Genus Azospirillum

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 17
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Azospirillum Tarrand et al. 1979, genus.
Type species: ¤ Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck 1925) Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. n. azotum [from Fr. n. azote (from Gr. prep. a, not; Gr. n. zôê, life; N.Gr. n. azôê, not sustaining life)], nitrogen; N.L. pref. azo-, pertaining to nitrogen; L. n. spira, a spiral; N.L. dim. neut. n. spirillum, a small spiral; N.L. neut. n. Azospirillum, a small nitrogen spiral.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 TARRAND (J.J.), KRIEG (N.R.) and DÖBEREINER (J.): A taxonomic study of the Spirillum lipoferum group, with descriptions of a new genus, Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1978, 24, 967-980. 2 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 2. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 79-80.]

Azospirillum Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Falk et al. 1985.
Type species: ¤ Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck 1925) Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. n. azotum [from Fr. n. azote (from Gr. prep. a, not; Gr. n. zôê, life; N.Gr. n. azôê, not sustaining life)], nitrogen; N.L. pref. azo-, pertaining to nitrogen; L. n. spira, a spiral; N.L. dim. neut. n. spirillum, a small spiral; N.L. neut. n. Azospirillum, a small nitrogen spiral.
Reference: FALK (E.C.), DÖBEREINER (J.), JOHNSON (J.L.) and KRIEG (N.R.): Deoxyribonucleic acid homology of Azospirillum amazonense Magalhães et al. 1984 and emendation of the description of the genus Azospirillum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 117-118.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Ben Dekhil et al. 1997, Azospirillum Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Conglomeromonas Skerman et al. 1983.
Reference: BEN DEKHIL (S.), CAHILL (M.), STACKEBRANDT (E.) and SLY (L.I.): Transfer of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis to the genus Azospirillum as Azospirillum largomobile comb. nov., and elevation of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis to the new type species of Conglomeromonas, Conglomeromonas parooensis sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1997, 20, 72-77.
Effective publication Online

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Azospirillum amazonense Magalhães et al. 1984, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Am 14 (Y1) = ATCC 35119 = DSM 2787 = LMG 6509 = NRRL B-23163.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X79735.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. amazonense, pertaining to the Amazon region of Brazil, South America.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357. [MAGALHÃES (F.M.), BALDANI (J.I.), SOUTO (S.M.), KUYKENDALL (J.R.) and DÖBEREINER (J.): A new acid-tolerant Azospirillum species. An. Acad. Brasil Ciênc., 1983, 55, 417-430.]
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum brasilense corrig. Tarrand et al. 1979, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain sp. 7 = ATCC 29145 = DSM 1690 = JCM 1224 = LMG 13127 = NBRC 102289 = NRRL B-14647 = VKM B-1547.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY324110.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. brasilense, pertaining to the country of Brazil, South America.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 TARRAND (J.J.), KRIEG (N.R.) and DÖBEREINER (J.): A taxonomic study of the Spirillum lipoferum group, with descriptions of a new genus, Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1978, 24, 967-980. 2 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 2. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 79-80.]

