLINS (M.D.), GIBSON (G.R.), HIPPE (H.) and LAWSON (P.A.): Clostridium hathewayi sp. nov., from human faeces. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2001, 24, 353-357.]
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format) - Effective publication Online

¤ Hungatella hathewayi (Steer et al. 2002) Kaur et al. 2014, sp. nov.

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Clostridium herbivorans Varel et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 54408 = ATCC 49925 = CIP 104610.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L34418.
Etymology: L. fem. n. herba, grass, herb,  a green plant; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. part. adj. herbivorans, devouring plants.
Reference: VAREL (V.H.), TANNER (R.S.) and WOESE (C.R.): Clostridium herbivorans sp. nov., a cellulolytic anaerobe from the pig intestine. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 490-494.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium hiranonis Kitahara et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TO-931 = JCM 10541 = DSM 13275.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB023970.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. hiranonis, of Hirano, named after the Japanese microbiologist Seiju Hirano for his contribution to the study of this bacterial isolate.
Reference: KITAHARA (M.), TAKAMINE (F.), IMAMURA (T.) and BENNO (Y.): Clostridium hiranonis sp. nov., a human intestinal bacterium with bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating activity. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 39-44.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium histolyticum (Weinberg and Séguin 1916) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 19401 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10644 = CCUG 4854 = CIP 103713 = CN 1693 = DSM 2158 = JCM 1403 = NCIMB 503 = NCTC 503.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB566416.
Synonyms: "Bacillus histolyticus" Weinberg and Séguin 1916, "Weinbergillus histolyticus" (Weinberg and Séguin 1916) Heller 1922.
Etymology: Gr. n. histos, web, tissue; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. histolyticum, tissue-dissolving.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WEINBERG (M.) and SÉGUIN (P.): Contribution à l'étiologie de la gangrène gazeuse. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 1916, 163, 449-451. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Note: On the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Amended Edition), the title of the publication by Weinberg and Séguin (1916) is erroneously cited as "Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Séances (sic), Paris".

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Clostridium homopropionicum Dörner and Schink 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain LuHBu1 = ATCC 51426 = DSM 5847.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76744.
Etymology: Gr. adj. homoios, the same, similar; N.L. n. acidum propionicum, prionic acid; N.L. neut. adj. homopropionicum, referring to metabolic analogy to Clostridium propionicum.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 39. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 580-581. [DÖRNER (C.) and SCHINK (B.): Clostridium homopropionicum sp. nov., a new strict anaerobe growing with 2-, 3-, or 4-hydroxybutyrate. Arch. Microbiol., 1990, 154, 342-348.]
Validation List no. 39 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium hungatei Monserrate et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AD = ATCC 700212 = DSM 14427.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF020429 (type strain AD), FR749966 (type strain DSM 14427, clone 1), FR749967 (type strain DSM 14427, clone 2), FR749968 (type strain DSM 14427, clone 3), FR749969 (type strain DSM 14427, clone 4), FR749970 (type strain DSM 14427, clone 5).
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. hungatei, of Hungate, named after R.E. Hungate, who pioneered the study of the ecology of cellulolytic bacteria.
Reference: MONSERRATE (E.), LESCHINE (S.B.) and CANALE -PAROLA (E.): Clostridium hungatei sp. nov., a mesophilic, N2 -fixing cellulolytic bacterium isolated from soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 123-132.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium hungatei Monserrate et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium hydrogeniformans Bowman et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BL-20 = DSM 21757 = NRRL B-51348.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ196623.
Etymology: N.L. n. hydrogenum (from Gr. n. hudôr, water; and Gr. v. gennaô, to produce), hydrogen; L. part. adj. formans, forming; N.L. part. adj. hydrogeniformans, hydrogen-forming.
Reference: BOWMAN (K.S.), DUPRÉ (R.E.), RAINEY (F.A.) and MOE (W.M.): Clostridium hydrogeniformans sp. nov. and Clostridium cavendishii sp. nov., hydrogen-producing bacteria from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 358-363.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium hydroxybenzoicum Zhang et al. 1994, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW/Z-1 = ATCC 51151 = DSM 7310.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L11305.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum hydroxybenzoicum, hydroxybenzoic acid; N.L. neut. adj, hydroxybenzoicum, pertaining to hydroxybenzoic acid, referring to the characteristic feature of this organism, the reversible decarboxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoate and 3,4-dibydroxybenzoate.
Reference: ZHANG (X.), MANDELCO (L.) and WIEGEL (J.): Clostridium hydroxybenzoicum sp. nov., an amino acid-utilizing, hydroxybenzoate-decarboxylating bacterium isolated from methanogenic freshwater pond sediment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 214-222.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Sedimentibacter hydroxybenzoicus (Zhang et al. 1994) Breitenstein et al. 2002, comb. nov.

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Clostridium hylemonae Kitahara et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TN-271 = CIP 106689 = DSM 15053 = JCM 10539.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB023973.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. hylemonae (sic), of Hylemon, after the American microbiologist Phillip B. Hylemon, for his contributions to research on bile acid.
Reference: KITAHARA (M.), TAKAMINE (F.), IMAMURA (T.) and BENNO (Y.): Assignment of Eubacterium sp. VPI 12708 and related strains with high bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating activity to Clostridium scindens and proposal of Clostridium hylemonae sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 971-978.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium indolis McClung and McCoy 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25771 = DSM 755 = JCM 1380 = NCTC 11811.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18184.
Etymology: N.L. n. indol, indole; N.L. gen. n. indolis, of indole.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [McCLUNG (L.S.) and McCOY (E.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 634-693.]

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Clostridium innocuum Smith and King 1962, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 14501 = CCUG 36763 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14517 = DSM 1286 = JCM 1292 = NCIMB 10674.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M23732.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. innocuum, harmless.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SMITH (L.D.S.) and KING (E.): Clostridium innocuum, sp. n., a spore-forming anaerobe isolated from human infections. Journal of Bacteriology, 1962, 83, 938-939.]

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Clostridium intestinale corrig. Lee et al. 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Catt39 = ATCC 49213 = DSM 6191 = JCM 7506.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76740.
Etymology: L. n. intestinum, intestine; N.L. neut. suff. -ale, suffix denoting pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. intestinale, pertaining to the intestine.
Reference: LEE (W.K.), FUJISAWA (T.), KAWAMURA (S.), ITOH (K.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Clostridium intestinalis sp. nov., an aerotolerant species isolated from the feces of cattle and pigs. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 334-336.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, intestinalis (sic), has been corrected by Euzéby 1998.
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.): Taxonomic note: necessary correction of specific and subspecific epithets according to Rules 12c and 13b of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1073-1075.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium irregulare corrig. (Choukévitch 1911) Prévot 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25756 = DSM 2635 = JCM 1425.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73447.
Synonym: "Bacillus irregularis" Choukévitch 1911.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. irregulare, irregular, referring to pleomorphic, irregular cells.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 CHOUKEVITCH (J.): Étude de la flore bactérienne du gros intestin du cheval. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1911, 25, 345-368. 2 PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium irregularis (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium isatidis Padden et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Wv6 = CIP 107118 = DSM 15098 = NCIMB 703071 (formerly NCFB 3071).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X98395.
Etymology: L. n. isatis -idis, an herb with a milky juice, and also a scientific genus name; L. gen. n. isatidis, of crucifer plant pertaining to the genus Isatis.
Reference: PADDEN (A.N.), DILLON (V.M.), EDMONDS (J.), COLLINS (M.D.), ALVAREZ (N.) and JOHN (P.): An indigo-reducing moderate thermophile from a woad vat, Clostridium isatidis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1025-1031.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium jejuense Jeong et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain HY-35-12 = DSM 15929 = IMSNU 40003 = KCTC 5026.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY494606.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. jejuense, pertaining to Jeju Island, Korea, geographical origin of the type strain of the species.
Reference: JEONG (H.), YI (H.), SEKIGUCHI (Y.), MURAMATSU (M.), KAMAGATA (Y.) and CHUN (J.): Clostridium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1465-1468.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium josui Sukhumavasi et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain III = FERM P-9684.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB011057.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. josui, of josu; the first four letters were obtained by combining the initial letters of the names of the authors, and the last letter was added to indicate a genitive.
Reference: SUKHUMAVASI (J.), OHMIYA (K.), SHIMIZU (S.) and UENO (K.): Clostridium josui sp. nov., a cellulolytic, moderate thermophilic species from Thai compost. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 179-182.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type FERM P-9684 is a patent strain.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Clostridium kluyveri Barker and Taha 1942, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8527 = DSM 555 = IFO (now NBRC) 12016 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 10680 = NCCB 72061 = NCCB 46095.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ911271 (complete genome: CP000673).
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. kluyveri, of Kluyver, named for A.J. Kluyver, Dutch microbiologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [BARKER (H.A.) and TAHA (S.M.): Clostridium kluyveri, an organism concerned in the formation of caproic acid from ethyl alcohol. Journal of Bacteriology, 1942, 43, 347-363.]

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Clostridium lactatifermentans van der Wielen et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain G17 = DSM 14214 = LMG 20954.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY033434.
Etymology: N.L. n. lactas -atis, lactate; L. part. adj. fermentans, fermenting; N.L. part. adj. lactatifermentans, fermenting lactate.
Reference: VAN DER WIELEN (P.W.J.J.), ROVERS (G.M.L.L.), SCHEEPENS (J.M.A.) and BIESTERVELD (S.): Clostridium lactatifermentans sp. nov., a lactate-fermenting anaerobe isolated from the caeca of a chicken. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 921-925.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium lacusfryxellense Spring et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain C/C-an/B1 = ATCC BAA-580 = DSM 14205.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ506118.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. lacusfryxellense, of Lake Fryxell, the lake in Antarctica from which the type strain was isolated.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium laramiense corrig. Kalchayanand et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain NK1 = ATCC 51254 = DSM 14864.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ506115.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. laramiense, referring to the city of Laramie, WY, USA.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 46. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 624-625. [KALCHAYANAND (N.), RAY (B.) and FIELD (R.A.): Characteristics of psychrotrophic Clostridium laramie causing spoilage of vacuum-packaged refrigerated fresh and roast beef. J. Food Prot., 1993, 56, 13-17.]
Validation List no. 46 in IJSEM Online

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, laramie (sic), has been corrected by Trüper and De' Clari 1997.
Reference: TRÜPER (H.G.) and DE' CLARI (L.): Taxonomic note: Necessary correction of specific epithets formed as substantives (nouns) "in apposition". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 908-909.
Original article in IJSB Online

¤ Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense (Kalchayanand et al. 1993) Spring et al. 2003, comb. nov.

