Genus Citrobacter

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 11 (+ 1 rejected name)
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Citrobacter Werkman and Gillen 1932, genus.
Type species: ¤ Citrobacter freundii (Braak 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: L. n. citrus, lemon; N.L. masc. n. bacter, a rod; N.L. masc. n. Citrobacter, intended to mean a citrate-utilizing rod.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [WERKMAN (C.H.) and GILLEN (G.F.): Bacteria producing trimethylene glycol. Journal of Bacteriology, 1932, 23, 167-182.]

Note: According to Brenner and Farmer 1982, Citrobacter Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Levinea Young et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 8. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 266-268. [FARMER III (J.J.): The genus Citrobacter. In: M.P. STARR et al. (editors), The procaryotes, a handbook on habitats, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981, p. 1140-1147.]
Validation List no. 8 in IJSEM Online

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Citrobacter amalonaticus (Young et al. 1971) Brenner and Farmer 1982, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 25405 = CCUG 4860 = CECT 863 = CIP 82.89 = DSM 4593 = JCM 1661 = LMG 7873 = NCTC 10805.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR870441.
Basonym: ¤ Levinea amalonatica Young et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. prefix a, not; N.L. n. malonas -atis, malonate; L. masc. suff. -icus, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. masc. adj. malonaticus, pertaining to malonate; N.L. masc. adj. amalonaticus, not pertaining to malonate (i.e., not able to utilize malonate).
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 8. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 266-268. [FARMER III (J.J.): The genus Citrobacter. In: M.P. STARR et al. (ed.), The procaryotes, a handbook on habitats, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981, p. 1140-1147.]
Validation List no. 8 in IJSEM Online

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Citrobacter braakii Brenner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CDC 80-58 = ATCC 51113 = CCUG 30792 = CIP 104554.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025368.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. braakii, of Braak; named after Hendrik R. Braak, a Dutch microbiologist.
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Citrobacter braakii Brenner et al. 1993 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies 6.

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Citrobacter diversus (Burkey 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CDC 3613-63 = ATCC 27156 = JCM 1659 = LMG 5741.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025372.
Synonyms: "Aerobacter diversum" (sic) Burkey 1928, Citrobacter diversum (sic) (Burkey 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. diversus, different, distinct.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 BURKEY (L.A.): The fermentation of corn-stalks and their constituents. I. Studies on the pectin-fermenting bacteria. Iowa State College Journal of Science, 1928, 3, 57-100. 2 WERKMAN (C.H.) and GILLEN (G.F.): Bacteria producing trimethylene glycol. Journal of Bacteriology, 1932, 23, 167-182.]

Citrobacter diversus nom. dub., nom. rejic.
References:
1 FREDERIKSEN (W.): Correct names of the species Citrobacter koseri, Levinea malonatica, and Citrobacter diversus. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 107-108.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL OPINION 67: Rejection of the name Citrobacter diversus Werkman and Gillen 1932. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 392.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between January 1985 and July 1993. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 177-178.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The name Citrobacter diversus (Burkey 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980) is placed on the list of nomina rejicienda because it was incorrectly used by Ewing and Davis [1] as the name for a new species that cannot be considered identical to the organism described by Werkman and Gillen [2] and thus is a nomen dubium.
References:
1 EWING (W.H.) and DAVIS (B.R.): Biochemical characterization of Citrobacter diversus (Burkey) Werkman and Gillen and designation of the neotype strain. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1972, 22, 12-18.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 WERKMAN (C.H.) and GILLEN (G.F.): Bacteria producing trimethylene glycol. J. Bacteriol., 1932, 23, 167-182.
Original article Online

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Citrobacter farmeri Brenner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51112 = CCUG 30798 = CDC 2991-81 = CIP 104553.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025371.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. farmeri, of Farmer; named after J.J. Farmer III, an American bacteriologist.
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Citrobacter farmeri Brenner et al. 1993 was previously known as Citrobacter amalonaticus biogroup 1 and Citrobacter genomospecies 4.

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Citrobacter freundii (Braak 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8090 = CCUG 418 = CIP 57.32 = DSM 30039 = HAMBI 1695 = IFO (now NBRC) 12681 = JCM 1657 = LMG 3246 = NCAIM B.01468 = NCTC 9750 = NRRL B-2643.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ233408.
Synonyms: "Bacterium freundii" Braak 1928, "Escherichia freundii" (Braak 1928) Yale 1939.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. freundii, of Freund, named after A. Freund, the bacteriologist who first observed that trimethylene glycol was a product of fermentation.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 BRAAK (H.R.): Onderzoekingen over vergisting van glycerine. Thesis. Meinema W.D. Uitgever- Delft, 1928, pp. 1-233. 2 WERKMAN (C.H.) and GILLEN (G.F.): Bacteria producing trimethylene glycol. Journal of Bacteriology, 1932, 23, 167-182.]

