Title

Culture collections of prokaryotes (bacteria)

Acknowledgements

The author is very grateful to Dr B.J. Tindall (DSMZ) for his helpful comments and corrections.

ABB: Asian Bacterial Bank, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABRC: Anaerobic Bacterial Resource Centre, University of Hyderabad, Department of Plant sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 500 046, India.

ABRIICC: Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran Culture Collection, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute Campus, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Mahdasht road, Karaj, 31535-1897 Tehran, Iran.

ACA-DC: Greek Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms, Dairy Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Botanikos, GR-11855 Athens, Greece.

ACAM: Australian Collection of Antarctic Microorganisms, Cooperative Research Centre for Antarctic And Southern Ocean Environment, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252C, Hobart. Tas. 7001, Australia.

ACC: Akers Culture Collection, ICI Ltd., Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, U.K.

ACCC: Agricultural Culture Collection of China, Institute of Soil and Fertilization, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 30 Baishiqiao Road, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.

ACM: Australian Collection of Microorganisms, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane. Qld. 4072, Australia.

ACOI: Coimbra Collection of Algae, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal

AFRC: Institute of Food Research, National Collection of Food Bacteria, Shinfield, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom.

AGAL: Patent Culture Collection, Australian Government Analytical Laboratory, 1 Suakin St, Pymble. NSW. 2073, Australia.

AHLDA: Animal Health Division Culture Collection, Department of Agriculture, Baron-Hay Crt., South Perth. WA. 6151, Australia.

AHN: Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, Helsinki Collection, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

AHRL: Animal Health Research Laboratory, CSIRO Division of Animal Health, Private Bag No. 1, Parkville. Vic. 3052, Australia.

AHU: Laboratory of Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

AIST: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan.

AJ: Central Research Laboratories, Ajinomoto Co, Inc., Kawasaki, Japan.

AKU: Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

ALIRU: Australian Legume Inoculants Research Unit, NSW Agriculture Horticultural Research and Advisory Station, Locked Bag 26, Gosford, New South Wales, 2250, Australia.

AMC: Department of Biologics Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washignton, D.C., USA.

AMIF: American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill., USA.

AMRC: FAO-WHO International Reference Centre for Animal Mycoplasmas, Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

AMRC-C: Collaborating Center for Animal Mycoplasmas, Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

ANMR: Asian Network on Microbial Research. Database available in ¤ JCM.

API: bioMérieux sa, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France.

ARS: Agricultural Research Service culture collection. See: ¤ NRRL.

AS: Acronym used by the ¤ "CGMCC-China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center" for their accession numbers.

ATCC: American Type Culture Collection. Corporate: ATCC, 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110-2209, USA Products & Services Orders: ATCC, P.O. Box 1549, Manassas, VA 20108-1549, USA

ATU: Department of Biotechnology, Division of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

AUCM: See: VKM.

AUCNM: All-Union Collection of Nonpathogenic Microrganisms, Department of Type Cultures of Microorganisms, Institute of Biochemistry & Physiology of Microorganisms, URSS Academy of Sciences, Puschino, Moscow Region 142292, Russia.

AYU: Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Yamaguchi University, Japan.

BACC: Brucella AFSSA Culture Collection, AFSSA Alfort, O.I.E./FAO Brucellosis Reference Laboratory, Maisons-Alfort BP67 F-94703, France.

BC: Bacterial Collection of the Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166 Villagio S. Agata Messina, Italy.

BCC: BIOTEC Culture Collection, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), 73/1 Rama VI Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

BCCM/LMG: See: ¤ LMG.

BCCN: Brucella Culture Collection, INRA, Nouzilly, F-37380,  France.

BCCUSP: Brazilian Cyanobacteria Collection - University of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 13418-900, Brazil.

BCRC: Bioresource Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, P.O.Box 246, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30099.

BDBPI: Bacteriology Department, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Delta Street, G-14561, Kiphissia, Athens, Greece.

