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Genus Chlamydia

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 10
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Chlamydia Jones et al. 1945, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Chlamydiales Storz and Page 1971 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the family ¤ Chlamydiaceae Rake 1957 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Chlamydia trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Rake 1957 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: "Miyagawanella " Brumpt 1938, "Rickettsiaformis" Zhdanov and Korenblit 1950, "Prowazekia" Coles 1953, "Bedsonia" Meyer 1953, "Rakeia" Levaditi et al. 1964.
Etymology: Gr. n. chlamus -udos, a cloak, short mantle; N.L. fem. n. Chlamydia, a cloak.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: JONES (H.), RAKE (G.) and STEARNS (B.): Studies on lymphogranuloma venereum. III. The action of the sulfonamides on the agent of lymphogranuloma venereum. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1945, 76, 55-69.

Chlamydia Jones et al. 1945 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Everett et al. 1999.
Type species: ¤ Chlamydia trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Rake 1957 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. chlamus -udos, a cloak, short mantle; N.L. fem. n. Chlamydia, a cloak.
Reference: EVERETT (K.D.E.), BUSH (R.M.) and ANDERSEN (A.A.): Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 415-440.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 In a "Letter to the Editor", several bacteriologists [1] strongly object to the reclassification of the genus Chlamydia proposed by Everett et al. 1999. See also, the reply by Everett and Andersen [2].
References:
1 SCHACHTER (J.), STEPHENS (R.S.), TIMMS (P.), KUO (C.), BAVOIL (P.M.), BIRKELUND (S.), BOMAN (J.), CALDWELL (H.), CAMPBELL (L.A.), CHERNESKY (M.), CHRISTIANSEN (G.), CLARKE (I.N.), GAYDOS (C.), GRAYSTON (J.T.), HACKSTADT (T.), HSIA (R.), KALTENBOEK (B.), LEINONNEN (M.), OJCIUS (D.) [not OCJIUS as cited in the paper published by IJSEM], McCLARTY (G.), ORFILA (J.), PEELING (R.), PUOLAKKAINEN (M.), QUINN (T.C.), RANK (R.G.), RAULSTON (J.), RIDGEWAY (G.L.), SAIKKU (P.), STAMM (W.E.), TAYLOR -ROBINSON (D.), WANG (S.P.) and WYRICK (P.B.): Radical changes to chlamydial taxonomy are not necessary just yet. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 249-249.
Original letter by Schachter in IJSEM Online
2 EVERETT (K.D.E.) and ANDERSEN (A.A.): Radical changes to chlamydial taxonomy are not necessary just yet -reply. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 251-253.
Original reply by Everett and Andersen in IJSEM Online
2 All members of the subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae [1, 2] consider that a single genus, Chlamydia, should be used for species of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila sensu Everett et al. This position is supported by growing evidence [2]. As an example, the percentage of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between two members of the genus Chlamydophila, Chlamydophila felis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, is only 95.1 %, whereas this similarity is 94.9 % between Chlamydophila felis and Chlamydia trachomatis, which were classified in different genera by Everett et al. [2].
References:
1 GREUB (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae. Minutes of the inaugural closed meeting, 21 March 2009, Little Rock, AR, USA. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 2691-2693.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 GREUB (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae. Minutes of the closed meeting, 21 June 2010, Hof bei Salzburg, Austria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 2694-2694.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlamydia avium Sachse et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 10DC88=CSUR P3508=DSM 27005.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KF66255.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: CP006571.1.
Etymology: L. fem. gen. pl. avium, of the birds, because birds are the only known hosts of the strains identified to date.
Source: Veterinary.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 164. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 2017-2025.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Sachse, K., Laroucau, K., Riege, K., Wehner, S., Dilcher, M., Creasy, H.H., Weidmann, M., Myers, G., Vorimore, F., Vicari,N., Magnino,S., Liebler-Tenorio, E., Ruettger, A., Bavoil, P.M., Hufert, F.T., Rosselló-Móra, R. and Marz, M. 2014. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. nov. and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 37, 79-88.
Effective publication Online

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Chlamydia felis Sachse et al. 2015, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) FP Baker=ATCC VR-120=DSM 26967.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: D85701.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: AP006861.1.
Basonym: ¤ Chlamydophila felis Everett et al. 1999.
Etymology: L. gen. n. felis, of the cat, because the domestic cat is the primary host of the strains identified to date.
Source: Veterinary.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 164. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 2017-2025.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Sachse, K., Bavoil, P.M., Kaltenboeck, B., Stephens, R.S., Kuo, C.-C., Rosselló-Móra, R. and Horn, M. 2015. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 38, 99-103.
Effective publication Online

