Title

Number of published names

 

Contents

Introduction

The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision) states that the name of a taxon is validly published, and therefore has standing in nomenclature:

In addition to valid publication of a name, the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) also states that only correct names are to be used, i.e. based on legitimacy and priority of publication.

Notes

A) The following names do not meet the criteria required by the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), or they are incorrect, or they are rejected. However, they are included in the records.
Acetobacter liquefaciens (Asai 1935) Yamada and Tahara 1984, Actinomyces pyogenes (Glage 1903) Collins and Jones 1983, Bacillus pallidus Zhou et al. 2008, Bryantella Wolin et al. 2004, Bryantella formatexigens Wolin et al. 2004, Budvicia Aldová et al. 1985, Budvicia aquatica Aldová et al. 1985, Burkholderia cocovenenans (van Damme et al. 1960) Zhao et al. 1995, Burkholderia glathei (Zolg and Ottow 1975) Viallard et al. 1998, Burkholderia pyrrocinia (Imanaka et al. 1965) Viallard et al. 1998, Chlorobaculum chlorovibrioides (Gorlenko et al. 1974) Imhoff 2003, Citrobacter diversus (Burkey 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980) (rejected name), Clostridium piliforme (ex Tyzzer 1917) Duncan et al. 1993, Clostridium putrificum (Trevisan 1889) Reddish and Rettger 1922 (Approved Lists 1980) (rejected name), Corynebacterium liquefaciens (Okabayashi and Masuo 1960) Lanéelle et al. 1980, Crabtreella Xie and Yokota 2006, Crabtreella saccharophila Xie and Yokota 2006, Eggerthella Kageyama et al. 1999, Eggerthella lenta (Eggerth 1935) Kageyama et al. 1999, Enterobacteraceae (ex Lapage 1979) Lapage 1982, Enterobacteriaceae (ex Rahn 1937) Ewing et al. 1980, Faenia Kurup and Agre 1983 (see Rule 10a), Faenia rectivirgula Kurup and Agre 1983 (illegitimate genus name), Frondicola Zhang et al. 2007, Frondicola australicus Zhang et al. 2007, Geobacteraceae Garrity et al. 2006, Goodfellowia Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2006, Goodfellowia coeruleoviolacea (Preobrazhenskaya and Terekhova 1987) Labeda and Kroppenstedt 2006, Gordonia amarae (Lechevalier and Lechevalier 1974) Ruimy et al. 1995, Halorubrobacterium Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halorubrobacterium coriense corrig. Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halorubrobacterium distributum (Zvyagintseva and Tarasov 1989) Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halorubrobacterium lacusprofundi (Franzmann et al. 1989) Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halorubrobacterium saccharovorum (Tomlinson and Hochstein 1977) Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halorubrobacterium sodomense (Oren 1983) Kamekura and Dyall-Smith 1996, Halovibrio denitrificans Sorokin et al. 2006, Holospora (ex Hafkine 1890) Preer and Preer 1982, Holospora obtusa (ex Hafkine 1890) Preer and Preer 1982, Holospora undulata (ex Hafkine 1890) Preer and Preer 1982, Kocuria erythromyxa (Brooks and Murray 1981) Rainey et al. 1997, Koserella Hickman-Brenner et al. 1985, Koserella trabulsii Hickman-Brenner et al. 1985, Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro 1900) Hansen and Mocquot 1970, Lactobacillus zeae (ex Kuznetsov 1959) Dicks et al. 1996, nom. rev., comb. nov., Leifsonia cynodontis (Davis et al. 1984) Suzuki et al. 2000, Marivita byunsanensis (Yoon et al. 2010) Yoon et al. 2012, Methanosaeta Patel and Sprott 1990, Methanosaeta concilii (Patel 1985) Patel and Sprott 1990, Methanosaeta harundinacea Ma et al. 2006, Methanosaeta thermophila (Kamagata et al. 1992) Boone and Kamagata 1998, Methanosaeta thermoacetophila (Nozhevnikova and Chudina 1988) Patel and Sprott 1990, Methanosarcina methanica (Smit 1930) Kluyver and van Niel 1936 (Approved Lists 1980) (rejected name), Methylothermus Tsubota et al. 2005, Methylothermus thermalis Tsubota et al. 2005, Microcyclus Ørskov 1928 (Approved Lists 1980), Microcyclus aquaticus Ørskov 1928 (Approved Lists 1980), Micromonas Murdoch and Shah 2000, Micromonas micros (Prévot 1933) Murdoch and Shah 2000, Microsphaera Yoshimi et al. 1996, Microsphaera multipartita Yoshimi et al. 1996, Microsphaeraceae Rainey et al. 1997, Mycobacteriales Cavalier-Smith 2002, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum (Apajalahti et al. 1986) Briglia et al. 1994, Mycoplasma coccoides (Schilling 1928) Neimark et al. 2005, Mycoplasma sualvi Gourlay et al. 1983, Nautilia profundicola Smith et al. 2008, sp. nov., Neisseria weaveri Andersen et al. 1993, Odoribacter denticanis Hardham et al. 2008, Pasteurella gallicida (Burrill 1883) Buchanan 1925 (Approved Lists 1980) (rejected name), Pelczaria Poston 1994 (rejected name), Pelczaria aurantia Poston 1994 (rejected name), Peredibacteraceae Piñeiro et al. 2008, Photobacterium indicum (Johnson and Weisrock 1969) Xie and Yokota 2004, Pirella marina Schlesner 1987, Pirella Schlesner and Hirsch 1984, Pirella staleyi Schlesner and Hirsch 1984, Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. marinus Chisholm et al. 1992, Prochlorococcus marinus subsp. pastoris Rippka et al. 2000, Reichenbachia Nedashkovskaya et al. 2003, Reichenbachia agariperforans Nedashkovskaya et al. 2003, Rhizomonas van Bruggen et al. 1990 (rejected name), Rhizomonas suberifaciens van Bruggen et al. 1990, Roseomonas rosea (Kämpfer et al. 2003) Sánchez-Porro et al. 2009, Salmonella paratyphi (ex Kayser 1902) Ezaki et al. 2000, Schineria Tóth et al. 2001, Schineria larvae Toth et al. 2001, Serpula Stanton et al. 1991, Serpula hyodysenteriae (Harris et al. 1972) Stanton et al. 1991, Serpula innocens (Kinyon and Harris 1979) Stanton et al. 1991, Serpulina alvinipulli Stanton et al. 1998, Sinococcus Li et al. 2006, Sinococcus qinghaiensis Li et al. 2006, Sinomonas albida (Ding et al. 2009) Zhou et al. 2012 Sinomonas echigonensis (Ding et al. 2009) Zhou et al. 2012, Sphingobacterium composti Yoo et al. 2007, Streptomyces avermectinius Takahashi et al. 2002, Streptomyces fumigatiscleroticus (ex Pridham 1970) Goodfellow et al. 1986, Streptoverticillium reticulum subsp. protomycicum (ex Sugawara et al. 1963) Locci and Schofield 1989, Streptoverticillium verticillium subsp. quintum (ex Arai 1976) Locci and Schofield 1989, Streptoverticillium verticillium subsp. tsukushiense (ex Arai 1976) Locci and Schofield 1989, Syntrophomonas bryantii (Stieb and Schink 1985) Wu et al. 2006, Terribacillus goriensis (Kim et al. 2007) Krishnamurthi and Chakrabarti 2008, Thalassobius gelatinovorus (Rüger and Höfle 1992) Arahal et al. 2005, Thermus thermophilus (ex Oshima and Imahori 1974) Williams et al. 1995, Xanthomonas populi (ex Ridé 1958) Ridé and Ridé 1992, Vibrio alginolyticus subsp. iophagus (ex Welton and Woods 1973) Emod et al. 1983, Yania Li et al. 2004, Yania flava Li et al. 2005, Yania halotolerans Li et al. 2004, Yaniaceae Li et al. 2005, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pestis (van Loghem) Bercovier et al. 1981 (rejected name), Yersinia pseudotuberculosis subsp. pseudotuberculosis (Pfeiffer 1889) Smith and Thal 1965, Zimmermannella Lin et al. 2004, Zimmermannella alba Lin et al. 2004, Zimmermannella bifida Lin et al. 2004, Zimmermannella faecalis Lin et al. 2004, Zimmermannella helvola Lin et al. 2004.
All names cited in the table 1 of the file Endangered prokaryotic names.

