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Genus Bifidobacterium

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 58
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 10

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Bifidobacteriales Stackebrandt et al. 1997; type genus of the family ¤ Bifidobacteriaceae Stackebrandt et al. 1997).
Type species: ¤ Bifidobacterium bifidum (Tissier 1900) Orla-Jensen 1924 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: "Tissieria" Pribram 1929, "Bifidibacterium" Prévot 1938.
Etymology: L. adj. bifidus, cleft, split, divided; L. neut. n. bacterium, a small rod; N.L. neut. n. Bifidobacterium, a cleft rodlet.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ORLA-JENSEN (S.): Classification des bactéries lactiques. Lait, 1924, 4, 468-474.

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Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme Killer et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LISLUCIII-P2 = CCM 7728 = DSM 22766 = JCM 18048.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ858731.
Etymology: Gr. n. actis -inos, a ray; L. n. colonia, a dwelling group, a colony; L. neut. suff. forme, in shape of; N.L. neut. adj. actinocoloniiforme, shaped like a ray-shaped colony.
Valid publication: KILLER (J.), KOPEČNÝ (J.), MRÁZEK (J.), KOPPOVÁ (I.), HAVLÍK (J.), BENADA (O.) and KOTT (T.): Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., from the bumblebee digestive tract. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1315-1321.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium adolescentis Reuter 1963, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2190 = ATCC 15703= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14606 = CCUG 18363 = CCUG 17359 = CIP 64.59 = DSM 20083 = JCM 1275 = LMG 10502 = NCAIM B.01822 = NCTC 11814.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AP009256.
Etymology: L. n. adolescens -tis, adolescent; L. gen. n. adolescentis, of an adolescent.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: REUTER (G.): Vergleichenden Untersuchung über die Bifidus-Flora im Sauglings und Erwachsenenstuhl. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1963, 191, 486-507.

Note: According to Killer et al. (2013), ¤ Bifidobacterium stercoris Kim et al. 2010 is a later heterotypic synonym of Bifidobacterium adolescentis Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980), which has priority.
Reference: KILLER, J., SEDLÁČEK, I., RADA, V., HAVLÍK, J. and KOPEČNÝ, J. 2013. Reclassification of Bifidobacterium stercoris Kim et al. 2010 as a later heterotypic synonym of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 4350-4353.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium aesculapii Modesto et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MRM 3/1=DSM 26737=JCM 18761.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KC807989.
Etymology: L. gen. masc. n. aesculapii, of Aesculapius, from the snake-like appearance of the bacterium, resembling the serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Roman god Aesculapius.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MODESTO, M., MICHELINI, S., STEFANINI, I., FERRARA, A., TACCONI, S., BIAVATI, B. and MATTARELLI, P. 2014. Bifidobacterium aesculapii sp. nov., from the faeces of the baby common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 2819-2827.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium angulatum Scardovi and Crociani 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2265 = ATCC 27535= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14665 = CCUG 24039 = CCUG 24605 = CIP 104167 = DSM 20098 = JCM 7096 = LMG 11039 = LMG 10503 = NCIMB 702236 (formerly NCFB 2236).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86182.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. angulatum, with corners, angular.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and CROCIANI (F.): Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium dentium and Bifidobacterium angulatum: three new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 6-20.

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Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R101-8 = AS 1.2268 = ATCC 25527= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14668 = CCUG 24606 = CCUG 33907 = CIP 105419 = DSM 20104 = HAMBI 112 = JCM 1190 = KCTC 3125 = LMG 10508 = NCIMB 702242 (formerly NCFB 2242).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86185.
Synonym: "Bifidobacterium longum subsp. animalis biotype a" Mitsuoka 1969.
Etymology: L. neut. gen. n. animalis, of a living being, an animal.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 MITSUOKA (T.): Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Bifidobakterien aus dem Berdauungstrakt von Menschen und Tieren. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1969, 210, 52-64. 2 SCARDOVI (V.) and TROVATELLI (L.D.): Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka) comb. nov. and the "minimum" and "subtile" groups of new bifidobacteria found in sewage. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 21-28.

Note: The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization between the type strains of Bifidobacterium animalis and ¤ Bifidobacterium lactis range from 85.5 to 92.3%. So, Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997.
References:
1 CAI (Y.), MATSUMOTO (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997 is a subjective synonym of Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974. Microbiol. Immunol., 2000, 44, 815-820.
Original article Online
2 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 22 and 23 September 1999, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 259-261.
Original article by Klein 2001 in IJSEM Online

Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974 emend. Masco et al. 2004.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R101-8 = AS 1.2268 = ATCC 25527= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14668 = CCUG 24606 = CCUG 33907 = CIP 105419 = DSM 20104 = HAMBI 112 = JCM 1190 = KCTC 3125 = LMG 10508 = NCIMB 702242 (formerly NCFB 2242).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86185.
Etymology: L. neut. gen. n. animalis, of a living being, an animal.
Reference: MASCO (L.), VENTURA (M.), ZINK (R.), HUYS (G.) and SWINGS (J.): Polyphasic taxonomic analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis reveals relatedness at the subspecies level: reclassification of Bifidobacterium animalis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis subsp. nov. and Bifidobacterium lactis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1137-1143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Masco et al. 2004, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R101-8 = AS 1.2268 = ATCC 25527= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14668 = CCUG 24606 = CCUG 33907 = CIP 105419 = DSM 20104 = HAMBI 112 = JCM 1190 = KCTC 3125 = LMG 10508 = NCIMB 702242 (formerly NCFB 2242).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86185.
Etymology: L. neut. gen. n. animalis, of a living being, an animal.
Valid publication: MASCO (L.), VENTURA (M.), ZINK (R.), HUYS (G.) and SWINGS (J.): Polyphasic taxonomic analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis reveals relatedness at the subspecies level: reclassification of Bifidobacterium animalis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis subsp. nov. and Bifidobacterium lactis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1137-1143.
Original article in IJSEM Online
Note: The original authorship, (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Meile et al. 1997) Masco et al. 2004, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) UR1 = CCUG 37979 = CIP 105265 = DSM 10140 = JCM 10602 = LMG 18314.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP001606 (complete genome).
Basonym: ¤ Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997.
Etymology: L. neut. gen. n. lactis, of milk.
Valid publication: MASCO (L.), VENTURA (M.), ZINK (R.), HUYS (G.) and SWINGS (J.): Polyphasic taxonomic analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis reveals relatedness at the subspecies level: reclassification of Bifidobacterium animalis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis subsp. nov. and Bifidobacterium lactis as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1137-1143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Masco et al. 2004, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis is cited as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis subsp. nov.