Note: "Salmonella ballerup" Kauffmann and Møller 1940 (= "Salmonella hormaechei" Monteverde 1944 = the Ballerup group of bacteria = the Bethesda group of bacteria) is presently classified in Citrobacter freundii (Braak 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932.
Reference: SAKAZAKI (R.): Genus IV. Citrobacter Werkman and Gillen 1932, 173AL. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 458-461.

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Citrobacter gillenii Brenner et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51117 = CCUG 30796 = CDC 4693-86 = CIP 106783 = DSM 13694.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025367.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. gillenii, of Gillen; named after George Francis Gillen, an American microbiologist.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 73. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 423-424. [BRENNER (D.J.), O'HARA (C.M.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), JANDA (J.M.), FALSEN (E.), ALDOVA (E.), AGERON (E.), SCHINDLER (J.), ABBOTT (S.L.) and STEIGERWALT (A.G.): Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11). J. Clin. Microbiol., 1999, 37, 2619-2624.]
Validation List no. 73 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format) - Effective publication Online

Note: Citrobacter gillenii Brenner et al. 2000 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies10.

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Citrobacter koseri Frederiksen 1970, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 27028 = CCUG 4859 = CIP 105014 = CIP 82.87 = DSM 4595 = JCM 1658 = LMG 5519 = NCTC 10786.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HQ992945.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. koseri, of Koser; named after Stewart A. Koser, an American bacteriologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [FREDERIKSEN (W.): Citrobacter koseri (n. sp.), a new species within the genus Citrobacter, with a comment on the taxonomic position of Citrobacter intermedium (Werkman and Gillen). Publication of the Faculty of Sciences University, J.E. Purkyne, Brno, 1970, 47, 89-94.]

Note: According to Brenner et al. 1993, Citrobacter koseri Frederiksen 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier synonym of ¤ Levinea malonatica Young et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Citrobacter murliniae Brenner et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51118 = CCUG 30797 = CDC 2970-59 = CIP 104556 = DSM 13695.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025369.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. murliniae, of Murlin; named after Alma C. McWhorter-Murlin, an American microbiologist.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 73. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 423-424. [BRENNER (D.J.), O'HARA (C.M.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), JANDA (J.M.), FALSEN (E.), ALDOVA (E.), AGERON (E.), SCHINDLER (J.), ABBOTT (S.L.) and STEIGERWALT (A.G.): Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11). J. Clin. Microbiol., 1999, 37, 2619-2624.]
Validation List no. 73 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format) - Effective publication Online

Note: Citrobacter murliniae Brenner et al. 2000 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies11.

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Citrobacter rodentium Schauer et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51116 = CCUG 30795 = CDC 1843-73 = CIP 104675.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025363.
Etymology: L. part. adj. rodens, gnawing; N.L. gen. pl. n. rodentium, of rodents (gnawing animals).
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 56. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 362-363. [SCHAUER (D.B.), ZABEL (B.A.), PEDRAZA (I.F.), O'HARA (C.M.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Genetic and biochemical characterization of Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1995, 33, 2064-2068.]
Validation List no. 56 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: Citrobacter rodentium Schauer et al. 1996 was previously known as Citrobacter sp. biovar 4280 and Citrobacter genomospecies 9.

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Citrobacter sedlakii Brenner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51115 = CCUG 30794 = CDC 4696-86 = CIP 105037.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025364.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. sedlakii, of Sedlak; named after Jiri Sedlák, a Czechoslovakian bacteriologist.
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Citrobacter sedlakii Brenner et al. 1993 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies 8.

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Citrobacter werkmanii Brenner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 51114 = CCUG 30793 = CDC 876-58 = CIP 104555.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF025373.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. werkmanii, of Werkman; named after Chester H. Werkman, an American bacteriologist.
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Citrobacter werkmanii Brenner et al. 1993 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies 7.

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Citrobacter youngae Brenner et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 29935 = CCUG 30791 = CDC 460-61 = CIP 105016.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59291.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. youngae, of Young; named after Viola M. Young, an American bacteriologist.
Reference: BRENNER (D.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FANNING (G.R.), AGERON (E.) and RIDDLE (C.F.): Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 645-658.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Citrobacter youngae Brenner et al. 1993 was previously known as Citrobacter genomospecies 5.

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