B) The following names do not meet the criteria required by the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), or they are incorrect, and they are not included in the records.
Bacteriolyticum Piñeiro et al. 2008, Bacteriolyticum stolpii (Seidler et al. 1972) Piñeiro et al. 2008, Crinalium (ex Crow 1927) De Winder et al. 1991, Crinalium epipsammum De Winder et al. 1991, Desulfobaculum xiamenensis Zhao et al. 2012; Flavobacterium sasangense Yoon et al. 2009, Limnothrix, Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert 1988 emend. Suda et al. 2002, Microcystis Kützing, Microcystis aeruginosa Otsuka et al. 2001, Planktothrix Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 emend. Suda et al. 2002, Planktothrix agardhii (Gomont) Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 emend. Suda et al. 2002, Planktothrix mougeotii Suda et al. 2002, Planktothrix pseudagardhii Suda and Watanabe 2002, Planktothrix rubescens (D.C. ex Gomont Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 emend. Suda et al. 2002, Rhodococcus sputi (ex Tsukamura 1978) Tsukamura and Yano 1985, Tychonema, Tychonema bourrellyi (Lund) Anagnostidis and Komárek 1988 emend. Suda et al. 2002, Verminephrobacter Pinel et al. 2008, Verminephrobacter eiseniae Pinel et al. 2008, Methanomassiliicoccus Dridi et al. 2012 (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1902-1907), Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis Dridi et al. 2012 (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1902-1907).