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Bifidobacterium aquikefiri Laureys et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LMG 28769=CCUG 67145=R 54638.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: LN849254.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: L. n. aqua, water; N.L. gen. n. kefiri, from kefir; N.L. gen. n. aquikefiri, from water kefir.
Source: Food.
Valid publication: LAUREYS, D., CNOCKAERT, M., DE VUYST, L. and VANDAMME, P. 2016. Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov., isolated from water kefir. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1281-1286.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium asteroides Scardovi and Trovatelli 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2266 = ATCC 25910= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14659 = CCUG 24607 = DSM 20089 = JCM 8230 = LMG 10735.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF187235.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. asteroides (from Gr. adj. asteroeides -es), star-like.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and TROVATELLI (L.D.): New species of bifidobacteria from Apis mellifica L. and Apis indica F. A contribution to the taxonomy and biochemistry of the genus Bifidobacterium. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1969, 123, 64-88.

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Bifidobacterium biavatii Endo et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AFB23-4 = DSM 23969 = JCM 17299.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB559506.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. biavatii, of Biavati, named after Professor Bruno Biavati, in honour of his research on bifidobacteria.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 145. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1017-1019.
Effective publication: ENDO (A.), FUTAGAWA-ENDO (Y.), SCHUMANN (P.), PUKALL (R.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 92-97.
Validation List no. 145 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium bifidum (Tissier 1900) Orla-Jensen 1924, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ti (Tissier) Anaerobe Collection, Institut Pasteur Lille = AS 1.2212 = ATCC 29521= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14615 = CCUG 18364 = CCUG 45217 = CIP 56.7 = DSM 20456 = IFO (now NBRC) 14252 = HAMBI 1380 = JCM 1255 = LMG 11041 = LMG 8810 = NBRC 100015 = NCIMB 702715 (formerly NCFB 2715) = NCTC 13001.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U25952.
Synonyms: "Bacillus bifidus communis" Tissier 1900, "Bacillus bifidus" Tissier 1900, "Bacteroides bifidus" (Tissier 1900), Castellani and Chalmers 1919, "Bacterium bifidum" (Tissier 1900) Lehmann and Neumann 1927, "Tissieria bifida" (Tissier 1900) Pribram 1929, "Nocardia bifida" (Tissier 1900) Vuillemin 1931, "Actinomyces bifidus" (Tissier 1900) Nannizzi 1934, "Actinobacterium bifidum" (Tissier 1900) Puntoni 1937, "Bifidibacterium bifidum" (Tissier 1900) Prévot 1938, "Lactobacillus bifidus type II" Weiss and Rettger 1938, "Lactobacillus parabifidus" Weiss and Rettger 1938, "Cohnistreptothrix bifidus" (Tissier 1900) Negroni and Fischer 1944, "Actinomyces parabifidus" (Weiss and Rettger 1938) Pine and Georg 1965.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. bifidum, cleft, split, divided.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 TISSIER (H.): Recherches sur la flore intestinale normale et pathologique du nourrisson. Thèse, Paris, 1900, pp. 1-253. 2 ORLA-JENSEN (S.): Classification des bactéries lactiques. Lait, 1924, 4, 468-474.

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Bifidobacterium bohemicum Killer et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) JEMLUCVIII-4 = CCM 7729 = DSM 22767 = JCM 18049.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ858736.
Etymology: M.L. neut. adj. bohemicum, from Bohemia, referring to the Czech Republic, where the bacterium was first isolated.
Valid publication: KILLER (J.), KOPEČNÝ (J.), MRÁZEK (J.), KOPPOVÁ (I.), HAVLÍK (J.), BENADA (O.) and KOTT (T.): Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium bohemicum sp. nov., from the bumblebee digestive tract. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1315-1321.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium bombi Killer et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) BluCI/TP = ATCC BAA-1567 = DSM 19703.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU127549.
Etymology: L. n. bombus, a boom, a deep hollow noise, buzzing, also the zoological genus name of the bumblebee; N.L. gen. n. bombi, of Bombus, of a bumblebee.
Valid publication: KILLER (J.), KOPEČNÝ (J.), MRÁZEK (J.), RADA (V.), BENADA (O.), KOPPOVÁ (I.), HAVLÍK (J.) and STRAKA (J.): Bifidobacterium bombi sp. nov., from the bumblebee digestive tract. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2020-2024.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium boum Scardovi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RU917 = AS 1.2272 = ATCC 27917= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14677 = CCUG 24608 = CCUG 44932 = DSM 20432 = JCM 1211 = LMG 10736.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86190.
Etymology: L. n. bos, a cow, an ox, a bull; L. gen. pl. n. boum, of cattle.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.), TROVATELLI (L.D.), BIAVATI (B.) and ZANI (G.): Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum: four new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 291-311.

