Genus Chromatium

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 13
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Chromatium Perty 1852, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Chromatiales Imhoff 2005; Type genus of the family ¤ Chromatiaceae Bavendamm 1924 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Chromatium okenii (Ehrenberg 1838) Perty 1852 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: In part, "Monas" Müller 1786, includes "Rhabdomonas" Cohn 1875, "Rhabdochromatium" Winogradsky 1888.
Recommended three-letter abbreviation: Chr. (see the file ¤ "Three-letter code for abbreviations of generic names").
Etymology: Gr. n. chrôma -atos, color; N.L. neut. n. Chromatium, one which is colored.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PERTY (M.): Zur Kenntnis kleinster Lebensformen. Jent and Reinert, Bern I-VIII, 1852, pp. 1-228.]

Chromatium Perty 1852 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff et al. 1998.
Type species: ¤ Chromatium okenii (Ehrenberg 1838) Perty 1852 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: In part, "Monas" Müller 1786, includes "Rhabdomonas" Cohn 1875, "Rhabdochromatium" Winogradsky 1888.
Recommended three-letter abbreviation: Chr. (see the file ¤ "Three-letter code for abbreviations of generic names").
Etymology: Gr. n. chrôma -atos, color; N.L. neut. n. Chromatium, one which is colored.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.), SÜLING (J.) and PETRI (R.): Phylogenetic relationships among the Chromatiaceae, their taxonomic reclassification and description of the new genera Allochromatium, Halochromatium, Isochromatium, Marichromatium, Thiococcus, Thiohalocapsa and Thermochromatium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1129-1143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chromatium buderi Trüper and Jannasch 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 8111 = ATCC 25588 = DSM 176.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ224430.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. buderi, of Buder; named for J. Buder, a German plant physiologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [TRÜPER (H.G.) and JANNASCH (H.W.): Chromatium buderi nov. spec., eine neue Art der "grossen" Thiorhodaceae. Archiv fur Mikrobiologie, 1968, 61, 363-372.]

¤ Isochromatium buderi (Trüper and Jannasch 1968) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium glycolicum Caumette et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SL 3201 = ATCC 700202 = DSM 11080.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X93472.
Etymology: N.L. n. glycol, glycol; L. suff. -icus -a -um, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. glycolicum, related to the ability to use glycolate as substrate.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 62. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 915-916. [CAUMETTE (P.), IMHOFF (J.F.), SÜLING (J.) and MATHERON (R.): Chromatium glycolicum sp. nov., a moderately halophilic purple sulfur bacterium that uses glycolate as substrate. Arch. Microbiol., 1997, 167, 11-18.]
Validation List no. 62 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Halochromatium glycolicum (Caumette et al. 1997) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium gracile Strzeszewski 1913, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 8611 = DSM 203.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X93473.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. gracile, thin, slender.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [STRZESZEWSKI (B.): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Schwefelflora in der Umgebung von Krakau. Bulletin de l'Académie des Sciences de Cracovie, Série B. 1913, pp. 309-334.]

¤ Marichromatium gracile (Strzeszewski 1913) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium minus Winogradsky 1888, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 1211 = DSM 178.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y12372.
Synonyms: "Bacillus minor" (Winogradsky) Trevisan 1889, "Bacterium minus" Trevisan in de Toni and Trevisan 1889.
Etymology: L. neut. comp. adj. minus, less, smaller.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [WINOGRADSKY (S.) (ed.): Beiträge zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Bacterien. Heft I. Zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Schwefelbacterien. Arthur Felix, Leipzig, 1888, pp. 1-120.]

¤ Thiocystis minor (Winogradsky 1888) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium minutissimum Winogradsky 1888, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain MSU = DSM 1376.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y12369.
Synonyms: "Bacillus minutissimus" (Winogradsky 1888) Trevisan 1889, "Bacterium minutissimum" (Winogradsky 1888) Trevisan in de Toni and Trevisan 1889.
Etymology: L. adj. minutus -a -um, little, small; L. neut. sup. adj. minutissimum, very small, smallest.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [WINOGRADSKY (S.) (ed.): Beiträge zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Bacterien. Heft I. Zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Schwefelbacterien. Arthur Felix, Leipzig, 1888, pp. 1-120.]

Note: Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that there are not sufficient reasons to separate Chromatium minutissimum Winogradsky 1888 (Approved Lists 1980) from Chromatium vinosum (Ehrenberg 1838) Winogradsky 1888 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: PAVÓN (V.) and GAJU (N.): Genomic relationship of five species of the genus Chromatium by analysis of large restriction fragments (macrorestriction analysis) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 586-589.
Original article in IJSB Online

¤ Allochromatium minutissimum (Winogradsky 1888) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium okenii (Ehrenberg 1838) Perty 1852, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DSM 169.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ223234.
Synonyms: "Monas okenii" Ehrenberg 1838, "Rhabdomonas rosea" Cohn 1875, "Spirillum violaceum" Warming 1875, "Bacterium okenii" (Ehrenberg 18388) Trevisan 1879, "Beggiatoa roseopersicina" Zopf 1883, "Rhabdochromatium roseum" (Cohn 1875) Winogradsky 1888, "Rhabdochromatium fusiforme" Winogradsky 1888, "Bacillus okenii" (Ehrenberg 1838) Trevisan 1889, "Mantegazzea winogradskyi" Trevisan 1889, "Mantegazzea rosea" (Cohn 1875) Trevisan 1889, "Pseudomonas okenii" (Ehrenberg 1838) Migula 1895, "Thiospirillum violaceum" (Warming 1875) Migula 1900, "Chromatium densegranulatum" Skuja 1948.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. okenii, of Oken, named for L. Oken, a German naturalist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 EHRENBERG (C.G.): Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. L. Voss, Leipzig, 1838. 2 PERTY (M.): Zur Kenntnis kleinster Lebensformen. Jent and Reinert, Bern I-VIII, 1852, pp. 1-228.]