C) Four subgenera are validly published: Acetobacter (subgen. Acetobacter Beijerinck 1898), Acetobacter (subgen. Gluconoacetobacter Yamada and Kondo 1985), Moraxella (subgen. Branhamella Catlin 1970), and Moraxella (subgen. Moraxella Lwoff 1939). However, the category subgenus is not in current use. So, the subgenera and species included in these subgenera are not cited in the records.

D) Names of taxa above the rank of class and Candidatus (taxonomic categories not covered by the Rules) are outside the scope of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). However some taxa above the rank of class and some Candidatus names have been published in IJSB/IJSEM and they are included in the records (see: Names of taxa above the rank of class and Candidatus).

E) There is no validly published name for the categories "subfamily" and "subtribe".

 

I. Names cited in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names

Two divisions were included in the Approved Lists. However, the category Divisio is not covered by the Rules and the divisons are not included below.

II. Names validly published since the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (to date: 1 August 2013)

Names of taxa above the rank of class and names included in the category Candidatus (taxonomic categories not covered by the Rules) are not included in the following table.

  • Names validly published (year and taxonomic category):
  • Year

    Rank of class Rank of subclass Rank of order Rank of suborder Rank of family Rank of genus Rank of species Rank of subspecies Total
    1980 - - - -  2  10  49  1 62
    1981 - - 3 - 5 22 103 7 140
    1982 - - 1 - 3 16 102 13 135
    1983 - - - - 2 27 166 17 212
    1984 - - 1 - 4 31 161 23 220
    1985 - - - - - 29 125 14 168
    1986 - - 1 - 3 27 176 16 223
    1987 - - 2 - 2 19 100 11 134
    1988 5 - 1 - 1 30 144 8 189
    1989 - - 2 - 5 23 167 19 216
    1990 - - - - 3 21 148 30 202
    1991 - - - - 5 21 145 12 183
    1992 - - - - 1   122 16 139
    1993 - - 1 - 2 36 178 6 223
    1994 - - - - - 42 161 6 209
    1995 - - 1 - 2 37 217 11 268
    1996 - - 1 - 3 46 232 20 302
    1997 1 5 6 10 19 42 223 4 310
    1998 1 - - - 1 55 256 6 319
    1999 - - - - 4 79 273 14 370
    2000 - - - - 8 76 275 11 370
    2001 - - - - 1 68 356 8 433
    2002 42 - 25 - 14 72 350 9 512
    2003 1 - 1 - 3 75 372 20 472
    2004 - - 3 - 13 80 435 13 544
    2005 1 - 12 - 20 105 528 6 672
    2006 6 - 19 1 38 118 593 4 779
    2007 3  - 5 3 8 135 631 19 804
    2008 1 - 5 - 11 116 597 8 738
    2009 2 - 7 2 12 112 663 15 813
    2010 7 1 9 - 25 105 611 13 771
    2011 2 - 3 1 11 105 619 13 754
    2012 9 - 8 - 26 100 655 11 809
    2013 16 - 9 4 14 121 666 12 842
    Total 97 6 126 21 271 2001 10599 416 13537
     

     

    III. Names of taxa above the rank of class (taxonomic categories not covered by the Rules)

    The taxonomic categories above the rank of class are not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) [Rule 5b]. However, two divisions were included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, two divisions were cited on Validation List no. 15, several taxa proposed by Cavalier-Smith (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76) appear in the Notification List published in the March 2002 issue of the IJSEM (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 293-295), nine phyla (= divisions) are cited in Validation List no. 85, one phylum cited in the July 2003 issue of the IJSEM appears in the Notification List published in the November 2003 issue of the IJSEM (Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1703-1705), one phylum appears in Validation List 98, one phylum is cited in the Validation List no. 106, two phyla are proposed in the 2009 issues of the IJSEM, one phylum is cited on Validation List 132, one phylum is cited in the June 2010 issue of the IJSEM, and one phylum is cited in the June 2011 issue of the IJSEM.