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Bifidobacterium breve Reuter 1963, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2213 = ATCC 15700= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11846 = CCUG 18365 = CCUG 30511 A = CIP 64.69 = DSM 20213 = HAMBI 558 = JCM 1192 = LMG 11042 = NCAIM B.01820 = NCIMB 702257 (formerly NCFB 2257) = NCTC 11815.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB006658.
Synonym: "Bifidobacterium parvulorum" Reuter 1963.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. breve, short.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: REUTER (G.): Vergleichenden Untersuchung über die Bifidus-Flora im Sauglings und Erwachsenenstuhl. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1963, 191, 486-507.

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Bifidobacterium callitrichos Endo et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AFB22-5 = DSM 23973 = JCM 17296.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB559503.
Etymology: N.L. n. callithrix -trichos, scientific name of a genus of primates; N.L. gen. n. callitrichos, of Callithrix, isolated from Callithrix jacchus.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 145. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1017-1019.
Effective publication: ENDO (A.), FUTAGAWA-ENDO (Y.), SCHUMANN (P.), PUKALL (R.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 92-97.
Validation List no. 145 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium catenulatum Scardovi and Crociani 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2197 = ATCC 27539= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14667 = CCUG 18366 = CIP 104175 = DSM 20103 = HAMBI 560 = JCM 1194 = LMG 11043 = NCIMB 702246 (formerly NCFB 2246).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF432082.
Etymology: L. n. catenula, a small chain; L. neut. suff. -atum, suffix used in adjectives meaning provided with; N.L. neut. adj. catenulatum, having small chains.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and CROCIANI (F.): Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium dentium and Bifidobacterium angulatum: three new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 6-20.

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Bifidobacterium choerinum Scardovi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SU806 = ATCC 27686= CIP 103378 = DSM 20434 = JCM 1212 = LMG 10510.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86186.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. choerinum (from Gr. adj. khoireos), pertaining to a pig.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.), TROVATELLI (L.D.), BIAVATI (B.) and ZANI (G.): Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum: four new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 291-311.

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Bifidobacterium commune Praet et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LMG 28292=DSM 28792.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: LK054489.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: -.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 164. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 2017-2025.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Praet, J., Meeus, I., Cnockaert, M., Aerts, M., Smagghe, G. and Vandamme, P. 2015. Bifidobacterium commune sp. nov. isolated from the bumble bee gut. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 107, 1307-1313.
Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium coryneforme (ex Scardovi and Trovatelli 1969) Biavati et al. 1982, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2279 = ATCC 25911= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14675 = CCUG 34986 = DSM 20216 = JCM 5819 = LMG 18911.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M58733.
Synonym: "Bifidobacterium coryneforme" Scardovi and Trovatelli 1969.
Etymology: Gr. n. coryne, a club; L. neut. suff. -forme, of the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. coryniforme, club-shaped.
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.), SCARDOVI (V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Electrophoretic patterns of proteins in the genus Bifidobacterium and proposal of four new species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 358-373.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium crudilactis Delcenserie et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) FR62/b/3=LMG 23609 = CNCM I-3342.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: AY952449.
Etymology: -.
Source: Food.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 153. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63 (2013), 3131-3134.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: DELCENSERIE, V., GAVINI, F., BEERENS, H., TRESSE, O., FRANSSEN, C. and DAUBE, G. 2013. Description of a new species, Bifidobacterium crudilactis sp. nov., isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 30, 381-389.
Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium cuniculi Scardovi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RA93 = AS 1.2239 = ATCC 27916= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14672 = CCUG 24610 = CIP 103379 = DSM 20435 = JCM 1213 = LMG 10738.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB116298.
Etymology: L. n. cuniculus, rabbit; L. gen. n. cuniculi, of a rabbit.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.), TROVATELLI (L.D.), BIAVATI (B.) and ZANI (G.): Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum: four new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 291-311.

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Bifidobacterium denticolens Crociani et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B3028 = AS 1.2280 = CCUG 35728 = CCUG 36886 = DSM 10105 = JCM 12538 = NCTC 12936.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89331.
Etymology: L. n. dens dentis, tooth; L. v. colere, to dwell; L. part. adj. colens, dwelling; N.L. part. adj. denticolens, tooth-dwelling.
Valid publication: CROCIANI (F.), BIAVATI (B.), ALESSANDRINI (A.), CHIARINI (C.) and SCARDOVI (V.): Bifidobacterium inopinatum sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium denticolens sp. nov., two new species isolated from human dental caries. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 564-571.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: On the basis of HSP60 DNA sequences, Bifidobacterium denticolens Crociani et al. 1996 and ¤ Bifidobacterium inopinatum Crociani et al. 1996 are quite distant from other Bifidobacterium species. This result is in accordance with that of 16S rRNA sequence homology analysis, and led to the view that these two organisms should be removed from the genus Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924 (Approved Lists 1980) and proposed as new genera in the family ¤ Bifidobacteriaceae Stackebrandt et al. 1997.
Reference: JIAN (W.), ZHU (L.) and DONG (X.): New approach to phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1633-1638.

¤ Parascardovia denticolens (Crociani et al. 1996) Jian and Dong 2002, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium dentium Scardovi and Crociani 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2188 = ATCC 27534= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14662 = CCUG 18367 = CIP 104176 = DSM 20436 = HAMBI 556 = JCM 1195 = LMG 10506 = LMG 11045 = NCIMB 702243 (formerly NCFB 2243) = NCTC 11816.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86183.
Etymology: L. masc. n. dens, tooth; L. gen. pl. n. dentium, of teeth.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and CROCIANI (F.): Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium dentium and Bifidobacterium angulatum: three new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 6-20.

