Salmonella nomenclature

See also Antigenic formulas of the Salmonella serovars (Kauffmann-White scheme) on Wikipedia

 

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Introduction

There are several problem areas in the nomenclature of the genus Salmonella. These include the names Salmonella choleraesuis versus Salmonella enterica and the best way to write the names of the serovars (Farmer III, 1999). All the bacteriologists are not specialists in the bacterial nomenclature so, it seems useful to take stock of this question by recalling the facts in the chronological order.
To avoid difficulties of comprehension, some aspects are simplified and thus are not perfectly accurate. I hope that the specialists will forgive these inaccuracies.
Moreover, in order to facilitate the reading, bacterial names are always written without their authorship and dates of valid publications.

 

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The genus Salmonella in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names

The genus Salmonella is included in the ¤ Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and it encompasses five species: Salmonella arizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis (type species of the genus), Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium.

 

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DNA-DNA hybridizations and their outcomes on the nomenclature

The DNA relatedness studies demonstrate that all Salmonella strains form a single DNA hybridization group with seven sub-groups. So, according to the phylogenetic definition of a species, all five species cited in the ¤ Approved Lists are members of a single genomospecies.

All seven sub-groups can be differenciated by phenotypic properties and Le Minor et al. (1982, 1986) proposed the name Salmonella choleraesuis for the single Salmonella species with the following seven subspecies: Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. arizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. diarizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. houtenae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. indica and Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. salamae. The name Salmonella choleraesuis has been chosen because it is the name of the type species of the genus.
All these names have been validly published and have standing in nomenclature (see the file Salmonella).

Following the valid publication of these names, and in agreement with the scientific data, the genus Salmonella included only one single species, Salmonella choleraesuis, itself subdivided in seven subspecies. One of these subspecies, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. arizonae, is a "new combination" (combinatio nova) for Salmonella arizonae.

DNA-DNA homologies data also show that Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium (species included in the ¤ Approved Lists) belong to the subspecies Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis.

However, as there is no "official" classification of bacteria, a microbiologist might use the nomenclatures as they appear in the ¤ Approved Lists even if, it is not scientifically correct.

 

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The Request for an Opinion by Le Minor and Popoff (1987)

The name Salmonella choleraesuis can lead to confusion since the specific epithet is also the name of a serovar (see the chapter ¤ "Nomenclature for serovar names").

In order to respect scientific reality and to solve the difficulty related to the name Salmonella choleraesuis, Le Minor and Popoff (1987) requested the following:

1) Salmonella enterica sp. nov., nom. rev. is the type and only species of the genus Salmonella. Le Minor and Popoff proposed the epithet enterica because it has not been used previously for a serovar.
The type strain of Salmonella enterica is strain LT2 (a reference strain for Salmonella typhimurium).

2) This unique species encompasses seven subspecies: Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae, Salmonella enterica subsp. bongori, Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae, Salmonella enterica subsp. indica and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae.

3) The names Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium are heterotypic synonyms of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica.

These proposals received unanimous support from the members of the Subcommittee on Enterobacteriaceae.

 

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Designation of a new species in the genus Salmonella

In 1989, Reeves et al. elevate the subspecies Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori in rank to a species. According to Rule 50a of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the name of this new species is Salmonella bongori. If a bacteriologist agrees with Reeves et al., the species Salmonella choleraesuis encompasses only six subspecies.

 

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The Judicial decision about the request by Le Minor and Popoff

After the submission of Le Minor and Popoff's Request for an Opinion, the Judicial Commission took 7 years to act on it (see, Wayne 1994)!

The Judicial Commission did not decide positively upon the request by Le Minor and Popoff, despite considerable agreement on the scientific validity, because of a reluctance to let Salmonella typhi be reduced to a serovar for reasons involving safety (Salmonella typhi causes the typhoid fever).
Moreover, in their Request for an Opinion, Le Minor and Popoff not only proposed changes in the nomenclature, but also requested that formal taxonomic interpretations be taken into consideration. Their request to recognize a single species could not be dealt with by the Judicial Commission which may only act on matters of nomenclature.