Notes:
1 The original spelling of the specific epithet, brasiliense, has been corrected by Hill et al. 1984 [1]. However, according to Graesse [2], the Latin name of the country is Brasilia and the specific epithet brasiliense was correct.
References:
1 HILL (L.R.), SKERMAN (V.B.D.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Corrigenda to the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names edited for the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 508-511.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 GRAESSE (J.G.T.): ORBIS LATINUS online (1909).
2 According to Helsel et al. 2006, Azospirillum brasilense corrig. Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Roseomonas fauriae Rihs et al. 1998.
Reference: HELSEL (L.O.), HOLLIS (D.G.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.) and LEVETT (P.N.): Reclassification of Roseomonas fauriae Rihs et al. 1998 as a later heterotypic synonym of Azospirillum brasilense Tarrand et al. 1979. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2753-2755.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum canadense Mehnaz et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DS2 = LMG 23617 = NCCB 100108.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ393891.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. canadense, pertaining to Canada, the region of isolation, referring to its isolation from Canadian soil.
Reference: MEHNAZ (S.), WESELOWSKI (B.) and LAZAROVITS (G.): Azospirillum canadense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from corn rhizosphere. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 620-624.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum doebereinerae Eckert et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain GSF71 = DSM 13131 = KCTC 12904.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ238567.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. doebereinerae, of Döbereiner, in honor of Johanna Döbereiner, who isolated and characterized many Azospirillum spp., and other diazotrophic plant-associated bacteria.
Reference: ECKERT (B.), WEBER (O.B.), KIRCHHOF (G.), HALBRITTER (A.), STOFFELS (M.) and HARTMANN (A.): Azospirillum doebereinerae sp. nov., a nitrogen -fixing bacterium associated with the C4 -grass Miscanthus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 17-26.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: At the time of publication, the type strain was not deposited in two publicly accessible service collections in different countries, and Azospirillum doebereinerae Eckert et al. 2001 was not validly published [Rules 27(3) and 30]. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Azospirillum doebereinerae Eckert et al. 2001 is now considered to be validly published, since deposit in a second culture collection in a different country has been documented.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum fermentarium Lin et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CC-LY743=BCRC 80505=JCM 18688=LMG 27264.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: JX843282.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. fermentarium pertaining to fermentation, reflecting the fact that the type strain was isolated from a fermentative tank.
Source: Industrial.
Reference: LIN, S.-Y., LIU, Y.-C., HAMEED, A., HSU, Y.-H., LAI, W.-A., SHEN, F.-T. and YOUNG, C.-C. 2013. Azospirillum fermentarium sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from a fermenter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 3762-3768.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum formosense Lin et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CC-Nfb-7 = BCRC 80273 = DSM 24137 = JCM 17639.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU256444.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. formosense, pertaining to Formosa, Taiwan.
Reference: LIN (S.Y.), SHEN (F.T.), YOUNG (L.S.), ZHU (Z.L.), CHEN (W.M.) and YOUNG (C.C.): Azospirillum formosense sp. nov., a diazotroph from agricultural soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1185-1190.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum halopraeferens Reinhold et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Au 4 = ATCC 43709 = DSM 3675 = LMG 7108.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X79731.
Etymology: Gr. n. hals halos, salt; L. v. praefere, to prefer; N.L. part. adj. halopraeferens, salt preferring.
Reference: REINHOLD (B.), HUREK (T.), FENDRIK (I.), POT (B.), GILLIS (M.), KERSTERS (K.), THIELEMANS (S.) and DE LEY (J.): Azospirillum halopraeferens sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing organism associated with roots of kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 43-51.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum humicireducens Zhou et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SgZ-5=CCTCC AB 2012021=KACC 16605.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: JX274435 .
Etymology: N.L. adj. humicus (from L. n. humus, soil) humic; L. part. adj. reducens leading back, bringing back and in chemistry converting to a different oxidation state; N.L. part. adj. humicireducens converting humic substances to a reduced oxidation state.
Source: Industrial.
Reference: ZHOU, S., HAN, L., WANG, Y., YANG, G., ZHUANG, L. and HU, P. 2013. Azospirillum humicireducens sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell. Int.J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 2618-2624.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum irakense Khammas et al. 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain KBC1 = ATCC 51182 = CCUG 30621 = CIP 103311 = DSM 11586 = LMG 10653.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z29583.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. irakense, pertaining to the country of Iraq.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 39. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 580-581. [KHAMMAS (K.M.), AGERON (E.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.) and KAISER (P.): Azospirillum irakense sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with rice roots and rhizosphere soil. Res. Microbiol., 1989, 140, 679-693.]
Validation List no. 39 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Azospirillum largimobile corrig. (Skerman et al. 1983) Ben Dekhil et al. 1997, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ACM 2041.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X90759.
Basonym: ¤ Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis Skerman et al. 1983.
Etymology: N.L. adv. largo (from Italian adv. largo; from L. adj. largus), in a very slow tempo (musical); L. adj. mobilis -is -e, movable, mobile; N.L. neut. adj. largimobile, moving in a very slow manner.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 62. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 915-916. [BEN DEKHIL (S.), CAHILL (M.), STACKEBRANDT (E.) and SLY (L.I.): Transfer of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis to the genus Azospirillum as Azospirillum largomobile comb. nov., and elevation of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis to the new type species of Conglomeromonas, Conglomeromonas parooensis sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1997, 20, 72-77.]
Validation List no. 62 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Notes:
1 The original spelling of the specific epithet, largomobile (sic), has been corrected by Sly and Stackebrandt 1999.
Reference: SLY (L.I.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Description of Skermanella parooensis gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis following the transfer of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis to the genus Azospirillum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 541-544.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The type strain ACM 2041 is not available (ACM no longer operating).
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck 1925) Tarrand et al. 1979, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain sp. 59b = ATCC 29707 = CIP 106280 = DSM 1691 = JCM 1247 = LMG 13128 = NBRC 102290 = NCAIM B.01801 = NRRL B-14654 = VKM B-1519.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z29619.
Synonym: "Spirillum lipoferum" Beijerinck 1925.
Etymology: Gr. n. lipos, animal fat, lard, tallow; L. suff. -ferus -a -um (from L. v. fero, to carry), bringing, bearing; N.L. neut. adj. lipoferum, fat bearing.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 BEIJERINCK (M.W.): Über ein Spirillum, welches frei en Stickstoff binden kann? Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1925, 63, 353-359. 2 TARRAND (J.J.), KRIEG (N.R.) and DÖBEREINER (J.): A taxonomic study of the Spirillum lipoferum group, with descriptions of a new genus, Azospirillum gen. nov. and two species, Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck) comb. nov. and Azospirillum brasilense sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 1978, 24, 967-980. 3 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 2. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1979, 29, 79-80.]