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Bifidobacterium eulemuris Michelini et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LMM_E3=DSM 100216=JCM 30801.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KP979748.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. eulemuris, of Eulemur macaco, referring to the primate host of the type strain.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MICHELINI, S., MODESTO, M., PISI, A. M., FILIPPINI, G., SANDRI, C., SPIEZIO, C., BIAVATI, B., SGORBATI, B. and MATTARELLI, P. 2016. Bifidobacterium eulemuris sp. nov., isolated from faeces of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1567-1576.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium faecale Choi et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) KACC 17904=JCM 19861.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KF990498.
Etymology: L. n. faex faecis, dregs, faeces; L. neut. suff. -ale, suffix denoting pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. faecale, pertaining to faeces, faecal.
Source: Human.
Valid publication: CHOI, J.-H., LEE, K. M., LEE, M.-K., CHA, C.-J. and KIM, G.-B. 2014. Bifidobacterium faecale sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 3134-3139.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium gallicum Lauer 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) P6 = AS 1.2274 = ATCC 49850= CCUG 34979 = CIP 103417 = DSM 20093 = JCM 8224 = LMG 11596.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86189.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. gallicum, of or belonging to the Gauls.
Valid publication: LAUER (E.): Bifidobacterium gallicum sp. nov. isolated from human feces. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 100-102.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium gallinarum Watabe et al. 1983, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ch206-5 = AS 1.2283 = ATCC 33777= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14679 = CCUG 34990 = DSM 20670 = JCM 6291 = LMG 11586.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86191.
Etymology: L. n. gallina, a hen; L. gen. pl. n. gallinarum, of hens.
Valid publication: WATABE (J.), BENNO (Y.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Bifidobacterium gallinarum sp. nov.: a new species isolated from the ceca of chickens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 127-132.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium globosum (ex Scardovi et al. 1969) Biavati et al. 1982, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RU 224 = AS 1.2203 = ATCC 25865= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14663 = CCUG 34978 = CCUG 39904 = DSM 20092 = HAMBI 563 = HAMBI 1376 = JCM 5820 = LMG 11569.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86194.
Synonym: "Bifidobacterium globosum" Scardovi et al. 1969.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. globosum, round as a ball, spherical, globular.
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.), SCARDOVI (V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Electrophoretic patterns of proteins in the genus Bifidobacterium and proposal of four new species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 358-373.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Yaeshima et al. 1992, Bifidobacterium globosum (ex Scardovi et al. 1969) Biavati et al. 1982 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium pseudolongum.
Reference: YAESHIMA (T.), FUJISAWA (T.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Bifidobacterium globosum, subjective synonym of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and description of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1992, 15, 380-385.
Effective publication Online

¤ Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum (Biavati et al. 1982) Yaeshima et al. 1992, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium hapali Michelini et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MRM_8.14=DSM 100202=JCM 30799.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KP718961.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. hapali of/from Hapale, the original genus name of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, from which the first strains were isolated.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MICHELINI, S., OKI, K., YANOKURA, E., SHIMAKAWA, Y., MODESTO, M., MATTARELLI, P., BIAVATI, B. and WATANABE, K. 2016. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 255-265.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium indicum Scardovi and Trovatelli 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2275 = ATCC 25912= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14674 = CCUG 34985 = DSM 20214 = JCM 1302 = LMG 11587.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86188.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. indicum, of India, Indian, named after the specific epithet of Apis indica F.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and TROVATELLI (L.D.): New species of bifidobacteria from Apis mellifica L. and Apis indica F. A contribution to the taxonomy and biochemistry of the genus Bifidobacterium. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1969, 123, 64-88.

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Bifidobacterium infantis Reuter 1963, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.1853 = AS 1.2202 = ATCC 15697= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14602 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 15416 = CCUG 30512 B = CIP 64.67 = DSM 20088 = HAMBI 555 = HAMBI 574 = HAMBI 1374 = JCM 1222 = LMG 8811 = NCAIM B.01821 = NCIMB 702205 (formerly NCFB 2205) = NCTC 11817.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AP010889 (complete genome).
Synonyms: "Bifidobacterium liberorum" Reuter 1963, "Bifidobacterium lactentis" Reuter 1963.
Etymology: L. gen. n. infantis, of an infant.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: REUTER (G.): Vergleichenden Untersuchung über die Bifidus-Flora im Sauglings und Erwachsenenstuhl. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1963, 191, 486-507.

¤ Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980).

Notes:
1 According to Sakata et al. 2002, Bifidobacterium infantis Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980). This latter species can be divided into three biovars, namely the Infantis biovar, the Longum biovar and the Suis biovar, by molecular methods.
Reference: SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [1] disagreed with the paper of Sakata et al. 2002 [2] and the unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and ¤ Bifidobacterium suis as ¤ Bifidobacterium longum and the establishment of only biotypes of the latter. According to the "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [3], three new subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum should be proposed. In 2008, Mattarelli et al. [4] proposed a new reclassification of the three biovars Longum, Infantis and Suis as three subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov.
References:
1 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 1 and 2 April 2005, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2501-2503.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms: Minutes of the meetings, 30 August and 1 September 2006, Bologna, Italy. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57,1367-1369.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (Reuter 1963) Mattarelli et al. 2008, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium inopinatum Crociani et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B3109 = AS1.2187 = CCUG 35729 = DSM 10107 = JCM 12537 = NCTC 12937.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89332.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. inopinatum, unexpected, referring to the very unusual morphology.
Valid publication: CROCIANI (F.), BIAVATI (B.), ALESSANDRINI (A.), CHIARINI (C.) and SCARDOVI (V.): Bifidobacterium inopinatum sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium denticolens sp. nov., two new species isolated from human dental caries. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 564-571.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: On the basis of HSP60 DNA sequences, Bifidobacterium inopinatum Crociani et al. 1996 and ¤ Bifidobacterium denticolens Crociani et al. 1996 are quite distant from other Bifidobacterium species. This result is in accordance with that of 16S rRNA sequence homology analysis, and led to the view that these two organisms should be removed from the genus Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924 (Approved Lists 1980) and proposed as new genera in the family ¤ Bifidobacteriaceae Stackebrandt et al. 1997.
Reference: JIAN (W.), ZHU (L.) and DONG (X.): New approach to phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1633-1638.