Although it does not conform to the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the system proposed by Le Minor and Popoff has received wide acceptance, and the use of the non validly published name Salmonella enterica first gradually, then rapidly spread among bacteriologists throughout the world.

 

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The Request for an Opinion by Euzéby (1999)

The Commissioners expressed a desire to see an alternative proposal published as a Request for an Opinion. So, in 1999, Euzéby published a new Request for an Opinion in order to support the proposal by Le Minor and Popoff.

This author requested that the type species of the genus Salmonella be Salmonella enterica (type strain ATCC 13312).
As Reeves et al. elevated the subspecies Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori in rank to a species (proposal widely accepted), the species Salmonella enterica should be divided into 6 subspecies: Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae, Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae, Salmonella enterica subsp. indica and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae.

Moreover, to avoid further confusion Euzéby also requested the following:

1) The rejection of the specific name Salmonella choleraesuis as an ambiguous name (nomen ambiguum), because the specific epithet has been used with different meanings and thus has become a source of confusion.

2) The conservation of the name Salmonella typhi*, because the name Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi could lead to accidents that may endanger health and life (see: Rule 56a(5) Note 1).
On the other hand, the names enteritidis and typhimurium should apply only to serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis) and to serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium), respectively.

 

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The Requests for an Opinion by Ezaki et al. (2000)

Two new requests for an Opinion by Ezaki et al., have been published in the March 2000 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology:

1) In a first paper, Ezaki, Amano, Kawamura and Yabuuchi proposed the new species Salmonella paratyphi by raising Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar Paratyphi A to species satus.
Because Salmonella paratyphi is a contagious organism causing para-typhoid fever in humans, the authors requested an Opinion to include the specific epithet paratyphi (Salmonella paratyphi) in the list of epitheta specifica conservanda (conserved specific epithets in names of species of bacteria). See, Rule 56a(5) Note 1.

2) In a second paper, Ezaki, Kawamura and Yabuuchi requested:
a) The conservation of the name Salmonella choleraesuis as the type species of the genus Salmonella.
b) The recognition of the nomenclatural standing of Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella typhimurium, and the conservation of the names Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella typhimurium.
These proposals were made because Salmonella typhi causes the typhoid fever and Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium are important human and animal pathogens (see, Rule 56a(5) Note 1).
c) The rejection of the name Salmonella enterica.

 

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The taxonomic note by Yabuuchi and Ezaki (2000)

In a taxonomic note, published in the July 2000 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Yabuuchi and Ezaki requested the Judicial Commission to issue Opinions to clearly reject Salmonella enterica. These authors also requested the conservation of the specific epithet choleraesuis in the binary combination of Salmonella choleraesuis as the type species of the genus Salmonella.

To avoid confusion due to the similarity between the specific epithet choleraesuis and the serovar name Choleraesuis, Yabuuchi and Ezaki recommend to change the latter to Hogcholera.
Names of serovars do not fall under the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) and bacteriologists are free to use Choleraesuis or Hogcholera.

 

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The Judicial Opinion 80

On 29 and 30 July 2002, the Judicial Commission carefully discussed the request by Euzéby, the two requests by Ezaki et al., and the request Yabuuchi and Ezaki. The Judicial Commission has also taken the request of Le Minor & Popoff into consideration.

The Judicial Commission has issued an Opinion (Judicial Opinion 80) and decided the following:

1) Salmonella enterica becomes the type species of the genus Salmonella.

2) The epithet enterica in Salmonella enterica is conserved over all earlier epithets which may be applied to this species.

3) The type strain of Salmonella enterica is strain LT2 (= ATCC 43971 = CIP 60.62 = NCIMB 11450 = NCTC 12416).

4) The subspecies and new combinations proposed by Le Minor and Popoff should be considered to be validly published, with the dates and authorship being assigned to these authors.

5) The names Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, and Salmonella typhimurium are not included in the list of epitheta specifica conservanda (conserved specific epithets in names of species of bacteria).

6) The name Salmonella choleraesuis, is not included in the list of epitheta specifica et subspecifica rejicienda (rejected specific and subspecific epithets in names of species and subspecies of bacteria).

The publication of this Opinion also effectively indicates that the Judicial Commission has not granted the the two requests by Ezaki et al., and the request Yabuuchi and Ezaki.