    These names are outside the scope of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) and they have no standing in bacterial nomenclature. See the file ¤ "Taxa above the rank of class".

    Divisions (= phyla):

    Other names cited in the paper by Cavalier-Smith [CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.], and included in Notification List published in the March 2002 issue of the IJSEM:

     

    IV. Candidatus (taxonomic category not covered by the Rules)

    The category Candidatus is not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). During the 1996 meetings in Jerusalem, the Judicial Commission unanimously voted to recommend to the ICSB (now ICSP) that this taxonomic category be adopted as an Appendix to the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). Thereafter, the proposal of the Judicial Commission was unanimously accepted by the ICSB (now ICSP). See the file ¤ "List of Candidatus".

     

    V. Total number of published names included in categories covered by the Rules (1 August 2013)

     

    Notes:

  • Number of new combinations: 1425 (1,338 new combinations in the category "species" + 87 new combinations in the category "subspecies").
  • Number of nomina nova: 14 (in the category "species").
  • Number of revived names: 381.
  • Number of corrected names (typographic or orthographic errors): 443.
  • Methanobacterium espanolense corrig. Patel et al. 1990, Mycoplasma phocae corrig. Ruhnke and Madoff 1992, Sphingomonas macrogolitabida corrig. Takeuchi et al. 1993, and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans corrig. (Suzuki et al. 1984) Nazina et al. 2001 are not included because these corrections are not allowed by the Note of the new Rule 61.

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    *:

    The number of names is 65 in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and 66 in the Amended Edition of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. This difference is linked to the status of the family name Enterobacteriaceae.
    The family name ¤ Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 was omitted from the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980, but a footnote was inserted on page 236 indicating that the name was sub judice, referring to the proposal by Lapage. This has led to some confusion over the status of the name. The Judicial Commission has reviewed this question and concluded that the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937 is valid and should have been incorporated in the body of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names 1980. So, this nomenclature is listed in the Amended Edition of the Approved Lists.
    References:
    1 LAPAGE (S.P.): Proposal of Enterobacteraceae nom. nov. as a substitute for the illegitimate but conserved name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1979, 29, 265-266.
    2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Present standing of the family name Enterobacteriaceae Rahn 1937. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 104.
    3 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between July 1979 and April 1981. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 464-465.
    4 ICSB, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF THE ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: Minutes of the meeting, 6 September 1978, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 242.
    5 ICSB, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF THE ENTEROBACTERIACEAE: Minutes of the meeting, 10 August 1982, Boston, Massachusetts. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 243-244.
    6 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published in 1982. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 272-273.
    7 HILL (L.R.), SKERMAN (V.B.D.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Corrigenda to the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names edited for the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 508-511.
    8 SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Amended edition. American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C., 1989.

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    **:

    The Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and the Amended Edition of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names did not included the name Rhodococcus sputi which was published by Tsukamura (1978) in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology [1]. In view of the fact that the name was not included in the Approved Lists, Tsukamura and Yano revived the name Rhodococcus sputi: Rhocococcus sputi (ex Tsukamura 1978) Tsukamura and Yano 1985 [2]. However, according to Rule 24a, Note 1, the name Rhodococcus sputi Tsukamura 1978 is to be treated as being included in the Approved Lists and this name has priority over Rhodococcus sputi (ex Tsukamura 1978) Tsukamura and Yano 1985 [3].
    References:
    1 TSUKAMURA (M.): Numerical classification of Rhodococcus (formerly Gordona) organisms recently isolated from sputa of patients: description of Rhodococcus sputi Tsukamura sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1978, 28, 169-181.
    2 TSUKAMURA (M.) and YANO (I.): Rhodococcus sputi sp. nov., nom. rev., and Rhodococcus aurantiacus sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 364-368.
    3 TINDALL (B.J.) and EUZÉBY (J.P.): A taxonomic note on the authorship and date of valid publication of Rhodococcus sputi. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 255-256.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    ***:

    3251 nomenclatural changes have been published in Validation Lists. However, only 3177 names are included in the records for the following reasons:

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