BDUZ: Biological Sciences University of Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare MP167, Zimbabwe.

BGSC: Bacillus Genetic Stock Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, Ohio State University, USA.

BIM: Belarusian Collection of non-pathogenic microorganisms, Institute of microbiology, Belarus National Academy of Sciences, 2 Kuprevich str., Minsk 220141, Belarus.

BioCC: BioCC BioCen Culture Collection, BioCen, 1 1/2 Beltran, Bejucal, Havana, 6048, Cuba.

BKM = ¤ VKM.

BKMW: Culture Collection, Institute of Microbiology, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

BMBC: Brazilian Marine Bacteria Collection, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Beco dos Coroas, (fundos), Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, 88062-601, Brazil.

BMTU: Boehringer Mannheim GmbH Forschungszentrum Tutzing, Tutzing, Germany.

BPIC: Collections of Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, Benaki Phylopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kiphissia, GR-14561 Athens, Greece.

BR: Coleção de Culturas Embrapa Agrobiologia, Embrapa Agrobiologia km 7 Rodovia BR 465, Laboratório de cultura de bactérias, Cx Postal 74505, 23890-000-Seropédica RJ Brazil.

BRCC: USDA-ARS Rhizobium Germplasm Resource Collection, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Soybean and Alfalfa Research Laboratory, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Boulevard, Building 011, Room 19-9, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

BTCC: Biotechnology Culture Collection Institution Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi-LIPI (Research and Development Center for Biotechnology Indonesian Institute of Sciences), Jalan Raya Bogor Km 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia.

BTCC: Bulgarian Type Culture Collection, Institute for State Control of Drugs, Bd. Vladimir Zaimov 26, Sofia, Bulgaria.

BUCSAV: Institute of Biology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

CABI GRC (Strain numbers: IMI): The Genetic Resource Collection, CABI Bioscience UK Centre (Egham) formerly IMI, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9TY, UK.

CAIM: Collection of Aquacultural Important Microorganisms, CIAD/Mazatlán Unit for Aquaculture and Environmental Management, AP 711, Mazatlán, Sinaloa, 82000, Mexico.

CAIRCC = CAIR: Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, P.O.Box 2 KBYL, Jakarta Selatan 12240, Indonesia.

CAIRO: Cairo Microbiological Resource Centre - Cairo Mircen, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt.

CAPM: Collection of Animal Pathogenic Microorganisms, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno, Czech Republic.

CAUP: Collection of Algae, Charles University, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Benátská 2, 128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic.

CB: The CB Rhizobium Collection, The CB Rhizobium Collection, CSIRO Tropical Agriculture, 306 Carmody Road, St. Lucia. Brisbane. Qld. 4067, Australia.

CBCC: Colworth Bacterial Culture Collection, Unilever Research Laboratory, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, U.K.

CBMAI: Brazilian Collection of Microorganisms from the Environment and Industry (Colecao Brasileira de Microrganismos de Ambiente e Industria), Campinas State University (UNICAMP), CPQBA-UNICAMP / Av. Alexandre Cazelatto, 999 / Vila Betel, Paulinia, SP, CEP 13140-000, Brazil.

CBRI: Cell Biology Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada.

CBS: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands - P.O.Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

CC IBSO: Culture Collection of Luminous Bacteria of the Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia.

CC: CSIRO Canberra Rhizobium Collection, Division of Plant Industry CSIRO, G.P.O. Box 1600, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.

CCALA: Czechoslovak Database of Algae and Cyanobacteria, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Department Hydrobotany, Dukelská 145, CZ-37 982 Trebon, Czech Republic.

CCAP: Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, CEH Windermere, The Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria LA22 0LP, United Kingdom.

CCARM: Culture Collection of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes, 126 Kongnung 2dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774, Republic of Korea.