 

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Commentary on the nomenclatural and taxonomic consequences of the Judicial Opinion 80

As all Opinions, the Judicial Opinion 80 is limited to matters on nomenclature and does not help to interpret the taxonomic consequences.
The Judicial Commission did not reject the epithet choleraesuis in Salmonella choleraesuis and the major problem, following the Judicial Opinion 80, is that two systems of nomenclature are in use for the genus Salmonella: the "old" system (i.e. names validly published before publication of the Judicial Opinion 80, except the fact that the type species of the genus is Salmonella enterica), and a "new" system (i.e. names validly published as a consequence of the Judicial Opinion 80).

In order to help the bacteriologists to interpret both the nomenclatural and taxonomic consequences of the Opinion 80, the Judicial Commission asked experts in the field of nomenclature and taxonomy to write a commentary. In this commentary, Tindall et al. provide a list of names that should be followed according to the recent ruling of the Judicial Commission together with the taxonomic interpretation of Le Minor and Popoff (1987) and Reeves et al. (1989).

The list of names that are to be used according to the Judicial Opinion 80 and the taxonomic interpretation of Le Minor and Popoff (1987), and Reeves et al. (1989) is as follows:
. Salmonella bongori (homotypic synonyms Salmonella enterica subsp. bongori, and Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori).
. Salmonella enterica (heterotypic synonym Salmonella choleraesuis).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (homotypic synonyms Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. arizonae).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae (homotypic synonym Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. diarizonae).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (heterotypic synonyms Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choeraesuis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, and Salmonella typhimurium).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae (homotypic synonym Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. houtenae).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. indica (homotypic synonym Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. indica).
. Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae (homotypic synonym Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. salamae).

 

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Description of Salmonella subterranea

In May 2004, Shelobolina et al. proposed the name Salmonella subterranea for a strain isolated from a low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of the isolate indicated that this strain was 96.4% similar to Salmonella bongori and 96,3% similar to Enterobacter cloacae.
The name Salmonella subterranea was validly published on 18 March 2005, by citation on Validation List 102.

 

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Nomenclature for serovar names

See: Popoff and Le Minor 1997.

Within each subspecies of Salmonella enterica (or Salmonella choleraesuis), and in the species Salmonella bongori,  it is possible to recognize serovars. According to the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), the term serovar must be preferred to the term serotype.
In many bacterial species, names have not been given to serovars which are only designated by their antigenic formula. For example, Escherichia coli O157:H7.
The serovars of the subspecies Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis) are exceptions and names were given to serovars. Historically, these names have been proposed by Kauffmann who wrongly considered that each serovar was a species and, for this reason, the serovar names were italicized. Some serovar names denoted syndrome and/or host specificity (e.g. typhi, abortus-equi, abortus-ovis, bovis-mortificans...) or geographical origin of the first strain of the serovar (e.g. london, paris, panama, tel-el-kebir...). Now, the serovars are exclusively named on the basis of geographical origin. At the Ninth International Congress for Microbiology (Moscow, 1966), it was decided that compound names would be hereafter condensed in simple names (e.g. abortusequi, abortusovis, telelkebir...).

To avoid confusion between serovars and species, Le Minor and Popoff (1987) proposed that serovar names be printed in Roman type (not italics) starting with a capital letter. For example, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (or ser.) Montevideo [or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar (or ser.) Montevideo].
The mean advantage of these nomenclatures is that they do not artificially treat the serovars as species (Farmer III, 1999).

In order to simplify the serovar nomenclature, Le Minor and Popoff also proposed a shortened nomenclature: Salmonella Montevideo, Salmonella Abortusovis etc., whose complete names would be Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (or ser.) Montevideo [or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar (or ser.) Montevideo], Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar (or ser.) Abortusovis [or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar or (ser.) Abortusovis] etc.
The absence of mention of the subspecies cannot be a source of confusion because only the serovars of the subspecies Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis) are named.
It is advisable to notice that the use of the shortened nomenclature prohibits abbreviation of the name of the genus (Salmonella = S.) because the abbreviation of a name of genus is only authorized if it is followed by a name of species.