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Chlamydia gallinacea Sachse et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 08-1274/3=CSUR P3509=DSM 27451.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: GQ398026.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: AWUS00000000.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. gallinacea, pertaining to a domestic fowl, because all the strains identified to date have been from domestic poultry.
Source: Veterinary.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 164. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 2017-2025.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Sachse, K., Laroucau, K., Riege, K., Wehner, S., Dilcher, M., Creasy, H.H., Weidmann, M., Myers, G., Vorimore, F., Vicari,N., Magnino,S., Liebler-Tenorio, E., Ruettger, A., Bavoil, P.M., Hufert, F.T., Rosselló-Móra, R. and Marz, M. 2014. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. nov. and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 37, 79-88.
Effective publication Online

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Chlamydia muridarum Everett et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MoPn = ATCC VR-123.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D85718.
Etymology: N.L. pl. gen. n. muridarum, of the Muridae (i.e. the mouse/hamster family).
Valid publication: EVERETT (K.D.E.), BUSH (R.M.) and ANDERSEN (A.A.): Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 415-440.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Everett et al. 1999, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 123 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

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Chlamydia pecorum Fukushi and Hirai 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Bo/E58 = ATCC VR-628.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D88317.
Etymology: L. gen. pl. n. pecorum, of flocks of sheep or herds of cattle.
Valid publication: FUKUSHI (H.) and HIRAI (K.): Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia strains derived from ruminants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 306-308.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Fukushi and Hirai 1992, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 628 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

¤ Chlamydophila pecorum (Fukushi and Hirai 1992) Everett et al. 1999, comb. nov.

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Chlamydia pneumoniae Grayston et al. 1989, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TWAR strain TW-183 = TW-183 (this strain has been made available to investigators by the Washington Research Foundation, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.) = ATCC VR-2282.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AE009440 (complete genome).
Etymology: Gr. n. pneumonia, disease of the lungs, pneumonia (inflammation of the lungs); N.L. gen. n. pneumoniae, of pneumonia.
Valid publication: GRAYSTON (J.T.), KUO (C.C.), CAMPBELL (L.A.) and WANG (S.P.): Chlamydia pneumoniae sp. nov. for Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 88-90.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Grayston et al. 1989) Everett et al. 1999, comb. nov.

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Chlamydia psittaci (Lillie 1930) Page 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 6BC = Psittacosis strain 6 BC = ATCC VR-125.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U68447.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia psittaci" Lillie 1930, "Ehrlichia psittaci" (Lillie 1930) Moshkovski 1945, "Rickettsiaformis psittacosis" Zhdanov and Korenblit 1950, "Chlamydozoon psittaci" (Lillie 1930) Ryzhkov 1950.
Etymology: L. n. psittacus, a parrot; L. gen. n. psittaci, of a parrot.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 LILLIE (R.D.): Psittacosis-rickettsia-like inclusions in man and in experimental animals. Public Health Report, 1930, 45, 773-778. 2 PAGE (L.A.): Proposal for the recognition of two species in the genus Chlamydia Jones, Rake and Stearns 1945. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1968, 18, 51-66.

Note: In the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 125 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

¤ Chlamydophila psittaci (Lillie 1930) Everett et al. 1999, comb. nov.

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Chlamydia suis Everett et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) S45 = ATCC VR-1474.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U73110.
Etymology: L. n. sus suis, a swine, hog, pig, boar, sow; L. gen. n. suis, of a pig.
Valid publication: EVERETT (K.D.E.), BUSH (R.M.) and ANDERSEN (A.A.): Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 415-440.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Everett et al. 1999, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 1474 (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

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Chlamydia trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Rake 1957, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) A/Har-13 (Trachoma type A strain HAR-13) = ATCC VR-571B.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89067.
Synonyms: "Rickettsia trachomae" (sic) Busacca 1935, "Rickettsia trachomatis" (Busacca 1935) Foley and Parrot 1937, "Chlamydozoon trachomatis" (Busacca 1935) Moshkovski 1945.
Etymology: Gr. n. trachusma -atos, a roughness; N.L. n. trachoma -atis, the disease trachoma; N.L. gen. n. trachomatis, of trachoma.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 BUSACCA (A.): Un germe aux caractères de rickettsies (Rickettsia trachomae) dans les tissus trachomateux. Archives d'Ophthalmologie, 1935, 52, 567-572. 2 RAKE (G.): Family II. Chlamydiaceae Fam. Nov. In: R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and N.R. SMITH (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, seventh edition, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1957, pp. 957-968.

Note: In the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC VR 571B (without dash).
Reference: TANG (J.): Personal communication (May 30, 2001).

Chlamydia trachomatis (Busacca 1935) Rake 1957 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Everett et al. 1999.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) A/Har-13 (Trachoma type A strain HAR-13) = ATCC VR-571B.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89067.
Etymology: Gr. n. trachusma -atos, a roughness; N.L. n. trachoma -atis, the disease trachoma; N.L. gen. n. trachomatis, of trachoma.
Reference: EVERETT (K.D.E.), BUSH (R.M.) and ANDERSEN (A.A.): Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 415-440.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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