¤ Scardovia inopinata (Crociani et al. 1996) Jian and Dong 2002, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense Morita et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) HM2-2 = DSM 21854 = JCM 15439.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB425276.2.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. kashiwanohense, of or pertaining to Kashiwanoha in Japan, which is the name of the area, University of Tokyo, where this bacterium was originally isolated.
Valid publication: MORITA (H.), NAKANO (A.), ONODA (H.), TOH (H.), OSHIMA (K.), TAKAMI (H.), MURAKAMI (M.), FUKUDA (S.), TAKIZAWA (T.), KUWAHARA (T.), OHNO (H.), TANABE (S.) and HATTORI (M.): Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense sp. nov., isolated from healthy infant faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2610-2615.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) UR1 = CCUG 37979 = CIP 105265 = DSM 10140 = JCM 10602 = LMG 18314.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP001606 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. neut. gen. n. lactis, of milk.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 62. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 915-916.
Effective publication: MEILE (L.), LUDWIG (W.), RUEGER (U.), GUT (C.), KAUFMANN (P.), DASEN (G.), WENGER (S.) and TEUBER (M.): Bifidobacterium lactis sp. nov., a moderately oxygen tolerant species isolated from fermented milk. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1997, 20, 57-64.
Validation List no. 62 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization between the type strains of Bifidobacterium lactis and ¤ Bifidobacterium animalis range from 85.5 to 92.3%. So, Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974 (Approved Lists 1980).
References:
1 CAI (Y.), MATSUMOTO (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Bifidobacterium lactis Meile et al. 1997 is a subjective synonym of Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka 1969) Scardovi and Trovatelli 1974. Microbiol. Immunol., 2000, 44, 815-820.
Original article Online
2 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 22 and 23 September 1999, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 259-261.
Original article by Klein 2001 in IJSEM Online

---> ¤ Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Meile et al. 1997) Masco et al. 2004, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium lemurum Modesto et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LMC 13=DSM 28807=JCM 30168.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KJ658281.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. pl. n. lemurum, of/from lemurs, and the genus name of the true ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, referring to the primate host of the type strain.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MODESTO, M., MICHELINI, S., STEFANINI, I., SANDRI, C., SPIEZIO, C., PISI, A., FILIPPINI, G., BIAVATI, B. and MATTARELLI, P. 2015. Bifidobacterium lemurum sp. nov., from faeces of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 1726-1734.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2186 = ATCC 15707= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11847 = CCUG 28903 = CIP 64.62 = DSM 20219 = HAMBI 554 = JCM 1217 = KCTC 3128 = LMG 10497 = LMG 13197 = NCAIM B.01819 = NCIMB 702259 (formerly NCFB 2259) = NCTC 11818.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AP010888 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. neut. adj. longum, long.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: REUTER (G.): Vergleichenden Untersuchung über die Bifidus-Flora im Sauglings und Erwachsenenstuhl. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1963, 191, 486-507.

Notes:
1 According to Sakata et al. 2002, Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium infantis Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) and an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium suis Matteuzzi et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980). Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) can be divided into three biovars, namely the Infantis biovar, the Longum biovar and the Suis biovar, by molecular methods.
Reference: SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [1] disagreed with the paper of Sakata et al. 2002 [2] and the unification of ¤ Bifidobacterium infantis and ¤ Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum and the establishment of only biotypes of the latter. According to the "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [3], three new subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum should be proposed. In 2008, Mattarelli et al. [4] proposed a new reclassification of the three biovars Longum, Infantis and Suis as three subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov.
References:
1 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 1 and 2 April 2005, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2501-2503.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms: Minutes of the meetings, 30 August and 1 September 2006, Bologna, Italy. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57,1367-1369.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (Reuter 1963) Mattarelli et al. 2008, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) S12 = AS 1.1853 = AS 1.2202 = ATCC 15697= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14602 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 15416 = CCUG 30512 B = CIP 64.67 = DSM 20088 = HAMBI 555 = HAMBI 574 = HAMBI 1374 = JCM 1222 = LMG 8811 = NCAIM B.01821 = NCIMB 702205 (formerly NCFB 2205) = NCTC 11817.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AP010889 (complete genome).
Basonym: ¤ Bifidobacterium infantis Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980).
Other synonyms: "Bifidobacterium liberorum" Reuter 1963, "Bifidobacterium lactentis" Reuter 1963.
Etymology: L. gen. n. infantis, of an infant.
Valid publication: MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum (Reuter 1963) Mattarelli et al. 2008, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) E194b (variant a) = AS 1.2186 = ATCC 15707= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11847 = CCUG 28903 = CIP 64.62 = DSM 20219 = HAMBI 554 = JCM 1217 = KCTC 3128 = LMG 10497 = LMG 13197 = NCAIM B.01819 = NCIMB 702259 (formerly NCFB 2259) = NCTC 11818.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AP010888 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. neut. adj. longum, long.
Valid publication: MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original authorship, Reuter 1963, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suillum Yanokura et al. 2015, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Su 851=DSM 28597=JCM 19995.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: AB924532.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: -.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 166. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 3763-3767.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Yanokura, E., Oki, K., Makino, H., Modesto, M., Pot, B., Mattarelli, P., Biavati, B. and Watanabe, K. 2015. Subspeciation of Bifidobacterium longum by multilocus approaches and amplified fragment length polymorphism: description of B. longum subsp. suillum subsp. nov., isolated from the faeces of piglets. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 38, 305-314.
Effective publication online