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Clostridium lavalense Domingo et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CCRI-9842 = CCUG 54291 = JCM 14986 = NML 03-A-015.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF564277.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. lavalense, pertaining to the institution, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Reference: DOMINGO (M.C.), HULETSKY (A.), BOISSINOT (M.), HÉLIE (M.C.), BERNAL (A.), BERNARD (K.A.), GRAYSON (M.L.), PICARD (F.J.) and BERGERON (M.G.): Clostridium lavalense sp. nov., a glycopeptide-resistant species isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 498-503.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium lentocellum Murray et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain RHM5 = ATCC 49066 = DSM 5427 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11756.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71851, CP002582 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. adj. lentus, slow; N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; N.L. neut. adj. lentocellum, intended to mean slowly fermenting cellulose.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 23. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 179-180. [MURRAY (W.D.), HOFMANN (L.), CAMBELL (N.L.) and MADDEN (R.H.): Clostridium lentocellum sp. nov., a cellulolytic species from river sediment containing paper-mill waste. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1986, 8, 181-184.]
Validation List no. 23 in IJSEM Online

¤ Cellulosilyticum lentocellum (Murray et al. 1987) Cai and Dong 2010, comb. nov.

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Clostridium lentoputrescens Hartsell and Rettger 1934, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17794 = NCTC 13028.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: L. adj. lentus, slow; L. part. adj. putrescens, decaying; N.L. part. adj. lentoputrescens, slowly decaying.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HARTSELL (S.E.) and RETTGER (L.F.): A taxonomic study of "Clostridium putrificum" and its establishment as a definite entity-Clostridium lentoputrescens nov. spec. Journal of Bacteriology, 1934, 27, 497-514.]

¤ Clostridium cochlearium (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Nakamura et al. 1979, Clostridium lentoputrescens Hartsell and Rettger 1934 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium cochlearium (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: NAKAMURA et al. 1979 cited by CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium leptum Moore et al. 1976, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 29065 = CCUG 48287 = DSM 753.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ305238.
Etymology: Gr. adj. leptos -ê -on, thin, delicate; N.L. neut. adj. leptum, thin, delicate, referring to the morphological appearance of the cells.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [MOORE (W.E.C.), JOHNSON (J.L.) and HOLDEMAN (L.V.): Emendation of Bacteriodaceae and Butyrivibrio and descriptions of Desulfomonas gen. nov. and ten new species in the genera Desulfomonas, Butyrivibrio, Eubacterium, Clostridium and Ruminococcus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 238-252.]

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Clostridium limosum André 1948, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25620 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14513 = CCUG 24037 = CECT 4329 = DSM 1400 = JCM 1427 = NCIMB 10638 = VPI 2700.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR870444.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. limosum, muddy or slimy.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [ANDRÉ: In A.R. PRÉVOT: Étude des bactéries anaérobies d'Afrique occidentale française (Sénégal, Guinée, Côte d'Ivoire). Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1948, 74, 157-170.]

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Clostridium litorale Fendrich et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain W6 = ATCC 49638 = DSM 5388.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77845.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. litorale, of or belonging to the sea-shore, referring to the source of samples, the seashore of Northern Germany, from which the species was isolated.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 39. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 580-581. [FENDRICH (C.), HIPPE (H.) and GOTTSCHALK (G.): Clostridium halophilium sp. nov. and C. litorale sp. nov., an obligate halophilic and a marine species degrading betaine in the Stickland reaction. Arch. Microbiol., 1990, 154, 127-132.]
Validation List no. 39 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium lituseburense (Laplanche and Saissac 1948) McClung and McCoy 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25759 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14536 = CCUG 18920 = DSM 797 = JCM 1404 = NCIMB 10637.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59107.
Synonyms: "Inflabilis litus-eburense" Laplanche and Saissac in Prévot 1948.
Etymology: L. n. litus, coast; L. n. ebur, ivory; N.L. neut. adj. lituseburense, pertaining to Côte d'Ivoire.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 LAPLANCHE (J.) and SAISSAC (R.). In A.R. PRÉVOT: Étude des bactéries anaérobies d'Afrique occidentale française (Sénégal, Guinée, Côte d'Ivoire). Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1948, 74, 157-170. 2 McCLUNG (L.S.) and McCOY (E.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 634-693.]

¤ Romboutsia lituseburensis [(Laplanche and Saissac in Prévot 1948) McClung and McCoy 1957] Gerritsen et al. 2014, comb. nov.

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Clostridium ljungdahlii Tanner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain PETC = ATCC 55383 = DSM 13528.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733688.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ljungdahlii, of Ljungdahl, in recognition of Lars G. Ljungdahl's research contributions in the study of both acetogens and clostridia.
Reference: TANNER (R.S.), MILLER (L.M.) and YANG (D.): Clostridium ljungdahlii sp. nov., an acetogenic species in clostridial rRNA homology group I. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 232-236.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii Tanner et al. 1993 is PETC = ATCC 55383. The type strain ATCC 49587, cited in the paper by Tanner et al. 1993, was deaccessioned.
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (September 06, 2001).

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Clostridium lortetii Oren 1984, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain MD-2 = ATCC 35059 = DSM 3070.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59122.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. lortetii, of Lortet,  named after M.L. Lortet, a French microbiologist.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 14. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 270-271. [OREN (A.): Clostridium lortetii sp. nov., a halophilic obligatory anaerobic bacterium producing endospores with attached gas vacuoles. Arch. Microbiol., 1983, 136, 42-48.]
Validation List no. 14 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Sporohalobacter lortetii (Oren 1984) Oren et al. 1988, comb. nov.

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Clostridium lundense Cirne et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R1 = CCUG 50446 = DSM 17049.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY858804.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. lundense, from Lund, relating to the city where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: CIRNE (D.G.), DELGADO (O.D.), MARICHAMY (S.) and MATTIASSON (B.): Clostridium lundense sp. nov., a novel anaerobic lipolytic bacterium isolated from bovine rumen. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 625-628.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium magnum Schink 1984, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Wo Bd P1 = ATCC 49199 = DSM 2767.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77835.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. magnun, big, referring to cell size.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357. [SCHINK (B.): Clostridium magnum sp. nov., a non-autotrophic homoacetogenic bacterium. Arch. Microbiol., 1984, 137, 250-255.]
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium malenominatum (Weinberg et al. 1937) Spray 1948, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25776 = DSM 1127 = JCM 1405.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59099 (type strain ATCC 25776), FR749893 (type strain DSM 1127).
Synonym: "Bacillus malenominatus" Weinberg et al. 1937.
Etymology: L. adv. male, bad; L. v. nominare, to name; N.L. part. adj. malenominatum, poorly named.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WEINBERG (M.), NATIVELLE (R.) and PRÉVOT (A.R.): Les Microbes Anaérobies, Masson et Cie, Paris, 1937, pp. 1-1186. 2 SPRAY (R.S.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and A.P. HITCHENS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1948, pp. 763-827.]

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Clostridium mangenotii (Prévot and Zimmès-Chaverou 1947) McClung and McCoy 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25761 = DSM 1289 = JCM 1428.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733662.
Synonym: "Inflabilis mangenoti" (sic) Prévot and Zimmès-Chaverou 1947.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. mangenotii, of Mangenot, named after Professor G. Mangenot, Italian bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 PRÉVOT (A.R.) and ZIMMES-CHAVEROU: Étude d'une nouvelle espèce anaérobie de Côte d'Ivoire : Inflabilis mangenoti. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1947, 73, 602-604. 2 McCLUNG (L.S.) and McCOY (E.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 634-693.]

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Clostridium mayombei Kane et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SFC-5 = ATCC 51428 = DSM 6539.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733682.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. mayombei, of the Mayombe tropical rainforest, People's Republic of the Congo, which is home to the termite (Cubitermes speciosus) from whose gut this bacterium was isolated.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 40. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 191-192. [KANE (M.D.), BRAUMAN (A.) and BREZNAK (J.A.): Clostridium mayombei sp. nov., an H2/CO2 acetogenic bacterium from the gut of the African soil-feeding termite, Cubitermes speciosus. Arch. Microbiol., 1991, 156, 99-104.]
Validation List no. 40 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium methoxybenzovorans Mechichi et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SR3 = ATCC 700855 = DSM 12182.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF067965.
Etymology: N.L. n. methoxybenzoicum, methoxybenzoic acid; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. part. adj. methoxybenzovorans, methoxybenzoic acid devouring, able to use acid methoxybenzoic acid as carbon and energy source, which is characteristic of this organism.
Reference: MECHICHI (T.), LABAT (M.), PATEL (B.K.C.), WOO (T.H.S.), THOMAS (P.) and GARCIA (J.L.): Clostridium methoxybenzovorans sp. nov., a new aromatic o-demethylating homoacetogen from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1201-1209.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium methylpentosum Himelbloom and Canale-Parola 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R2 = ATCC 43829 = DSM 5476.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18181.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. methylpentosum, pertaining to methylpentose.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 31. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 495-497. [HIMELBLOOM (B.H.) and CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Clostridium methylpentosum sp. nov.: a ring-shaped intestinal bacterium that ferments only methylpentoses and pentoses. Arch. Microbiol., 1989, 151, 287-293.]
Validation List no. 31 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium neopropionicum Tholozan et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain X4 = DSM 3847.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76746.
Etymology: Gr. adj. neos, new; N.L. n. acidum propionicum, propionic acid; N.L. neut. adj. neopropionicum, a new propionic acid-producing Clostridium.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 55. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 879-880. [THOLOZAN (J.L.), TOUZEL (J.P.), SAMAIN (E.), GRIVET (J.P.), PRENSIER (G.) and ALBAGNAC (G.): Clostridium neopropionicum sp. nov., a strict anaerobic bacterium fermenting ethanol to propionate through acrylate pathway. Arch. Microbiol., 1992, 157, 249-257.]
Validation List no. 55 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium nexile Holdeman and Moore 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27757 = DSM 1787.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73443.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. nexile, tied or bound together, referring to its chain formation.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): New genus, Coprococcus, twelve new species, and emended descriptions of four previously described species of bacteria from human feces. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 260-277.]