CCBAU: Culture Collection of Beijiing Agricultural University, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

CCCCM: China Committee for Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Institute of Microbiology, Academia Sinica, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

CCCIEB: Culture Collections of Microorgansisms of Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Center of genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 31 Ave / 158 and 190, C. Habana P.O.Box 6162, Cuba.

CCDM: Culture Collection of Department of Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Shizishan, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

CCDMBI: Culture Collection, Department of Microbiology, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra, Calcutta, West Bengal, 700009, India.

CCEB: Culture Collection of Entomophagous Bacteria, Institute of Entomology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Flemingovo 2, Prague 6, Czechoslovakia.

CCF: Colleccion de Cuttivos Finlay, Instituto Finlay, 27# 19805, Civdad de la Habara 11600, Cuba.

CCFC/DAOM: Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Rm. 1015, K.W. Neatby Bldg., K1A OC6 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

CCGB: Cole(e7)o de Culturas do G(ea)ero Bacillus e G(ea)eros Correlatos, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz - Instituto Oswaldo Cruz- Departamento de Bacteriologia - Laborat(f3)io de Fisiologia Bacteriana, Av. Brasil, 4365 - Manguinhos, Cx. Postal 926, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900, Brazil.

CCIBSO: Culture Collection IBSO, Institute of Biophysics (Siberian Bransh of Russian Academy of Sciences), Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia.

CCIM: Culture Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, Institute of Microbiology, 7b, A.Kadiry street, Tashkent 700128, Uzbekistan.

CCIM: Culture Collection of the Institute of Microbiology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

CCM: Czech Collection of Microorganisms, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Tvrdého 14, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

CCM-A: Coleccion de Cultivos Microbianos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, Piso 8, Buenos Aires 1113, Argentina.

CCMCU: Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Department of Microbiology (Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos), Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

CCMEE: Culture Collection of Microorganisms from Extreme Environments, University of Oregon, Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 5289 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5289, USA

CCMI: Culture Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, National Institute of Industrial Technology, Azinhaga dos Lameiros, Lisboa 1699-038, Portugal.

CCMM: Moroccan Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms, Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), 52, Avenue Omar Ibn Khattab - B.P 8027 - Agdal, Rabat 10.102, Morocco.

CCMP: Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton, Bigelow Laboratory, McKown Point, West Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575, USA

CCOC: Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saude-INCQS, Av. Brasil, 4365-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.

CCOS: Culture Collection of Switzerland, c/o ZHAW, Einsiedlerstr. 29, 8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland.

CCRC: The Culture Collection and Research Center, Food Industry Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 246, Hsinchu, 30099, Taiwan, R.O.C. ¤ BCRC.

CCRI: Collection du Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, Universite Laval, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, RC709, Quebec, Quebec, G1V 4G2, Canada.

CCSIIA: Culture Collection of Sichuan Industrial Institute Antibiotics, Sichuan Industrial Institute of Antibiotics, Shanbangiao P.O.Box 610051, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

CCSM: Culture Collection for Soil Microorganisms, Soil and Water Reserarch Instutute(SWRI), North Kargar Ave., Jalal Al Ahmad, Tehran, Tehran, 14155-6185, Iran.

CCT: Coleção de Culturas Tropical, Rua Latino Coelho, 1301 Parque Taquaral, CEP 13087-010 - Campinas - SP - Brasil.

CCTCC: Chinese Centre for Type Cultures Collections, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, China.

CCTM: Centre de Collection de Types Microbiens, Institut Universitaire de Microbiologie, 44 Rue du Bugnon, CH-1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

CCUG: Culture Collection, University of Göteborg, Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Institute of Clinical Bacteriology, Immunology, and Virology, Guldhedsgatn 10A s-413, 46 Göteborg, Sweden.

CDBB: Unidad de Servicios de la Coleccion Nacional de Cepas Microbianas y Cultivos Celulares, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, D.F., Del. G.A. Madero, 07360, Mexico.