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Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis (Matteuzzi et al. 1971) Mattarelli et al. 2008, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Su859 = ATCC 27533= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14671 = CIP 103377 = CCUG 35234 = DSM 20211 = HAMBI 1381 = JCM 1269 = LMG 11598.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB116353.
Basonym: ¤ Bifidobacterium suis Matteuzzi et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: L. gen. n. suis, of a hog.
Valid publication: MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium magnum Scardovi and Zani 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2189 = ATCC 27540= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14676 = CCUG 34987 = DSM 20222 = HAMBI 569 = JCM 1218 = LMG 11591.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M58740.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. magnum, large, great.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.) and ZANI (G.): Bifidobacterium magnum sp. nov., a large, acidophilic bifidobacterium isolated from rabbit feces. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 29-34.

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Bifidobacterium merycicum Biavati and Mattarelli 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ru915B = AS 1.2273 = ATCC 49391= CCUG 34976 = DSM 6492 = JCM 8219 = LMG 11341.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86192.
Etymology: ? The etymology, provided by Biavati and Mattarelli 1991 is the following: "Gr. n. meryx (implied by verb merykazo) rumen; N.L. adj. merycicum, pertaining to the rumen".
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.) and MATTARELLI (P.): Bifidobacterium ruminantium sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium merycicum sp. nov. from the rumens of cattle. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 163-168.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium minimum Biavati et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2233 = ATCC 27538= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14666 = CCUG 34982 = DSM 20102 = JCM 5821 = LMG 11592.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M58741.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. sup. minimum, least, smallest, very small.
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.), SCARDOVI (V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Electrophoretic patterns of proteins in the genus Bifidobacterium and proposal of four new species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 358-373.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium mongoliense Watanabe et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) YIT 10443 = DSM 21395 = JCM 15461.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB433856.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. mongoliense, pertaining to Mongolia, from where the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: WATANABE (K.), MAKINO (H.), SASAMOTO (M.), KUDO (Y.), FUJIMOTO (J.) and DEMBEREL (S.): Bifidobacterium mongoliense sp. nov., from airag, a traditional fermented mare's milk product from Mongolia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1535-1540.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium moukalabense Tsuchida et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) GG01=JCM 18751=DSM 27321.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: AB821293.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: N/A.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. moukalabense, pertaining to Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon, from where the type strain was isolated.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: TSUCHIDA, S., TAKAHASHI, S., MBEHANG NGUEMA, P. P., FUJITA, S., KITAHARA, M., YAMAGIWA, J., NGOMANDA, A., OHKUMA, M. and USHIDA, K. 2014. Bifidobacterium moukalabense sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of wild west lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 449-455.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium myosotis Michelini et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MRM_5.9=DSM 100196=JCM 30796.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KP718941.
Etymology: Gr. masc. n. mys, myos, mouse; Gr. neut. n. ous, otos, ear; N.L. n. myosotis, a mouse ear, referring to the cell shape in live observations.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MICHELINI, S., OKI, K., YANOKURA, E., SHIMAKAWA, Y., MODESTO, M., MATTARELLI, P., BIAVATI, B. and WATANABE, K. 2016. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 255-265.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Scardovi et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B1279 = AS 1.2277 = ATCC 27919= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 15476 = CCUG 34989 = CIP 104168 = DSM 20438 = HAMBI 562 = JCM 1200 = LMG 10505.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86187.
Etymology: Gr. adj. pseudês, false; N.L. neut. adj. catenulatum, a specific epithet; N.L. neut. adj. pseudocatenulatum, the false (Bifidobacterium) catenulatum.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCARDOVI (V.), TROVATELLI (L.D.), BIAVATI (B.) and ZANI (G.): Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium boum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum: four new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 291-311.

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Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Mitsuoka 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) PNC-2-9G = AS 1.2185 = ATCC 25526= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14673 = CCUG 34981 = CIP 105352 = DSM 20099 = HAMBI 113 = JCM 1205 = LMG 11571.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86195.
Etymology: Gr. adj. pseudês, false; L. neut. adj. longum, a specific epithet; N.L. neut. adj. pseudolongum, false (Bifidobacterium) longum.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: MITSUOKA (T.): Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Bifidobakterien aus dem Berdauungstrakt von Menschen und Tieren. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1969, 210, 52-64.

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum (Biavati et al. 1982) Yaeshima et al. 1992, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RU 224 = AS 1.2203 = ATCC 25865= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14663 = CCUG 34978 = CCUG 39904 = DSM 20092 = HAMBI 563 = HAMBI 1376 = JCM 5820 = LMG 11569.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86194.
Basonym: ¤ Bifidobacterium globosum (ex Scardovi et al. 1969) Biavati et al. 1982.
Other synonym: "Bifidobacterium globosum" Scardovi et al. 1969.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. globosum, round as a ball, spherical, globular.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 43. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 656-657.
Effective publication: YAESHIMA (T.), FUJISAWA (T.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Bifidobacterium globosum, subjective synonym of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and description of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1992, 15, 380-385.
Validation List no. 43 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum (Mitsuoka 1969) Yaeshima et al. 1992, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) PNC-2-9G = AS 1.2185 = ATCC 25526= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14673 = CCUG 34981 = CIP 105352 = DSM 20099 = HAMBI 113 = JCM 1205 = LMG 11571.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86195.
Etymology: Gr. adj. pseudês, false; L. neut. adj. longum, a specific epithet; N.L. neut. adj. pseudolongum, false (Bifidobacterium) longum.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 43. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 656-657.
Effective publication: YAESHIMA (T.), FUJISAWA (T.) and MITSUOKA (T.): Bifidobacterium globosum, subjective synonym of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and description of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum comb. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1992, 15, 380-385.
Validation List no. 43 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Preobrazhenskaya et al. 1975, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum (Mitsuoka 1969) Yaeshima et al. 1992 is automatically created by the valid publication of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum (Biavati et al. 1982) Yaeshima et al. 1992 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum Simpson et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) T16 = JCM 15958 = LMG 21775 = NCIMB 13940.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY174108.
Etymology: Gr. n. psuchros, cold; Gr. n. aer aeros, air; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. psychraerophilum, cold- and air-loving.
Valid publication: SIMPSON (P.J.), ROSS (R.P.), FITZGERALD (G.F.) and STANTON (C.): Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum sp. nov. and Aeriscardovia aeriphila gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a porcine caecum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 401-406.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum Simpson et al. 2004 was previously termed "Bifidobacterium psychroaerophilum" Simpson et al. 2003.