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Clostridium nitrophenolicum Suresh et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 1D = JCM 14030 = MTCC 7832.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM261414.
Etymology: N.L. n. nitrophenol, nitrophenol; L. suff. -icus -a -um, suffix used with the sense of belonging to; N.L. neut. adj. nitrophenolicum, referring to the substrate nitrophenol that can be utilized by the species.
Reference: SURESH (K.), PRAKASH (D.), RASTOGI (N.) and JAIN (R.K.): Clostridium nitrophenolicum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic p-nitrophenol-degrading bacterium, isolated from a subsurface soil sample. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1886-1890.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium novyi (Migula 1894 [sic]) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17861 = DSM 14992 = JCM 1406 = NCTC 13029.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB045606.
Synonyms: "Bacillus oedematis maligni" Novy 1894, "Bacillus novyi" Migula 1900, "Clostridium oedematiens" Bergey et al. 1923.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. novyi, of Novy, named after F.G. Novy, American bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 MIGULA (W.): ? (see the note below). 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Note:
There is obviously a problem with the citation of Clostridium novyi and the author thanks Dr. T. Kudo (JCM, Japan) and Dr. J. E. Hill (NRC Plant Biotechnology Institute, Canada) for their helpful informations.
- In the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and in the amended edition of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, this taxon is cited as "C. novyi (Migula 1894) Bergey, Harrison, Breed, Hammer and Huntoon 1923". The reference of the paper by Migula 1894 is the following: "Migula, W. 1894, Zeitschrift fur Hygiene 17:209".
- Zeitschrift für Hygiene, 1894, 17, 209-232 is an article by F. G. Novy entitled "Ein neuer anaërober Bacillus des malignen Oedems" [see a copy of the first page (pdf format) provided by Dr. J. E. Hill].
- In the Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology sixth, seventh and eight editions, in the first edition of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, and in the Index Bergeyana, this taxon is cited as Clostridium novyi (Migula 1900) Bergey et al. 1923 and the synonym "Bacillus novyi" is cited as "Bacillus novyi Migula 1900". The reference is the following: Migula, W. 1900. System der Bakterien. Vol. 2. Gustav Fischer, Jena.

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Clostridium oceanicum Smith 1970, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25647 = DSM 1290 = JCM 1407 = LMG 3287.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR749923 (type strain DSM 1290, clone 1), FR749924 (type strain DSM 1290, clone 2), FR749925 (type strain DSM 1290, clone 3), FR749926 (type strain DSM 1290, clone 4), FR749927 (type strain DSM 1290, clone 5).
Etymology: Gr. n. okeanos, the ocean; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used withe sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. oceanicum, belonging to the sea.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SMITH (L.D.S.): Clostridium oceanicum, n. sp., a sporeforming anaerobe isolated from marine sediments. Journal of Bacteriology, 1970, 103, 811-813.]

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Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 265 = ATCC 49531 = DSM 6740.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18187.
Etymology: L. n. orbis, a ring, circle; L. part. adj. scindens, breaking in pieces, cutting; N.L. part. adj. orbiscindens, ring-cutting.
Reference: WINTER (J.), POPOFF (M.R.), GRIMONT (P.) and BOKKENHEUSER (V.D.): Clostridium orbiscindens sp. nov., a human intestinal bacterium capable of cleaving the flavonoid C-ring. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 355-357.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Eubacterium plautii (Séguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982.

Note: According to Carlier et al. 2010, Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Eubacterium plautii (Séguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982.
Reference: CARLIER (J.P.), BEDORA-FAURE (M.), K’OUAS (G.), ALAUZET (C.) and MORY (F.): Proposal to unify Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 and Eubacterium plautii (Seguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982, with description of Flavonifractor plautii gen. nov., comb. nov., and reassignment of Bacteroides capillosus to Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 585-590.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Flavonifractor plautii (Séguin 1928) Carlier et al. 2010 comb. nov.

Note: Carlier et al. 2010 propose to unify Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 and ¤ Eubacterium plautii (Séguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982 in the new genus ¤ Flavonifractor Carlier et al. 2010 as ¤ Flavonifractor plautii (Séguin 1928) Carlier et al. 2010, comb. nov.
Reference: CARLIER (J.P.), BEDORA-FAURE (M.), K’OUAS (G.), ALAUZET (C.) and MORY (F.): Proposal to unify Clostridium orbiscindens Winter et al. 1991 and Eubacterium plautii (Seguin 1928) Hofstad and Aasjord 1982, with description of Flavonifractor plautii gen. nov., comb. nov., and reassignment of Bacteroides capillosus to Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 585-590.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium oroticum (Wachsman and Barker 1954) Cato et al. 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 13619 = DSM 1287 = JCM 1429 = LMG 3286 = NCCB 73016.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59109 (type strain ATCC 13619), FR749917 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 1), FR749918 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 2), FR749919 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 3), FR749920 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 4), FR749921 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 5), FR749922 (type strain DSM 1287, clone 6).
Synonym: "Zymobacterium oroticum" Wachsman and Barker 1954.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum oroticum, orotic acid; N.L. neut. adj. oroticum, pertaining to orotic acid.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WACHSMAN (J.T.) and BARKER (H.A.): Characterization of an orotic acid fermenting bacterium, Zymobacterium oroticum, nov. gen., nov. spec. Journal of Bacteriology, 1954, 68, 400-404. 2 CATO (E.), MOORE (W.E.C.) and HOLDEMAN (L.V.): Clostridium oroticum comb. nov. amended description. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1968, 18, 9-13.]

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Clostridium oxalicum Dehning and Schink 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Alt Ox1 = ATCC 49686 = DSM 5503.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y14581.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum oxalicum, oxalic acid; N.L. neut. adj. oxalicum, referring to the metabolism of oxalic acid.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 34. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 320-321. [DEHNING (I.) and SCHINK (B.): Two new species of anaerobic oxalate-fermenting bacteria, Oxalobacter vibrioformis sp. nov. and Clostridium oxalicum sp. nov., from sediment samples. Arch. Microbiol., 1989, 153, 79-84.]
Validation List no. 34 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Oxalophagus oxalicus (Dehning and Schink 1990) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium papyrosolvens Madden et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 35413 = DSM 2782 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11394.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71852.
Etymology: Gr. n. papuros, papyrus, paper; L. part. adj. solvens, dissolving; N.L. part. adj. papyrosolvens, paper-dissolving, intended to reflect the organisms' rapid fermentation of filter paper constituents.
Reference: MADDEN (R.H.), BRYDER (M.J.) and POOLE (N.J.): Isolation and characterization of an anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium, Clostridium papyrosolvens sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 87-91.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium paradoxum Li et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW-YL-7 = ATCC 51510 = CIP 105527 = DSM 7308.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z69929.
Etymology: Gr. adj. paradoxos, contrary to expectation, incredible; N.L. neut. adj. paradoxum, incredible, referring to the unusual property of sporulated cells to be highly motile.
Reference: LI (Y.), MANDELCO (L.) and WIEGEL (J.): Isolation and characterization of a moderately thermophilic anaerobic alkaliphile, Clostridium paradoxum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 450-460.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium paraperfringens Nakamura et al. 1970, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27639 = JCM 1382 = NCTC 10986.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: Gr. prep. para, beside; L. part. adj. perfringens, a specific epithet; N.L. part. adj. paraperfringens, resembling (Clostridium) perfringens.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [NAKAMURA (S.), TAMAI (K.) and NISHIDA (S.): Criteria for identification of Clostridium perfringens. 6. Clostridium paraperfringens sp. nov. Medical Biology, 1970, 80, 137-140.]

¤ Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Cato et al. 1982, Clostridium paraperfringens Nakamura et al. 1970 is a later heterotypic synonym of Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CATO (E.P.), HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Clostridium perenne and Clostridium paraperfringens: later subjective synonyms of Clostridium barati. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 77-81.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium paraputrificum (Bienstock 1906) Snyder 1936, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25780 = DSM 2630 = CCUG 32755 = JCM 1293 = NCTC 11833.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X75907.
Synonyms: "Bacillus diaphthirus" Trevisan 1889, "Bacillus paraputrificus" Bienstock 1906.
Etymology: Gr. prep. para, beside; N.L. neut. adj. putrificum, a specific epithet; N.L. neut. adj. paraputrificum, resembling (Clostridium) putrificum.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 BIENSTOCK (B.): Bacillus putrificus. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1906, 20, 407-415. 2 SNYDER (M.L.): The serologic agglutination of the obligate anaerobes Clostridium paraputricum (Bienstock) and Clostridium capitovalis (Snyder and Hall). Journal of Bacteriology, 1936, 32, 401-410.]