Taxa below the rank of subspecies (infrasubspecific subdivisions) are not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). So, an author can continue to use italicized serovar names (e.g. Salmonella montevideo, Salmonella abortusovis...).

A list of serovars is available on the Internet (see Patrick A.D. Grimont & François-Xavier Weill, ANTIGENIC FORMULAE OF THE SALMONELLA SEROVARS, 2007, 9th edition).

 

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Practical considerations

Species and subspecies

Even if they are not cited in the two lists provided below, it is important to note that all validly published names have standing in nomenclature and can be used by bacteriologists. However, the names Salmonella arizonae, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. bongori, and Salmonella enterica subsp. bongori are not widely used.
A list of all validly published names in the genus Salmonella is available in the file Salmonella.

In practice, a bacteriologist may choose between the "old" system and the "new" system.
The "old" system (i.e. names validly published before publication of the Judicial Opinion 80) is being used by an ever decreasing minority.
The "new" system [i.e. names that should be followed according to the ruling of the Judicial Commission together with the taxonomic interpretation of Le Minor and Popoff (1987) and Reeves et al. (1989)] is being used by an ever increasing majority. Clearly, the Judicial Commission is in favour of the "new" system (see, Tindall et al. 2005).
On the contrary, a bacteriologist must avoid to mix the two systems. For example, in a same paper, it is not advisable to use Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. indica ("old" system) and Salmonella enterica subsp. houtenae ("new" system).

In the "old" system, a bacteriologist will use the following names:

In the "new" system, a bacteriologist will use the following names:

If a bacteriologist uses the new system, then he/she will consider that Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella typhi are heterotypic synonyms of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Such a bacteriologist will use the epithets enteritidis (enteritidis, Enteritidis), paratyphi (paratyphi, Paratyphi), typhimurium (typhimurium, Typhimurium), and typhi (typhi, Typhi) only in the names of serovars.

Serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis)

The designation of the serovars is not regulated but it is advised to write them in the following form: Salmonella London or Salmonella ser. London or Salmonella serovar London [complete name: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar London (or Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. cholerae suis serovar London)], Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Montevideo, etc.

The "World Health Organization's International Center for Salmonella" and the "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" use this shortened serovar nomenclatures. However, some of the National Centers for Salmonella, such as the one in England, continue to use the old serovar designations (e.g. Salmonella london, Salmonella derby, Salmonella montevideo...) (Farmer III, 1999).

 

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Some useful references

Reviews:

BRENNER (F.W.), VILLAR (R.G.), ANGULO (F.J.), TAUXE (R.) and SWAMINATHAN (B.): Salmonella nomenclature (Guest Commentary). J. Clin. Microbiol., 2000, 38, 2465-2467.

FARMER III (J.J.): Enterobacteriaceae: introduction and identification. In: P.R. MURRAY, E.J. BARON, M.A. PFALLER, F.C. TENOVER et R.H. YOLKEN (ed.) : Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th edition, ASM Press, Washington, D.C., 1999, pp. 442-458.

POPOFF (M.Y.) and LE MINOR (L.): Taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. Changes in serovars nomenclature. In: M.Y. POPOFF and L. LE MINOR: Antigenic formulas of the Salmonella serovars, 7th revision. WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella. Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 1997, p. 5.

TINDALL (B.J.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), GARRITY (G.M.) and EUZEBY (J.P.): Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 521-524.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Other references:

DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
Original article by De Vos et al. 2005 in IJSEM Online

EUZÉBY (J.P.): Revised Salmonella nomenclature: designation of Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987 sp. nov., nom. rev. as the neotype species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 (Approved Lists 1980), rejection of the name Salmonella choleraesuis (Smith 1894) Weldin 1927 (Approved Lists 1980), and conservation of the name Salmonella typhi (Schroeter 1886) Warren and Scott 1930 (Approved Lists 1980). Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 927-930.
Original article in IJSEM Online

EZAKI (T.), AMANO (M.), KAWAMURA (Y.) and YABUUCHI (E.): Proposal of Salmonella paratyphi sp. nov., nom. rev. and Request for an Opinion to conserve the specific epithet paratyphi in the binary combination Salmonella paratyphi as nomen epitheton conservandum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 941-944.
Original article in IJSEM Online