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Chromatium purpuratum Imhoff and Trüper 1980, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 984 = BN 5500 = DSM 1591.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ224439.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. purpuratum, clad in purple, dressed in purple.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 4. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 601. [IMHOFF (J.F.) and TRÜPER (H.G.): Chromatium purpuratum, sp. nov., a new species of the Chromatiaceae. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. 1 Orig. Reihe C, 1980, 1, 61-69.]
Validation List no. 4 in IJSEM Online

¤ Marichromatium purpuratum (Imhoff and Trüper 1980) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium salexigens Caumette et al. 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SG 3201 = ATCC 49190 = DSM 4395.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X98597.
Etymology: L. n. sal salis, salt; L. part. adj. exigens, demanding; N.L. part. adj. salexigens, salt-demanding.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 28. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 93-94. [CAUMETTE (P.), BAULAIQUE (R.) and MATHERON (R.): Characterization of Chromatium salexigens sp. nov., a halophilic Chromatiaceae isolated from Mediterranean salinas. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1988, 10, 284-292.]
Validation List no. 28 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: On the Validation List no. 28, the page number of the effective publication is erroneously cited as 288-292.

¤ Halochromatium salexigens (Caumette et al. 1989) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium tepidum Madigan 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain MC = ATCC 43061 = DSM 3771.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59150.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. tepidum, moderately warm, lukewarm.
Reference: MADIGAN (M.T.): Chromatium tepidum sp. nov., a thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium of the family Chromatiaceae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 222-227.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Thermochromatium tepidum (Madigan 1986) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium vinosum (Ehrenberg 1838) Winogradsky 1888, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain D = ATCC 17899 = DSM 180 = NBRC 103801.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FM178268.
Synonyms: "Monas vinosa" Ehrenberg 1838, "Bacterium sulfuratum" Warming 1875, "Bacillus vinosus" (Ehrenberg 1838) Trevisan 1889, "Bacterium vinosum" (Ehrenberg 1838) de Toni and Trevisan 1889, "Chromatium sulfuratum" (Warming 1875) Isachenko 1927.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. vinosum, full of wine.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 EHRENBERG (C.G.): Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. L. Voss, Leipzig, 1838. 2 WINOGRADSKY (S.) (ed.): Beiträge zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Bacterien. Heft I. Zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Schwefelbacterien. Arthur Felix, Leipzig, 1888, pp. 1-120.]

Note: Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that there are not sufficient reasons to separate Chromatium vinosum (Ehrenberg 1838) Winogradsky 1888 (Approved Lists 1980) from Chromatium minutissimum Winogradsky 1888 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: PAVÓN (V.) and GAJU (N.): Genomic relationship of five species of the genus Chromatium by analysis of large restriction fragments (macrorestriction analysis) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 586-589.
Original article in IJSB Online

¤ Allochromatium vinosum (Ehrenberg 1838) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium violascens Perty 1852, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 6111 = ATCC 17096 = DSM 198.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ224438.
Synonym: "Chromatium violaceum" Bergey et al. 1923.
Etymology: N.L. part. violascens, becoming violet.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PERTY (M.): Zur Kenntnis kleinster Lebensformen. Jent and Reinert, Bern I-VIII, 1852, pp. 1-228.]

Note: The type strain ATCC 17096 has been deaccessioned.
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (December 20, 2001).

¤ Thiocystis violascens (Perty 1852) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium warmingii (Cohn 1875) Migula 1900, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 6512 = DSM 173 = ATCC 14959.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y12365.
Synonyms: "Monas warmingii" Cohn 1875, "Chromatium cuculliferum" Gicklhorn 1920, "Monas cucullifera" (Gicklhorn 1920) de Rossi 1927.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. warmingii, of Warming; named for E. Warming, a Danish botanist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 COHN (F.): Untersuchungen über Bacterien. II. Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 1875, 1, 141-207. 2 MIGULA (W.): System der Bakterien, Vol. 2. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1900, pp. 1-1068.]

¤ Allochromatium warmingii (Cohn 1875) Imhoff et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Chromatium weissei Perty 1852, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DSM 171.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonyms: "Chromatium weissii" (sic) Perty 1852, "Bacillus weissii" (sic) (Perty 1852) Trevisan 1889, "Bacterium weissii" (sic) (Perty 1852) Trevisan in de Toni and Trevisan 1889, "Chromatium weissii" (sic) (Perty 1852) Bergey et al. 1923, "Chromatium obovatum" Skuja 1948.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. weissei, of Weisse, named for J.F.Weisse, a German zoologist.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PERTY (M.): Zur Kenntnis kleinster Lebensformen. Jent and Reinert, Bern I-VIII, 1852, pp. 1-228.]

Note: The type strain DSM 171 is unavailable.
Reference: ICSB, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF THE PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA: Minutes of the meetings, 10 September 1997, Vienna, Austria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 925-926.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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