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Clostridium pascui Wilde et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Cm19 = CIP 105172 = DSM 10365 = JCM 11012.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X96736.
Etymology: L. gen. n. pascui, of a pasture, referring to the habitat where the organism was isolated.
Reference: WILDE (E.), COLLINS (M.D.) and HIPPE (H.): Clostridium pascui sp. nov., a new glutamate-fermenting sporeformer from a pasture in Pakistan. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 164-170.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium pasteurianum Winogradsky 1895, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 6013 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10942 = CCUG 31328 = CECT 377 = DSM 525 = JCM 1408 = KCTC 1674 = LMG 3285 = NCIMB 9486 = VKM B-1774.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR870440.
Synonyms: "Clostridium pastorianus" (sic) Winogradsky 1902, "Bacillus pasteurianus" (Winogradsky 1895) Lehmann and Neumann 1907, "Bacillus pastorianus" (Winogradsky 1902) Lehmann and Neumann 1907 "Bacillus winogradsky" Matzuschita 1902, "Butyribacillus pasteurianus" (Winogradsky 1895) Orla-Jensen 1909.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. pasteurianum, pertaining to Louis Pasteur, French microbiologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [WINOGRADSKY (S.): Recherches sur l'assimilation de l'azote libre de l'atmosphère par les microbes. Archives of Science and Biology, St. Petersbourg, 1894-95, 3, 297-352.]

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Clostridium peptidivorans Mechichi et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TMC4 = DSM 12505.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF156796.
Etymology: N.L. n. peptidum, peptide; L. v. vorare, to devour; N.L. part. adj. peptidivorans, peptide-consuming.
Reference: MECHICHI (T.), FARDEAU (M.L.), LABAT (M.), GARCIA (J.L.), VERHÉ (F.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Clostridium peptidivorans sp. nov., a peptide-fermenting bacterium from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1259-1264.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium perenne (Prévot 1940) McClung and McCoy 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25782 = JCM 1409.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB567726.
Synonym: "Acuformis perennis" Prévot 1940.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. perenne, perpetual, perennial.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 PRÉVOT (A.R.): Recherches sur la flore anaérobie del'intestin humain : Acuformis perennis nov. sp. Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie (Paris), 1940, 133, 574-577. 2 McCLUNG (L.S.) and McCOY (E.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 634-693.]

¤ Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Cato et al. 1982, Clostridium perenne (Prévot 1940) McClung and McCoy 1957 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of Clostridium baratii corrig. (Prévot 1938) Holdeman and Moore 1970 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CATO (E.P.), HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Clostridium perenne and Clostridium paraperfringens: later subjective synonyms of Clostridium barati. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 77-81.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Hauduroy et al. 1937, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 13124 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10913 = CCUG 1795 = CIP 103409 = DSM 756 = JCM 1290 = LMG 11264 = NCAIM B.01417 = NCCB 89165 = NCIMB 6125 = NCTC 8237.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000246.
Synonyms: "Bacillus perfringens" Veillon and Zuber 1898, "Bacterium welchii" Migula 1900.
Etymology: L. part. adj. perfringens, breaking throug, breaking in pieces.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 VEILLON (A.) and ZUBER (A.): Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Archives de Médecine Expérimentale et d'Anatomie Pathologique, 1898, 10, 517-545. 2 HAUDUROY (P.), EHRINGER (G.), URBAIN (A.), GUILLOT (G.) and MAGROU (J.): Dictionnaire des bactéries pathogènes. Masson and Co., Paris, 1937, pp. 1-597.]

Note: According to Nakamura et al. 1976, Clostridium perfringens (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Hauduroy et al. 1937 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of "Clostridium plagarum" (Prévot 1938) Smith and Hobbs 1974 [reference strain: ATCC 25768 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 10620].
Reference: NAKAMURA (S.), SAKURAI (M.), NISHIDA (S.), TATSUKI (T.), YANAGASE (Y.), HIGASHI (Y.) and AMANO (T.): Lecithinase-negative variants of Clostridium perfringens: the identity of C. plagarum with C. perfringens. Can. J. Microbiol., 1976, 22, 1497-1501.
Original article Online

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Clostridium pfennigii Krumholz and Bryant 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain V5-2 = ATCC 43583 = DSM 3222.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77838 (strain DSM 3222; contains several flaws), HF546397 (strain DSM 3222 clone 3), HF546398 (strain DSM 3222 clone 6), HF546399 (strain DSM 3222 clone 32), HF546400 strain DSM 3222 clone 36).
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. pfennigii, of Pfennig, named after Norbert Pfennig, who first documented the catabolism of methyl groups of benzenoid compounds by an anaerobic bacterium.
Reference: KRUMHOLZ (L.R.) and BRYANT (M.P.): Clostridium pfennigii sp. nov. uses methoxyl groups of monobenzenoids and produces butyrate. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 454-456.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Oxobacter pfennigii (Krumholz and Bryant 1985) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium phytofermentans Warnick et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ISDg = ATCC 700394 = DSM 18823.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF020431 (complete genome: CP000885).
Etymology: Gr. n. phûton, plant; L. part. adj. fermentans, fermenting; N.L. part. adj. phytofermentans, plant-fermenting, referring to the wide range of plant polysaccharides that this organism is capable of utilizing as growth substrate.
Reference: WARNICK (T.A.), METHÉ (B.A.) and LESCHINE (S.B.): Clostridium phytofermentans sp. nov., a cellulolytic mesophile from forest soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1155-1160.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published, because the original publication makes reference to the deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium phytofermentans Warnick et al. 2002 is considered to be validly published, since deposit in a second culture collection in a different country has been documented.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium piliforme (ex Tyzzer 1917) Duncan et al. 1993, nom. rev., comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) not given.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Synonym: "Bacillus piliformis" Tyzzer 1917.
Etymology: L. n. pilus, a hair; L. neut. suff. -forme, of the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. piliforme, hair-shaped.
Reference: DUNCAN (A.J.), CARMAN (R.J.), OLSEN (G.J.) and WILSON (K.H.): Assignment of the agent of Tyzzer's disease to Clostridium piliforme comb. nov. on the basis of the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 314-318.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 In violation of Rule 34a, Duncan et al. 1993 propose Clostridium piliforme as a new combination.
2 The name Clostridium piliforme is not validly published because no type strain is designated (Rule 27(3), Rule 30).

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Clostridium polysaccharolyticum (van Gylswyk 1981) van Gylswyk et al. 1983, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain B = ATCC 33142 = DSM 1801.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77839.
Basonym: ¤ Fusobacterium polysaccharolyticum van Gylswyk 1981.
Etymology: Gr. adj. polu, many; Gr. n. sakchâr, sugar; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. polysaccharolyticum, degrading several polysaccharides.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 10. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 438-440. [VAN GYLSWYK (N.O.), MORRIS (E.J.) and ELS (H.J.): Sporulation and cell wall structure of Clostridium polysaccharolyticum comb. nov. (formerly Fusobacterium polysaccharolyticum). J. Gen. Microbiol., 1980, 121, 491-493.]
Validation List no. 10 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium populeti Sleat and Mah 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 743A = ATCC 35295 = DSM 5832.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71853.
Etymology: L. n. populetum, a poplar wood; L. gen. n. populeti, of a poplar wood.
Reference: SLEAT (R.) and MAH (R.A.): Clostridium populeti sp. nov., a cellulolytic species from a woody-biomass digestor. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 160-163.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium propionicum Cardon and Barker 1946, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25522 = CCUG 9280 = DSM 1682 = JCM 1430 = NCIMB 10656 = VPI 5303.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77841.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. propionicum, pertaining to propionic acid.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [CARDON (B.P.) and BARKER (H.A.): Two new amino acid-fermenting bacteria, Clostridium propionicum and Diplococcus glycinophilus. Journal of Bacteriology, 1946, 52, 629-634.]

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Clostridium proteoclasticum Attwood et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain B316 = ATCC 51982 = DSM 14932.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U37378.
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. proteinum, protein; N.L. adj. clasticus -a -um (from Gr. adj. klastos -ê -on, broken in pieces), breaking; N.L. neut. adj. proteoclasticum, protein breaking.
Reference: ATTWOOD (G.T.), REILLY (K.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Clostridium proteoclasticum sp. nov., a novel proteolytic bacterium from the bovine rumen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 753-758.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus (Attwood et al. 1996) Moon et al. 2008, comb. nov.

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Clostridium proteolyticum Jain and Zeikus 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CG = ATCC 49002 = DSM 3090.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73448.
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. proteinum, protein; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. proteolyticum, protein dissolving, proteolytic.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 26. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 328-329. [JAIN (M.K.) and ZEIKUS (J.G.): Taxonomic distinction of two new protein specific, hydrolytic anaerobes: isolation and characterization of Clostridium proteolyticum sp. nov. and Clostridium collagenovorans sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1988, 10, 134-141.]
Validation List no. 26 in IJSM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium psychrophilum Spring et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain A-1/C-an/I = ATCC BAA-582 = DSM 14207.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ297443.
Etymology: Gr. adj. psuchros, cold; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. psychrophilum, cold-loving.
Reference: SPRING (S.), MERKHOFFER (B.), WEISS (N.), KROPPENSTEDT (R.M.), HIPPE (H.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Characterization of novel psychrophilic clostridia from an Antarctic microbial mat: description of Clostridium frigoris sp. nov., Clostridium lacusfryxellense sp. nov., Clostridium bowmanii sp. nov. and Clostridium psychrophilum sp. nov. and reclassification of Clostridium laramiense as Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1019-1029.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium puniceum Lund et al. 1981, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BL 70/20 = ATCC 43978 = DSM 2619 = ICMP 12529 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11596.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X71857.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. puniceum, purplish, referring to pink color of colonies on potato infusion agar.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 6. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 215-218. [LUND (B.M.), BROCKLEHURST (T.F.) and WYATT (G.M.): Characterization of strains of Clostridium puniceum sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, pectolytic bacterium. J. Gen. Microbiol., 1981, 122, 17-26.]
Validation List no. 6 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The species Clostridium puniceum (effective publication: Lund et al. 1981, type strain: strain BL 70/20 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11596) appears also on the Validation List no. 8 [1]. The date of valid publication of this name is in fact that of the first citation in a Validation List (List no. 6, published 19 May 1981) [2].
References:
1 VALIDATION LIST no. 8. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 266-268.
Validation List no. 8 in IJSEM Online
2 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and KUDO (T.): Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1933-1938.
Original article by Euzéby and Kudo in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium purinilyticum corrig. Dürre et al. 1981, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain WA-1 = ATCC 33906 = DSM 1384.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M60491 (type strain ATCC 33906), FR749894 (type strain DSM 1384).
Etymology: N.L. n. purinum, "purin" (a term proposed by E. Fisher for the basic ring system of uric acid); N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. adj. purinilyticum, decomposing the purine ring.
Reference: DÜRRE (P.), ANDERSCH (W.) and ANDREESEN (J.R.): Isolation and characterization of an adenine-utilizing, anaerobic sporeformer, Clostridium purinolyticum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 184-194.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium purinolyticum (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium putrefaciens (McBryde 1911) Sturges and Drake 1927, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25786 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14480 = CCUG 30534 = DSM 1291 = JCM 1431 = NCIMB 11406 = NCTC 9836.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF127024.
Synonyms: "Bacillus putrefaciens" McBryde 1911, "Palmula putrefaciens" (McBryde 1911) Prévot 1938, "Acuformis putrefaciens" (McBryde 1911) Prévot 1940.
Etymology: L. part. adj. putrefaciens, putrefying.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 McBRYDE (C.N.): A bacteriological study of ham souring. United States Bureau of Animal Industry, 1911, 132, 1-55. 2 STURGES (W.S.) and DRAKE (E.T.): A complete description of Clostridium putrefaciens (McBryde). Journal of Bacteriology, 1927, 14, 175-179.]