EZAKI (T.), KAWAMURA (Y.) and YABUUCHI (E.): Recognition of nomenclatural standing of Salmonella typhi (Approved Lists 1980), Salmonella enteritidis (Approved Lists 1980) and Salmonella typhimurium (Approved Lists 1980), and conservation of specific epithets enteritidis and typhimurium. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 945-947.
Original article in IJSEM Online

JUDICIAL COMMISSION: Minutes of the Meetings, 14 September 1990, Osaka, Japan. [Minutes 17 (i) and 18 (iii)]. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 185-187.
Original article in IJSB Online

JUDICIAL COMMISSION: Minutes of the Meetings, 2 and 6 July 1994, Prague, Czech Republic. (Minute 7). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 195-196.
Original article in IJSB Online

JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: The type species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 is Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, with the type strain LT2T, and conservation of the epithet enterica in Salmonella enterica over all earlier epithets that may be applied to this species. Opinion 80. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 519-520.
Opinion 80 in IJSEM Online

LE MINOR (L.) and POPOFF (M.Y.): Request for an Opinion. Designation of Salmonella enterica sp. nov., nom. rev., as the type and only species of the genus Salmonella. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 465-468.
Original article in IJSB Online

LE MINOR (L.), POPOFF (M.Y.), LAURENT (B.) and HERMANT (D.): Individualisation d'une septième sous-espèce de Salmonella: S. choleraesuis subsp. indica subsp. nov. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol., 1986, 137 B, 211-217.

LE MINOR (L.), VÉRON (M.) and POPOFF (M.Y.): Taxonomie des Salmonella. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur), 1982, 133 B, 223-243.

LE MINOR (L.), VÉRON (M.) and POPOFF (M.Y.): Proposition pour une nomenclature des Salmonella. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur), 1982, 133 B, 245-254.

PENNER (J.L.) (secretary): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Taxonomic Subcommittee on Enterobacteriaceae. Minutes of the Meeting, 8 September 1986, Manchester, England. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 223-224.
Original article in IJSB Online

POPOFF (M.Y.) and LE MINOR (L.): Antigenic formulas of the Salmonella serovars, 7th revision. WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella. Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 1997.

REEVES (M.W.), EVINS (G.M.), HEIBA (A. A.), PLIKAYTIS (B.D.) and FARMER III (J.J.): Clonal nature of Salmonella typhi and its genetic relatedness to other salmonellae as shown by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and proposal of Salmonella bongori comb. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1989, 27, 313-320.

SHELOBOLINA (E.S.), SULLIVAN (S.A.), O'NEILL (K.R.), NEVIN (K.P.) and LOVLEY (D.R.): Isolation, characterization, and U(VI)-reducing potential of a facultatively anaerobic, acid-resistant bacterium from low-pH, nitrate- and U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediment and description of Salmonella subterranea sp. nov. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 70, 2959-2965.]

WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the "Judicial Commission" of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between January 1985 and July 1993. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 177-178.
Original article in IJSB Online

YABUUCHI (E.) and EZAKI (T.): Arguments against the replacement of type species of the genus Salmonella from Salmonella choleraesuis to 'Salmonella enterica' and the creation of the term 'neotype species', and for conservation of Salmonella choleraesuis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1693-1694.
Original article in IJSEM Online

 

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* Following the Judicial Opinion 18 (published in January 1963), the epithet typhi appears in the list of "conserved specific epithets in names of species of bacteria" (epitheta specifica conservanda). The conservation of the epithet typhi refers to its conservation over the epithet "typhosa" (i.e. Salmonella typhi must be used in place of "Salmonella typhosa"). Euzéby requested to conserve the name Salmonella typhi, which would have had different consequences.

Rule 56a(5) Note 1:

Rule 56a (5) Note 1 states "... If the Judicial Commission recognizes a high order of risk to health, or of serious economic consequences, an Opinion may be issued that the taxon be maintained as a separate nomenspecies, without prejudice to the recognition or acceptance of its genetic relatedness to another taxon."

Return The Request for an Opinion by Euzéby (1999)

Return The Requests for an Opinion by Ezaki et al. (2000)