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Bifidobacterium pullorum Trovatelli et al. 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2240 = ATCC 27685= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14678 = CCUG 35235 = CIP 107006 = DSM 20433 = JCM 1214 = LMG 11572.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86196.
Etymology: L. n. pullus, a chicken; L. gen. pl. n. pullorum, of chickens.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: TROVATELLI (L.D.), CROCIANI (F.), PEDINOTTI (M.) and SCARDOVI (V.): Bifidobacterium pullorum sp. nov.: a new species isolated from chicken feces and a related group of bifidobacteria isolated from rabbit feces. Archives of Microbiology, 1974, 98, 187-198.

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Bifidobacterium reuteri Endo et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AFB22-1 = DSM 23975 = JCM 17295.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB613259.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. reuteri, of Reuter, named after Professor Gerhard Reuter, in honour of his research on intestinal microbiota.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 145. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1017-1019.
Effective publication: ENDO (A.), FUTAGAWA-ENDO (Y.), SCHUMANN (P.), PUKALL (R.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 92-97.
Validation List no. 145 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium ruminantium Biavati and Mattarelli 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ru687 = AS 1.2241 = ATCC 49390= CCUG 34975 = DSM 6489 = JCM 8222 = LMG 12588.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D86197.
Etymology: L. part. adj. ruminans -antis, ruminating; N.L. gen. pl. n. ruminantium, of ruminants.
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.) and MATTARELLI (P.): Bifidobacterium ruminantium sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium merycicum sp. nov. from the rumens of cattle. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 163-168.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium saeculare Biavati et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RA161 = AS 1.2278 = ATCC 49392= CCUG 34977 = DSM 6531 = JCM 8223 = LMG 14934.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89328.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. saeculare, of or belonging to a saeculum, commemorating the ninth centenary of the foundation of Bologna University.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 40. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 191-192.
Effective publication: BIAVATI (B.), MATTARELLI (P.) and CROCIANI (F.): Bifidobacterium saeculare: a new species isolated from feces of rabbit. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1991, 14, 389-392.
Validation List no. 40 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The species Bifidobacterium saeculare (effective publication: Biavati et al. 1992, type strain: RA161 = ATCC 49392 appears also on the Validation List no. 41 [1]. The date of valid publication of this name is in fact that of the first citation in a Validation List (List no. 40, published 8 January 1992) [2].
References:
1 Validation List no. 41. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 327-329.
Validation List no. 41 in IJSEM Online
2 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and KUDO (T.): Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1933-1938.
Original article by Euzéby and Kudo in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium saguini Endo et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AFB23-1 = DSM 23967 = JCM 17297.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB559504.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. saguini, of Saguinus, isolated from Saguinus midas.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 145. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1017-1019.
Effective publication: ENDO (A.), FUTAGAWA-ENDO (Y.), SCHUMANN (P.), PUKALL (R.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 92-97.
Validation List no. 145 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium scardovii Hoyles et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CCUG 13008 A = DSM 13734 = JCM 12489.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ307005.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. scardovii, of Scardovi, named after Vittorio Scardovi, in recognition of his contribution to our knowledge of the bifidobacteria.
Valid publication: HOYLES (L.), INGANÄS (E.), FALSEN (E.), DRANCOURT (M.), WEISS (N.), McCARTNEY (A.L.) and COLLINS (M.D.): Bifidobacterium scardovii sp. nov., from human sources. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 995-999.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Hoyles et al. 2002, the type strain CCUG 13008 A is erroneously cited as CCUG 13008.
Reference: FALSEN (E.): Personal communication (May 05, 2003).

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Bifidobacterium stellenboschense Endo et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AFB23-3 = DSM 23968 = JCM 17298.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB559505.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. stellenboschense, of or belonging to Stellenbosch, a town in South Africa where the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 145. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1017-1019.
Effective publication: ENDO (A.), FUTAGAWA-ENDO (Y.), SCHUMANN (P.), PUKALL (R.) and DICKS (L.M.T.): Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 92-97.
Validation List no. 145 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Bifidobacterium stercoris Kim et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Eg1 = JCM 15918 = KCTC 5756.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ611793.
Etymology: L. n. stercus -oris, dung, excrement, ordure; L. gen. n. stercoris, of dung, excrement, ordure.
Valid publication: KIM (M.S.), ROH (S.W.) and BAE (J.W.): Bifidobacterium stercoris sp. nov., isolated from human faeces. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 2823-2827.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Killer et al. (2013), Bifidobacterium stercoris Kim et al. 2010 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium adolescentis Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980), which has priority.
Reference: KILLER, J., SEDLÁČEK, I., RADA, V., HAVLÍK, J. and KOPEČNÝ, J. 2013. Reclassification of Bifidobacterium stercoris Kim et al. 2010 as a later heterotypic synonym of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 4350-4353.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium subtile Biavati et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2267 = ATCC 27537= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14660 = CCUG 34980 = DSM 20096 = JCM 5822 = LMG 11597.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D89378.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. subtile, slender.
Valid publication: BIAVATI (B.), SCARDOVI (V.) and MOORE (W.E.C.): Electrophoretic patterns of proteins in the genus Bifidobacterium and proposal of four new species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 358-373.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium suis Matteuzzi et al. 1971, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27533= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14671 = CIP 103377 = CCUG 35234 = DSM 20211 = HAMBI 1381 = JCM 1269 = LMG 11598.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB116353.
Etymology: L. gen. n. suis, of a hog.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: MATTEUZZI (D.), CROCIANI (F.), ZANI (G.) and TROVATELLI (L.D.): Bifidobacterium suis n. sp.: a new species of the genus Bifidobacterium isolated from pig feces. Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, 1971, 11, 387-395.