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Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25784 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14514 = CCUG 15942 = CIP 60.54 = DSM 1734 = JCM 1410 = NCIMB 10677 = NCTC 13037 = VPI 4440.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73442.
Synonyms: "Pacinia putrifica" Trevisan 1889, "Bacillus putrificus" (Trevisan 1889) Bienstock 1899.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. putrificum, making rotten.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 TREVISAN (V.): I Generi e le Specie delle Batteriacee, Zanaboni and Gabuzzi, Milano, 1889. 2 REDDISH (G.) and RETTGER (L.): Clostridium putrificum (B. putrificus Beinstock) a distinct species. Abstracts of Bacteriology, 1922, 6, 9.]

Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980) nom. rejic.
References:
1 OLSEN (I.), JOHNSON (J.L.), MOORE (L.V.H.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 414.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: VIIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 240-241 (Original article in IJSEM Online). 3 JUDICIAL OPINION 69: Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 339.
Original article (Judicial Opinion 69) in IJSEM Online

Note: Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980), ¤ Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) and ¤ Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980) are genetically related at the species level and Clostridium putrificum has priority. Olsen et al. 1995, propose rejection of the name Clostridium putrificum on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56a (5) as a nomen periculosum, and conservation of the name Clostridium botulinum (Rule 23a note 4, Rule 56b note 2), and conservation of the name Clostridium sporogenes for the nontoxigenic strains on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56b note 2.

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Clostridium quercicolum Stankewich et al. 1971, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25974 = DSM 1736.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ010962.
Etymology: L. n. quercus, oak; N.L. neut. adj. quercicolum, intended to mean associated with oak trees.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [STANKEWICH (J.P.), COSENZA (B.J.) and SHIGO (A.L.): Clostridium quercicolum sp. n., isolated from discolored tissues in living oak trees. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology, 1971, 37, 299-302.]

¤ Dendrosporobacter quercicolus (Stankewich et al. 1971) Strömpl et al. 2000, comb. nov.

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Clostridium quinii Svensson et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BS1 = DSM 6736.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76745.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. quinii, of Quin, named after J.I. Quin, a South African microbiologist who first described a large ovoid bacterium.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 55. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 879-880. [SVENSSON (B.H.), DUBOURGUIER (H.C.), PRENSIER (G.) and ZEHNDER (A.J.B.): Clostridium quinii sp. nov., a new saccharolytic anaerobic bacterium isolated from granular sludge. Arch. Microbiol., 1992, 157, 97-103.]
Validation List no. 55 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium ramosum (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Holdeman et al. 1971, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25582 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14518 = CCUG 24038 = DSM 1402 = JCM 1298 = NCIMB 10673 = NCTC 11812 = VPI 0427.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X73440.
Synonyms: "Bacillus ramosus" Veillon and Zuber 1898, "Nocardia ramosa" Vuillemin 1931, "Ramibacterium ramosum" (Veillon and Zuber 1898) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. ramosum, much-branched.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 VEILLON (A.) and ZUBER (A.): Recherches sur quelques microbes strictement anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Archives de Médecine Expérimentale et d'Anatomie Pathologique, 1898, 10, 517-545. 2 HOLDEMAN (L.V.), CATO (E.P.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Clostridium ramosum (Vuillemin) comb. nov.: emended description and proposed neotype strain. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1971, 21, 35-39.]

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Clostridium rectum (Heller 1922) Holdeman and Moore 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25751 = DSM 1295 = JCM 1412.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X77850.
Synonym: "Hiblerillus rectus" Heller 1922.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. rectum, straight.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HELLER (H.H.): Certain genera of the Clostridiaceae. Studies in pathogenic anaerobes. Journal of Bacteriology, 1922, 7, 1-38 (Erratum: J. Bacteriol. 1922 7: i1).  2 HOLDEMAN (L.V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.) (editors): Anaerobe Laboratory Manual. Anaerobe Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 1972, pp. 1-130.]

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Clostridium roseum (ex McCoy and McClung 1935) Cato et al. 1988, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17797 = DSM 7320.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18170.
Synonym: "Clostridium roseum" McCoy and McClung 1935.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. roseum, rosy.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222. [CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.]
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online

Note: In the effective publication and in Validation List no. 25, the type strain DSM 7320 is cited as DSM 51.

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Clostridium saccharobutylicum Keis et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain NCP 262 = ATCC BAA-117 = DSM 13864.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U16147.
Etymology: Gr. n. sakchâr, sugar; N.L. n. butyl, the butyl radical; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. saccharobutylicum, denoting the production of butanol from sugar.
Reference: KEIS (S.), SHAHEEN (R.) and JONES (D.T.): Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2095-2103.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium saccharogumia Clavel et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SDG-Mt85-3Db = CCUG 51486 = DSM 17460.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ100445.
Etymology: Gr. n. saccharon, sugar; L. fem. n. gumia, eater; N.L. fem. n. saccharogumia, sugar eater.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 115. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 893-897. [CLAVEL (T.), LIPPMAN (R.), GAVINI (F.), DORÉ (J.) and BLAUT (M.): Clostridium saccharogumia sp. nov. and Lactonifactor longoviformis gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel human faecal bacteria involved in the conversion of the dietary phytoestrogen secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2007, 30, 16-26.]
Validation List no. 115 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium saccharolyticum Murray et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain WM1 = ATCC 35040 = DSM 2544 = NRC 2533.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP002109 (complete genome).
Etymology: Gr. n. sakchâr, sugar; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. saccharolyticum, sugar-dissolving.
Reference: MURRAY (W.D.), KHAN (A.W.) and VAN DEN BERG (L.): Clostridium saccharolyticum sp. nov., a saccharolytic species from sewage sludge. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 132-135.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum Keis et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain N1-4 (HMT) (derived from strain N1-4) = ATCC 27021 (derived from ATCC 13564) = DSM 14923 = NCIMB 12606.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U16122.
Etymology: Gr. n. sakchâr, sugar; Gr. part. per, particle adding force to the word to which it is added; N.L. n. butyl, butyl radical; N.L. adj. acetonicus, acetonic; N.L. neut. adj. saccharoperbutylacetonicum, denoting the production of a large amount of butanol and acetone from sugar.
Reference: KEIS (S.), SHAHEEN (R.) and JONES (D.T.): Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2095-2103.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum Keis et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium sardiniense corrig. Prévot 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 33455 = DSM 2632 = VPI 2971.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB161367.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. sardiniense, pertaining to Sardinia, of Sardinia.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium sardiniensis (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

Clostridium sardiniense corrig. Prévot 1938 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wang et al. 2005.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 33455 = DSM 2632 = VPI 2971.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB161367.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. sardiniense, pertaining to Sardinia, of Sardinia.
Reference: WANG (X.), MAEGAWA (T.), KARASAWA (T.), OZAKI (E.) and NAKAMURA (S.): Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 and Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 are heterotypic synonyms: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of phospholipase C and 16S rRNA sequences, and DNA relatedness. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1193-1197.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Wang et al. 2005, Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wang et al. 2005 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: WANG (X.), MAEGAWA (T.), KARASAWA (T.), OZAKI (E.) and NAKAMURA (S.): Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 and Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 are heterotypic synonyms: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of phospholipase C and 16S rRNA sequences, and DNA relatedness. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1193-1197.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium sartagoforme corrig. Partansky and Henry 1935, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25778 = DSM 1292 = JCM 1413.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18175.
Etymology: L. n. sartago, frying pan; L. neut. suff. -forme, of the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. sartagoforme, intended to mean shaped like a frying pan (in reference to a sporulating cell).
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PARTANSKY (A.M.) and HENRY (B.S.): Anaerobic bacteria capable of fermenting sulfite waste liquor. Journal of Bacteriology, 1935, 30, 559-571.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium sartagoformum (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

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Clostridium scatologenes (Weinberg and Ginsbourg 1927) Prévot 1948, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25775 = CCUG 9283 = DSM 757 = JCM 1414 = NCTC 12992.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ911270.
Synonyms: "Clostridium scatol" Fellers and Clough 1925, "Bacillus scatologenes" Weinberg and Ginsbourg 1927.
Etymology: Gr. n. skatos, dung; Gr. v. gennaô, produce, engender; N.L. part. adj. scatologenes, meaning either an organism that produces a dung-like odor or an organism that produces skatol.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 WEINBERG (M.) and GINSBOURG (B.) (editors): Données récentes sur les microbes anaérobies et leur rôle en pathologie. Masson et Cie, Paris, 1927, pp. 1-291. 2 PRÉVOT (A.R.) (ed.): Manuel de Classification et de Détermination des Bactéries Anaérobies, 2nd ed., Masson, Paris, 1948, pp. 1-290.]