Note: Falk et al. 1986 [1] proposed that Azospirillum lipoferum (Beijerinck 1925) Tarrand et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980) was an earlier synonym of ¤ Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis Skerman et al. 1983. Later, Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis has been transfered in the genus Azospirillum as Azospirillum largomobile (Skerman et al. 1983) Ben Dekhil et al. 1997, comb. nov. [2, 3].
References:
1 FALK (E.C.), JOHNSON (J.L.), BALDANI (V.L.D.), DÖBEREINER (J.) and KRIEG (N.R.): Deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acid homology studies of the genera Azospirillum and Conglomeromonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 80-85.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 BEN DEKHIL (S.), CAHILL (M.), STACKEBRANDT (E.) and SLY (L.I.): Transfer of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. largomobilis to the genus Azospirillum as Azospirillum largomobile comb. nov., and elevation of Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis to the new type species of Conglomeromonas, Conglomeromonas parooensis sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1997, 20, 72-77.
Effective publication Online
3 VALIDATION LIST no. 62. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 915-916.
Validation List no. 62 in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum melinis Peng et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TMCY 0552 = CCBAU 5106001 = CGMCC 1.5340 = LMG 23364.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ022958.
Etymology: N.L. n. melinis, genus name of stinkgrass, Melinis minutiflora Beauv.; N.L. gen. n. melinis, from stinkgrass, referring to its frequent occurrence in association with molasses grass.
Reference: PENG (G.), WANG (H.), ZHANG (G.), HOU (W.), LIU (Y.), WANG (E.T.) and TAN (Z.): Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., a group of diazotrophs isolated from tropical molasses grass. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1263-1271.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum oryzae Xie and Yokota 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain COC8 = CCTCC AB204051 = IAM 15130 = JCM 21588 = NBRC 102291.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB185396.
Etymology: L. gen. n. oryzae, of rice, from where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: XIE (C.H.) and YOKOTA (A.): Azospirillum oryzae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the roots of the rice plant Oryza sativa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1435-1438.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum picis Lin et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain IMMIB TAR-3 = CCUG 55431 = DSM 19922.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM922283.
Etymology: L. gen. fem. n. picis, of pitch, tar.
Reference: LIN (S.Y.), YOUNG (C.C.), HUPFER (H.), SIERING (C.), ARUN (A.B.), CHEN (W.M.), LAI (W.A.), SHEN (F.T.), REKHA (P.D.) and YASSIN (A.F.): Azospirillum picis sp. nov., isolated from discarded tar. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 761-765.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum rugosum Young et al. 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain IMMIB AFH-6 = CCUG 53966 = DSM 19657.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM419042.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. rugosum, wrinkled, as the form of the colonies on the agar changes to a wrinkled appearance.
Reference: YOUNG (C.C.), HUPFER (H.), SIERING (C.), HO (M.J.), ARUN (A.B.), LAI (W.A.), REKHA (P.D.), SHEN (F.T.), HUNG (M.H.), CHEN (W.M.) and YASSIN (A.F.): Azospirillum rugosum sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 959-963.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum thiophilum Lavrinenko et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BV-S = BV-s = DSM 21654 = VKM B-2513.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU678791.
Etymology: Gr. n. theion (Latin transliteration thium), sulfur; N.L. neut. adj. philum (from Gr. masc. adj. philon), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thiophilum, sulfur-loving.
Reference: LAVRINENKO (K.), CHERNOUSOVA (E.), GRIDNEVA (E.), DUBININA (G.), AKIMOV (V.), KUEVER (J.), LYSENKO (A.) and GRABOVICH (M.): Azospirillum thiophilum sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from a sulfide spring. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 2832-2837.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azospirillum zeae Mehnaz et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain N7 = LMG 23989 = NCCB 100147.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ682470.
Etymology: L. gen. n. zeae, of spelt, of Zea mays, referring to its isolation from rhizosphere soil of corn (Zea mays).
Reference: MEHNAZ (S.), WESELOWSKI (B.) and LAZAROVITS (G.): Azospirillum zeae sp. nov., a diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of Zea mays. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 2805-2809.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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