¤ Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980).

Notes:
1 According to Sakata et al. 2002, Bifidobacterium suis Matteuzzi et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Bifidobacterium longum Reuter 1963 (Approved Lists 1980). This latter species can be divided into three biovars, namely the Suis biovar, the Infantis biovar and the Longum biovar by molecular methods.
Reference: SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [1] disagreed with the paper of Sakata et al. 2002 [2] and the unification of ¤ Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as ¤ Bifidobacterium longum and the establishment of only biotypes of the latter. According to the "subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms" [3], three new subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum should be proposed. In 2008, Mattarelli et al. [4] proposed a new reclassification of the three biovars Longum, Infantis and Suis as three subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and ¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov.
References:
1 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 1 and 2 April 2005, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2501-2503.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 SAKATA (S.), KITAHARA (M.), SAKAMOTO (M.), HAYASHI (H.), FUKUYAMA (M.) and BENNO (Y.): Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1945-1951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 KLEIN (G.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms: Minutes of the meetings, 30 August and 1 September 2006, Bologna, Italy. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57,1367-1369.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 MATTARELLI (P.), BONAPARTE (C.), POT (B.) and BIAVATI (B.): Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 767-772.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis (Matteuzzi et al. 1971) Mattarelli et al. 2008, comb. nov.

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Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum Dong et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 36 = AS 1.2282 = JCM 11165 = LMG 21395.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB016246.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. n. acidum (from L. adj. acidus, sour), an acid; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on) friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermacidophilum, heat/acid-loving.
Valid publication: DONG (X.), XIN (Y.), JIAN (W.), LIU (X.) and LING (D.): Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum sp. nov., isolated from an anaerobic digester. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 119-125.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum Dong et al. 2000 emend. Zhu et al. 2003.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 36 = AS 1.2282 = JCM 11165 = LMG 21395.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB016246.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. n. acidum (from L. adj. acidus, sour), an acid; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on) friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermacidophilum, heat/acid-loving.
Reference: ZHU (L.), LI (W.) and DONG (X.): Species identification of genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences and proposal of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1619-1623.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum Zhu et al. 2003, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) P3-14 = AS 1.3009 = JCM 16945 = LMG 21689.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY148470.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. porcinum, of a hog.
Valid publication: ZHU (L.), LI (W.) and DONG (X.): Species identification of genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences and proposal of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1619-1623.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. thermacidophilum (Dong et al. 2000) Zhu et al. 2003, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 36 = AS 1.2282 = JCM 11165 = LMG 21395.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB016246.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. n. acidum (from L. adj. acidus, sour), an acid; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on) friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermacidophilum, heat/acid-loving.
Valid publication: ZHU (L.), LI (W.) and DONG (X.): Species identification of genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences and proposal of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1619-1623.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The original authorship, Dong et al. 2000, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium thermophilum corrig. Mitsuoka 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AS 1.2235 = ATCC 25525= BCRC (formerly CCRC) 14669 = CCUG 34983 = CIP 105420 = DSM 20210 = HAMBI 111 = JCM 1207 = LMG 11573.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: U10151.
Synonym: "Bifidobacterium ruminale" Scardovi et al. 1969.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermophilum, heat-loving.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: MITSUOKA (T.): Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Bifidobakterien aus dem Berdauungstrakt von Menschen und Tieren. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1969, 210, 52-64.

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, thermophilium (sic), has been corrected by Hill et al. 1984 [1]. This corrigendum has been omitted from the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Amended Edition) [2].
References:
1 HILL (L.R.), SKERMAN (V.B.D.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Corrigenda to the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names edited for the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 508-511.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 EUZÉBY (J.P.): Corrigenda to the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and to the amended edition of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 1271-1272.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium tissieri Michelini et al. 2016, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MRM_5.18=DSM 100201=JCM 30798.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KP718951.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. tissieri, of Tissier, named after Henry Tissier, a French paediatrician at the Pasteur Institute (Paris), who first isolated a bacterium characterized by a Y-shaped morphology, ‘bifid’, from the intestinal flora of breast-fed infants; he named the bacterium ‘bifidus’.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: MICHELINI, S., OKI, K., YANOKURA, E., SHIMAKAWA, Y., MODESTO, M., MATTARELLI, P., BIAVATI, B. and WATANABE, K. 2016. Bifidobacterium myosotis sp. nov., Bifidobacterium tissieri sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium hapali sp. nov., isolated from faeces of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 255-265.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Bifidobacterium tsurumiense Okamoto et al. 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) OMB115 = DSM 17777 = JCM 13495.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB241106.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. tsurumiense, pertaining to Tsurumi University, Yokohama, Japan.
Valid publication: OKAMOTO (M.), BENNO (Y.), LEUNG (K.P.) and MAEDA (N.): Bifidobacterium tsurumiense sp. nov., from hamster dental plaque. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 144-148.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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