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Clostridium schirmacherense Alam et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AP15 = DSM 17394 = JCM 13289.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM114453.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. schirmacherense, pertaining to Schirmacher Oasis in Antarctica.
Reference: ALAM (S.I.), DIXIT (A.), REDDY (G.S.N.), DUBE (S.), PALIT (M.), SHIVAJI (S.) and SINGH (L.): Clostridium schirmacherense sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, proteolytic, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from lake sediment of Schirmacher Oasis, Antarctica. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 715-720.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium scindens Morris et al. 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Bokkenheuser 19 = ATCC 35704 = CIP 106687 = DSM 5676 = JCM 6567.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF262238.
Etymology: L. part. adj. scindens, splitting, because it produces a desmolase.
Reference: MORRIS (G.N.), WINTER (J.), CATO (E.P.), RITCHIE (A.E.) and BOKKENHEUSER (V.D.): Clostridium scindens sp. nov., a human intestinal bacterium with desmolytic activity on corticoids. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 478-481.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium septicum (Macé 1889) Ford 1927, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 12464 = CCM 5743 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14552 = CCUG 4855 = CIP 61.10 = CN 3790 = DSM 7534 = JCM 8144 = NCCB 47070 = NCIMB 547 = NCTC 547 = NRRL B-3197.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U59278.
Synonyms: "Vibrion septique" Pasteur et Joubert 1877, "Vibrio pasteurii" Trevisan 1879, "Oedembazillus" Koch 1881, "Bacillus septicus" Macé 1889, "Vibrio septicus" (Macé 1889) Rottgardt 1926.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. septicum, putrefactive.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 MACÉ (E.) (ed.): Traité Pratique de Bactériologie, 1st ed., J.-B. Baillière and Sons, Paris I-III, 1889, pp. 1-711. 2 FORD (W.W.) (ed.): Text-book of Bacteriology, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1927, pp. 1-1069.]

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Clostridium sordellii (Hall and Scott 1927) Prévot 1938, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 9714 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10649 = CCUG 9284 = CIP 103658 = DSM 2141 = JCM 3814 = LMG 15708 = NCIMB 10717.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB075771.
Synonyms: "Bacillus oedematis sporogenes" Sordelli 1923, "Bacillus sordelli" (sic) Hall and Scott 1927.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. sordellii, of Sordelli, named after Professor A. Sordelli, an Argentinian bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HALL (I.C.) and SCOTT (J.P.): Bacillus sordellii, a cause of malignant edema in man. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1927, 41, 329-335. 2 PRÉVOT (A.R.): Études de systématique bactérienne. IV. Critique de la conception actuelle du genre Clostridium. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (Paris), 1938, 61, 72-91.]

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Clostridium sphenoides (Douglas et al. 1919) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 19403 = CIP 104283 = DSM 632 = JCM 1415 = LMG 10390 = NCCB 77027 = NCTC 507.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB075772.
Synonyms: "Bacillus sphenoides" Douglas et al. 1919, "Douglasillus sphenoides" Heller 1922, "Plectridium sphenoides" Prévot 1938.
Etymology: Gr. n. sphên sphênos, wedge; L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. sphenoides, wedge-shaped.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 DOUGLAS (S.R.), FLEMING (A.) and COLEBROOK (L.): Studies in wound infections. Medical Research Council (Great Britain) Special Report Series, 1919, 57, 1-159. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

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Clostridium spiroforme Kaneuchi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 29900 = CCUG 46510 = CIP 106966 = DSM 1552 = JCM 1432 = NCTC 11211 = VPI C28-23-1A.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X75908.
Etymology: L. n. spira, a coil; L. neut. suff. -forme, of the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. spiroforme, in the shape of a coil.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [KANEUCHI (C.), MIYAZATO (T.), SHINJO (T.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Taxonomic study of helically coiled, sporeforming anaerobes isolated from the intestines of humans and other animals: Clostridium cocleatum sp. nov. and Costridium spiroforme sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 1-12.]

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Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 3584 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11259 = CCUG 15941 = CIP 106155 = DSM 795 = JCM 1416 = LMG 8421 = NCIMB 10696 = NCTC 13020.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X68189.
Synonyms: "Bacillus sporogenes var. A" Metchnikoff 1908, "Metchnikovillus sporogenes" (sic) Heller 1922, "Clostridium sporogenes" (Heller 1922) Bergey et al. 1923, "Clostridium sporogenes var. A" (Metchnikoff 1908) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: Gr. n. sporos, seed; Gr. v. gennaô, produce, engender; N.L. neut. adj. sporogenes, spore-producing.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 METCHNIKOFF (E.): Études sur la flore intestinale. Annales de l'Institut pasteur (Paris), 1908, 22, 929-955. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923, nom. cons.
References:
1 OLSEN (I.), JOHNSON (J.L.), MOORE (L.V.H.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 414.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: VIIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 240-241 (Original article in IJSEM Online). 3 JUDICIAL OPINION 69: Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 339.
Original article (Judicial Opinion 69) in IJSEM Online

Note: Clostridium sporogenes (Metchnikoff 1908) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980), ¤ Clostridium botulinum (van Ermengem 1896) Bergey et al. 1923 (Approved Lists 1980), and ¤ Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980) are genetically related at the species level and Clostridium putrificum has priority. Olsen et al. 1995, propose rejection of the name Clostridium putrificum on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56a (5) as a nomen periculosum, and conservation of the name Clostridium botulinum (Rule 23a note 4, Rule 56b note 2), and conservation of the name Clostridium sporogenes for the nontoxigenic strains on the basis of the Rules 23a note 4 and 56b note 2.

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Clostridium sporosphaeroides Soriano and Soriano 1948, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25781 = DSM 1294.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X66002.
Etymology: Gr. n. sporos, seed; Gr. n. sphaira, sphere; Gr. suff. -eides (from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. sporosphaeroides, having spherical spores.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SORIANO (S.) and SORIANO (A.): Nueva bacteria anaerobia productora de una alteracion en sordinas envasadas. Revista de la Asocion Argentina de Dietologia, 1948, 6, 36-41.]

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Clostridium stercorarium Madden 1983, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 35414 = DSM 8532 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11754.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ310082.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. stercorarium, pertaining to dung, referring to the source of the isolate, a compost heap.
Reference: MADDEN (R.H.): Isolation and characterization of Clostridium stercorarium sp. nov., cellulolytic thermophile. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 837-840.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Clostridium stercorarium Madden 1983 emend. Fardeau et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain NCIB (now NCIMB) 11754.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ310082.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. stercorarium, pertaining to dung, referring to the source of the isolate, a compost heap.
Reference: FARDEAU (M.L.), OLLIVIER (B.), GARCIA (J.L.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Transfer of Thermobacteroides leptospartum and Clostridium thermolacticum as Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum subsp. nov., comb. nov. and C. stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1127-1131.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum (Toda et al. 1989) Fardeau et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain C-17-70 = ATCC 51338 = DSM 9219 = IAM 13499 = JCM 9762.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF266461.
Basonym: ¤ Thermobacteroides leptospartum Toda et al. 1989.
Etymology: Gr. adj. leptos, thin, delicate, small; L. n. spartum, rope made of broom; N.L. neut. n. leptospartum, a thin rope.
Reference: FARDEAU (M.L.), OLLIVIER (B.), GARCIA (J.L.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Transfer of Thermobacteroides leptospartum and Clostridium thermolacticum as Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum subsp. nov., comb. nov. and C. stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1127-1131.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication makes no reference to the deposit of the type strain in any publicly accessible service collection, but deposits in at least two recognized culture collections in different countries are documented. According to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum (Toda et al. 1989) Fardeau et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online
2 The correct etymology of the subspecific epithet is Gr. adj. leptos, thin, delicate, small [not Gr. n. (sic) leptos]; Gr. n. sparton, rope; L. n. spartum, rope; N.L. neut. n. leptospartum, a thin rope.

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Clostridium stercorarium subsp. stercorarium (Madden 1983) Fardeau et al. 2001, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 35414 = DSM 8532 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 11754.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ310082.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. stercorarium, pertaining to dung, referring to the source of the isolate, a compost heap.
Reference: FARDEAU (M.L.), OLLIVIER (B.), GARCIA (J.L.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Transfer of Thermobacteroides leptospartum and Clostridium thermolacticum as Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum subsp. nov., comb. nov. and C. stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1127-1131.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Madden 1983, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication makes no reference to the deposit of the type strain in any publicly accessible service collection, but deposits in at least two recognized culture collections in different countries are documented. According to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium stercorarium subsp. stercorarium (Madden 1983) Fardeau et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online
3 Clostridium stercorarium subsp. stercorarium is a new subspecies not a new subspecies and a new combination as cited by Fardeau et al. 2001.

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Clostridium stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum (Le Ruyet et al. 1988) Fardeau et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TX 41 = ATCC 43739 = DSM 2910.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X72870.
Basonym: ¤ Clostridium thermolacticum Le Ruyet et al. 1988.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; L. n. lac lactis, milk; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. thermolacticum, pertaining to the high growth temperature and a growth substrate.
Reference: FARDEAU (M.L.), OLLIVIER (B.), GARCIA (J.L.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Transfer of Thermobacteroides leptospartum and Clostridium thermolacticum as Clostridium stercorarium subsp. leptospartum subsp. nov., comb. nov. and C. stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum subsp. nov., comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1127-1131.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication makes no reference to the deposit of the type strain in any publicly accessible service collection, but deposits in at least two recognized culture collections in different countries are documented. According to the Judicial Opinion 81, Clostridium stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum (Le Ruyet et al. 1988) Fardeau et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online 
2 In the paper by Fardeau et al. 2001, the basonym is incorrectly cited as Clostridium thermolacticum Le Ruyet et al. 1985 (sic).

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Clostridium sticklandii Stadtman and McClung 1957, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain StadtmanHF = ATCC 12662 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14485 = CCUG 9281 = DSM 519 = JCM 1433 = NCIMB 10654.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FP565809 (complete genome).
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. sticklandii, of Stickland, named after L.H. Stickland, British biochemist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [STADTMAN (T.C.) and McCLUNG (L.S.): Clostridium sticklandii nov. spec. Journal of Bacteriolgy, 1957, 73, 218-219.]

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Clostridium straminisolvens Kato et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CSK1 = IAM 15070 = DSM 16021 = JCM 21531 = NBRC 103399.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB125279.
Etymology: L. n. stramen, straw, litter; L. v. solvere, to dissolve; N.L. part. adj. straminisolvens, straw-dissolving.
Reference: KATO (S.), HARUTA (S.), CUI (Z.J.), ISHII (M.), YOKOTA (A.) and IGARASHI (Y.): Clostridium straminisolvens sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic, aerotolerant and cellulolytic bacterium isolated from a cellulose-degrading bacterial community. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2043-2047.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium subterminale (Hall and Whitehead 1927) Spray 1948, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25774 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14486 = CCUG 21841 = CDC KA152 = DSM 6970 = JCM 1417 = NCIMB 10746 = VPI 20231.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF241844.
Synonym: "Bacillus subterminalis" Hall and Whitehead 1927.
Etymology: L. pref. sub, under; L. adj. terminalis -is -e, terminal; N.L. neut. adj. subterminale, near the end, subterminal.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HALL (I.C.) and WHITEHEAD (R.W.): A pharmacobacteriologic study of African poisoned arrows. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1927, 41, 51-69. 2 SPRAY (R.S.): Genus II. Clostridium Prazmowski. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and A.P. HITCHENS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1948, pp. 763-827.]

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Clostridium sufflavum Nishiyama et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CDT-1 = DSM 19573 = JCM 14807.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB267266.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. sufflavum, light yellow, referring to the production of a yellow pigment.
Reference: NISHIYAMA (T.), UEKI (A.), KAKU (N.) and UEKI (K.): Clostridium sufflavum sp. nov., isolated from a methanogenic reactor treating cattle waste. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 981-986.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium sulfidigenes Sallam and Steinbüchel 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SGB2 = ATCC BAA-1538 = DSM 18982.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF199998.
Etymology: N.L. n. sulfidum, sulfide; N.L. suff. -genes (from Gr. v. gennaô, to produce), producing; N.L. part. adj. sulfidigenes, sulfide-producing.
Reference: SALLAM (A.) and STEINBÜCHEL (A.): Clostridium sulfidigenes sp. nov., a mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from pond sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1661-1665.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium symbiosum (Stevens 1956) Kaneuchi et al. 1976, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 14940 = DSM 934 = JCM 1297.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59112.
Synonym: "Bacteroides symbiosus" Stevens 1956.
Etymology: Gr. n. symbios, a companion; N.L. neut. adj. symbiosum, living together with, symbiotic (refers to its use as a symbiote for cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica).
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 STEVENS (W.C.): Taxonomic studies on the genus Bacteroides and similar forms. Thesis, Vanderbilt University, 1956. 2 KANEUCHI (C.), WATANABE (K.), TERADA (A.), BENNO (Y.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Taxonomic study of Bacteroides clostridiiformis subsp. clostridiiformis (Burri and Ankersmit) Holdeman and Moore and of related organisms: proposal of Clostridium clostridiiforme (Burri and Andersmit) comb. nov. and Clostridium symbiosum (Stevens) comb. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 195-204.]

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Clostridium tagluense Suetin et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain A121 = DSM 17763 = VKM B-2369.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ296031.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. tagluense, pertaining to Taglu gas-hydrate field in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the source of isolation of the type strain.
Reference: SUETIN (S.V.), SHCHERBAKOVA (V.A.), CHUVILSKAYA (N.A.), RIVKINA (E.M.), SUZINA (N.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.) and GILICHINSKY (D.A.): Clostridium tagluense sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium from permafrost. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1421-1426.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium tepidiprofundi Slobodkina et al. 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SG 508 = DSM 19306 = VKM B-2459.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF197795.
Etymology: L. adj. tepidus, moderately warm; L. n. profundum, the depths of the ocean; N.L. gen. n. tepidiprofundi, of the warm bottom of the ocean.
Reference: SLOBODKINA (G.B.), KOLGANOVA (T.V.), TOUROVA (T.P.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.), JEANTHON (C.), BONCH-OSMOLOVSKAYA (E.A.) and SLOBODKIN (A.I.): Clostridium tepidiprofundi sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 852-855.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium termitidis Hethener et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CT1112 = ATCC 51846 = DSM 5398.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733680.
Etymology: L. n. termes -itis, worm that eats wood; N.L. neut. (!) adj. termitidis (sic), pertaining to the termite.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 41. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 327-328. [HETHENER (P.), BRAUMAN (A.) and GARCIA (J.L.): Clostridium termitidis sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1992, 15, 52-58.]
Validation List no. 41 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium tertium (Henry 1917) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 14573 = DSM 2485 = IAM 14196 = JCM 6289 = NBRC 103192 = NCIMB 10697.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18174.
Synonyms: "Bacillus tertius" Henry 1917, "Henrillus tertius" (Henry 1917) Heller 1922, "Plectridium tertium" (Henry 1917) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. tertium, third [refers to its being the anaerobe third most frequently isolated by Henry (1917) from open war wounds].
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 HENRY (H.): An investigation of the cultural reactions of certain anaerobes found in wounds. Journal of pathology and Bacteriology, 1917, 21, 344-385. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

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Clostridium tetani (Flügge 1886) Bergey et al. 1923, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 19406 = CCUG 4220 = NCTC 279.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X74770.
Synonym: "Bacillus tetani" Flügge 1886.
Etymology: L. n. tetanus (from Gr. n. tetanos), tension, tetanus; N.L. gen. n. tetani, of tetanus.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 FLÜGGE (C.) (ed.): Die Mikroorganismen. F.C.W. Vogel, Leipzig, 1886, pp. 1-692. 2 BERGEY (D.H.), HARRISON (F.C.), BREED (R.S.), HAMMER (B.W.) and HUNTOON (F.M.) (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 1-442.]

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Clostridium tetanomorphum (ex Bulloch et al. 1919) Wilde et al. 1989, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Robertson 259E = ATCC 49273 = DSM 4474 = NCTC 543.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ241819.
Synonym: "Clostridium tetanomorphum" Bulloch et al. 1919.
Etymology: L. gen. n. tetani, a bacterial specific epithet; Gr. n. morphe, shape or form; N.L. neut. adj. tetanomorphum, [Clostridium] tetani shaped.
Reference: WILDE (E.), HIPPE (H.), TOSUNOGLU (N.), SCHALLEHN (G.), HERWIG (K.) and GOTTSCHALK (G.): Clostridium tetanomorphum sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 127-134.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium thermaceticum corrig. Fontaine et al. 1942, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 35608 = DSM 521 = JCM 9319.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY656675.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. neut. adj. aceticum, pertaining to vinegar; N.L. neut. adj. thermaceticum, producing acetic acid thermophilically.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [FONTAINE (F.E.), PETERSON (W.H.), McCOY (E.), JOHNSON (M.J.) and RITTER (G.J.): A new type of glucose fermentation by Clostridium thermoaceticum n. sp. Journal of Bacteriology, 1942, 43, 701-715.]

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium thermoaceticum (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

¤ Moorella thermoacetica (Fontaine et al. 1942) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thermautotrophicum corrig. Wiegel et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW 701/3 = ATCC 33924 = DSM 1974.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09168.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. pron. autos, self; Gr. n. trophos, a feeder; N.L. neut. adj. thermautotrophicum, self-feeding in heat, indicating that the organism grows at elevated temperatures and uses CO2 as its principal carbon source for growth.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 9. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 384-385. [WIEGEL (J.), BRAUN (M.) and GOTTSCHALK (G.): Clostridium thermoautotrophicum species nova, a thermophile producing acetate from molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Curr. Microbiol., 1981, 5, 255-260.]
Validation List no. 9 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium thermoautotrophicum (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

¤ Moorella thermoautotrophica (Wiegel et al. 1982) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum Li et al. 1994, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW/YL23-2 = ATCC 51508 = CIP 105528 = DSM 7309.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L11304 (type strain JW/YL23-2), FR749953 (type strain DSM 7309, clone 1), FR749954 (type strain DSM 7309, clone 2).
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. n. alcali (from the Arabic al the; qaliy, soda ash, alkali; N.L. adj. philus (from Gr. adj. philos), loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermoalcaliphilum, referring to the organism's optimal growth under alkaline growth conditions at elevated temperatures.
Reference: LI (Y.), ENGLE (M.), WEISS (N.), MANDELCO (L.) and WIEGEL (J.): Clostridium thermoalcaliphilum sp. nov., an anaerobic and thermotolerant facultative alkaliphile. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 111-118.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium thermobutyricum Wiegel et al. 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JW171K = ATCC 49875 = DSM 4928.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X72868.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. n. bouturon (Latin transliteration butyrum), butter; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. thermobutyricum, referring to the production of butyrate under thermophilic conditions.
Reference: WIEGEL (J.), KUK (S.U.) and KOHRING (G.W.): Clostridium thermobutyricum sp. nov., a moderate thermophile isolated from a cellulolytic culture, that produces butyrate as the major product. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 199-204.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium thermocellum Viljoen et al. 1926, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27405 = DSM 1237 = JCM 9322 = LMG 10435 = NBRC 103400 = NRRL B-4536.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000568.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. n. cellulosum, cellulose; N.L. neut. adj. thermocellum, a thermophile that digests cellulose.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [VILJOEN (J.A.), FRED (E.B.) and PETERSON (W.H.): The fermentation of cellulose by thermophilic bacteria. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 1926, 16, 1-17.]

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Clostridium thermocopriae Jin et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain JT3-3 = ATCC 51646 = IAM 13577 = JCM 7501.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09167.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; Gr. n. kopria, dunghill; N.L. gen. n. thermocopriae, of heat compost.
Reference: JIN (F.), YAMASATO (K.) and TODA (K.): Clostridium thermocopriae sp. nov., a cellulolytic thermophile from animal feces, compost, soil, and a hot spring in Japan. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 279-281.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae (Jin et al. 1988) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum Klaushofer and Parkkinen 1965, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain E100-69 = ATCC 35045 = DSM 567 = LMG 6659 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 10956.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09161.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. neut. adj. hydrosulfuricum, pertaining to hydrogen sulfide; N.L. neut. adj. thermohydrosulfuricum, indicating that the organism grows at high temperatures and reduces sulfite to H2S.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [KLAUSHOFER (H.) and PARKKINEN (E.): Zur Frage der Bedeutung aerober und anaerober thermophiler Sporgenbildner als Infektionsurasache in Rübenzucker-fabriken. I. Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum eine neue Art eines saccharoseabbauenden, thermophilen, schwefelwasserstoffbilden Clostridiums. Zeitschrift fur Zuckerindustrien Boehmen, 1965, 15, 445-449.]

¤ Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus (Klaushofer and Parkkinen 1965) Lee et al. 1993, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thermolacticum Le Ruyet et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TX 41 = ATCC 43739 = DSM 2910.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X72870.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; L. n. lac lactis, milk; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. thermolacticum, pertaining to the high growth temperature and a growth substrate.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222. [LE RUYET (P.), DUBOURGUIER (H.C.), ALBAGNAC (G.) and PRENSIER (G.): Characterization of Clostridium thermolacticum sp. nov., a hydrolytic thermophilic anaerobe producing high amounts of lactate. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1985, 6, 196-202.]
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online

¤ Clostridium stercorarium subsp. thermolacticum (Le Ruyet et al. 1988) Fardeau et al. 2001.

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Clostridium thermopalmarium Soh et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BVP = ATCC 51427 = DSM 5974.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X72869.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; L. adj. palmarius, of or belonging to palms; L. neut. adj. thermoplamarium, referring to its thermophily and isolation from palm wine.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 37. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 331. [SOH (A.L.), RALAMBOTIANA (H.), OLLIVIER (B.), PRENSIER (G.), TINE (E.) and GARCIA (J.L.): Clostridium thermopalmarium sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic butyrate-producing bacterium isolated from palm wine in Senegal. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1991, 14, 135-139.]
Validation List no. 37 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium thermopapyrolyticum Méndez et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SABAMMRCCC UBA 305.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. n. papuros, papyrus, paper; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loose able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. thermopapyrolyticum, a paper-degrading thermophile.
Reference: MÉNDEZ (B.S.), PETTINARI (M.J.), IVANIER (S.E.), RAMOS (C.A.) and SIÑERIZ (F.): Clostridium thermopapyrolyticum sp. nov., a cellulolytic thermophile. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 281-283.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain is currently not available from a recognized culture collection.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum McClung 1935, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 7956 = CECT 5852 = DSM 571 = HAMBI 2225 = LMG 2811.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR870449, CP002171 (complete genome).
Synonym: "Therminosporus thermosaccharolyticus" (McClung 1935) Prévot 1938.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. n. sakchâr, sugar; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loose able to dissolve; N.L. neut. adj. thermosaccharolyticum, referring to thermophilic and sugar-dissolving.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [McCLUNG (L.S.): Studies on anaerobic bacteria. IV. Taxonomy of cultures of thermophilic species causing "swells" of canned foods. Journal of Bacteriology, 1935, 29, 189-203.]

¤ Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum (McClung 1935) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thermosuccinogenes Drent et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain IC = DSM 5807.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y18180.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. n. acidum succinicum, succinic acid; Gr. v. gennaô, produce, engender; N.L. neut. adj. thermosuccinogenes, succinic acid producing in heat.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 55. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 879-880. [DRENT (W.J.), LAHPOR (G.A.), WIEGANT (W.M.) and GOTTSCHAL (J.C.): Fermentation of inulin by Clostridium thermosuccinogenes sp. nov., a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from various habitats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1991, 57, 455-462.]
Validation List no. 55 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium thermosulfurigenes corrig. Schink and Zeikus 1983, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 4BT = ATCC 33743 = DSM 2229.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L09171.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; L. n. sulfur, sulfur; Gr. v. gennaô, produce, engender; N.L. neut. adj. thermosulfurigenes, releasing sulfur in heat.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 12. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 896-897. [SCHINK (B.) and ZEIKUS (J.G.): Clostridium thermosulfurogenes sp. nov., a new thermophile that produces elemental sulfur from thiosulfate. J. Gen. Microbiol., 1983, 129, 1149-1158.]
Validation List no. 12 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The original spelling, Clostridium thermosulfurogenes (sic), has been corrected by Cato et al. 1986.
Reference: CATO (E.P.), GEORGE (W.L.) and FINEGOLD (S.M.): Genus Clostridium Prazmowski 1880, 23AL. In: P.H.A. SNEATH, N.S. MAIR, M.E. SHARPE and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 2, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1986, pp. 1141-1200.

¤ Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes (Schink and Zeikus 1983) Lee et al. 1993, comb. nov.

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Clostridium thiosulfatireducens Hernández-Eugenio et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Lup 21 = CIP 106908 = DSM 13105.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY024332.
Etymology: N.L. n. thiosulfas -atis, thiosulfate; L. v. reducere, to draw backwards, bring back to a state or condition; N.L. part. adj. thiosulfatireducens, thiosulfate reducing.
Reference: HERNÁNDEZ-EUGENIO (G.), FARDEAU (M.L.), CAYOL (J.L.), PATEL (B.K.C.), THOMAS (P.), MACARIE (H.), GARCIA (J.L.) and OLLIVIER (B.): Clostridium thiosulfatireducens sp. nov., a proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1461-1468.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium tyrobutyricum van Beynum and Pette 1935, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25755 = CCUG 48315 = CIP 105092 = DSM 2637 = JCM 11008 = LMG 1285.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59113.
Etymology: Gr. n. turos, cheese; N.L. n. acidum butyricum, butyric acid; N.L. neut. adj. tyrobutyricum, the butyric acid-producing organism from cheese.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [Van BEYNUM (J.) and PETTE (J.W.): Zuckervergärend und Laktat vergärende Buttersäurebakterien. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1935, 93, 198-212.]

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Clostridium uliginosum Matthies et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CK55 = ATCC BAA-53 = DSM 12992.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ276992.
Etymology: L. n. uligo -inis, moisture of the soil, swamp; L. neut. suff. -osum, suffix meaning full of, prone to; L. neut. adj. uliginosum, swampy.
Reference: MATTHIES (C.), KUHNER (C.H.), ACKER (G.) and DRAKE (H.L.): Clostridium uliginosum sp. nov., a novel acid-tolerant, anaerobic bacterium with connecting filaments. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1119-1125.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium ultunense Schnürer et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BS = ATCC 700254 = DSM 10521.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z69293.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. ultunense, pertaining to Ultuna, the area where the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences is located.
Reference: SCHNÜRER (A.), SCHINK (B.) and SVENSSON (B.H.): Clostridium ultunense sp. nov., a mesophilic bacterium oxidizing acetate in syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 1145-1152.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium villosum Love et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain VSB 3349 = ATCC 33388 = DSM 1645 = NCTC 11220.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF537211.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. villosum, hairy, shaggy, rough (referring to the colonial morphology).
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [LOVE (D.N.), JONES (R.F.) and BAILEY (M.): Clostridium villosum sp. nov. from subcutaneous abscesses in cats. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 241-244.]

¤ Filifactor villosus (Love et al. 1979) Collins et al. 1994, comb. nov.

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Clostridium vincentii Mountfort et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain lac-1 = DSM 10228.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X97432.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. masc. n. vincentii, of Vincent, in honor of Warwick Vincent for his contribution to our understanding of microbial ecosystems in Antarctica.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 62. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 915-916. [MOUNTFORT (D.O.), RAINEY (F.A.), BURGHARDT (J.), KASPAR (H.F.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Clostridium vincentii sp. nov., a new obligately anaerobic, saccharolytic, psychrophilic bacterium isolated from low-salinity pond sediment of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Arch. Microbiol., 1997, 167, 54-60.]
Validation List no. 62 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium viride Buckel et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain T2-7 = ATCC 43977 = DSM 6836.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X81125.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. viride, green, greenish; in reference to the green-colored cells and green FAD-containing enzymes of this organism.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 54. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 619-620. [BUCKEL (W.), JANSSEN (P.H.), SCHUHMANN (A.), EIKMANNS (U.), MESSNER (P.), SLEYTR (U.) and LIESACK (W.): Clostridium viride sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium using 5-aminovalerate as growth substrate previously assigned to Clostridium aminovalericum. Arch. Microbiol., 1994, 162, 387-394.]
Validation List no. 54 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Clostridium xylanolyticum Rogers and Baecker 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 49623 = DSM 6555.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76739.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylanum, xylan; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissole; N.L. neut. adj. xylanolyticum, xylan-dissolving.
Reference: ROGERS (G.M.) and BAECKER (A.A.W.): Clostridium xylanolyticum sp. nov., an anaerobic xylanolytic bacterium from decayed Pinus patula wood chips. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 140-143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Clostridium xylanolyticum Rogers and Baecker 1991 emend. Chamkha et al. 2001.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 49623 = DSM 6555.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X76739.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylanum, xylan; N.L. neut. adj. lyticum (from Gr. neut. adj. lutikon), able to loosen, able to dissole; N.L. neut. adj. xylanolyticum, xylan-dissolving.
Reference: CHAMKHA (M.), GARCIA (J.L.) and LABAT (M.): Metabolism of cinnamic acids by some Clostridiales and emendation of the descriptions of Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium celerecrescens and Clostridium xylanolyticum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2105-2111.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Clostridium xylanovorans Mechichi et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain HESP1 = DSM 12503.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF116920.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylanum, xylan; L. part. adj. vorans, eating, devouring; N.L. part. adj. xylanovorans, xylan-eating bacterium.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 72. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 3-4. [MECHICHI (T.), LABAT (M.), GARCIA (J.L.), THOMAS (P.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Characterization of a new xylanolytic bacterium, Clostridium xylanovorans sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1999, 22, 366-371.]
Validation List no. 72 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format) - Effective publication Online

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