CDC = NCDC: Centers for Disease Control, United States Public Health Service, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA

CECT: Colección Espagñola de Cultivos Tipo, Universitat de Valencia, Edeficio de Investigación, Campus de Burjasot, 46100 Burjasot (Valencia), Spain.

CELMS: Collection of Environmental and Laboratory Microbial Strains, University of Tartu, 23 Riia Str, Tartu 51010, Estonia.

CENACUMI: Centro Nacional de Cultivos Microbianos, P.O.Box 60-600, Mexico City, D.F., 03800, Mexico.

CEPIM: Centro per gli Enterobatteri Patogeni per l'Italia Meridionale, Instituto di Igiene dell'Universita, Via del Vespro, 133, Palermo 90127, Italy.

CEPM: Centre d'Etudes sur le Polymorphisme des Micro-organismes, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, 911 avenue Agropolis-B.P.5045, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 01, France.

CETESB: Setor de Pesquisa Tecnologica de Sistemas de Tratamento de Efluentes Domesticos, Cia. de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Av. Prof. Frederico Herman Jr, 345, Alto de Pinheiros, 05489 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

CFBP: Collection Française de Bactéries associées aux plantes, INRA Station de Pathologie Végétale et Phytobactériologie, 42 rue G. Morel, B.P. 57, F-49071 Beaucouzé Cedex, France.

CFML: Collection de la Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex, France.

CFN: Centro de Investigación sobre Fijación de Nitrógeno, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo Postal 565-A, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

CGMCC: China General Microbiological Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, PR China.

CGSC: Escherichia coli Genetic Stock Center, 830 Kline Biology Tower, MCD Biology Department, 266 Whitney Ave., PO box 208103, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8193, USA.

CH-AG: Collection de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier General Avranches-Granville Laboratoire de Microbiologie, 59 rue de la Liberte, 50300 Avranches, France.

CIAM: Collection of Nonpathogenic Microorganisms for Agriculture, All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (ARRIAM), Shosse Podbelskogo, 3, Saint-Petersburg - Pushkin 196608, Russian Federation.

CIAT: Rhizobium Collection, Centro International de Agricultura Tropical, AA 6713, Cali, Colombia.

CICC: Chinese Center for industrial Culture Collection, Xiao Yun Road Chao Yan District Beijing, China.

CICIM: The Culture and Information Centre of Industrial Microoganisms of China Universities, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Rd., Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214036, China.

CICV: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias, Las Cabanas Y Los Reseros, Villa Udaondo, Buenos Aires, 1708-C.C.No 77, Argentina.

CIMSC: Collezione Instituto di Microbiologia, Spedali Civili, P. le Spedali Civili 1, Brescia 25100, Italy.

CIP: Collection de l'Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

CIPT: Collection Institut Pasteur Tuberculose, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Paris 75724 Cedex 15, France.

CIRM-BIA: Centre International de Ressources Microbiennes Bacteries d'Interet Alimentaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, INRA UMR STLO - 65, rue de Saint brieuc, Rennes Cedex 35042, France.

CIRM-BP: Centre International de Ressources Microbiennes - Bacteries Pathogenes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, IASP 311- INRA, centre de Tours, Nouzilly 37380, France.

CLIP: Listeria Collection of the Pasteur Institute, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

CMCC: China Marine Microbe Collection, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, nanjing Road 106, qingdao, shandong, 266071, China.

CMCC: China Medical Culture Collection Center, National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products (NICPBP), Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, China.

CMDM-PUJ: Coleccion Microorganismos Departamento Microbiologia, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 7 CARRERA #43-82, Bogota, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

CMMC: China Marine Microbe Collection, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, nanjing Road 106, qingdao, shandong, 266071, China.

CMPPB: Collection of Microbiological Cultures - Potential Producers of Biopesticides, Research-Industrial Company "Rosagroservice", Gamaleya street, 18, Moscow, 123098, Russia.

CMPUJ: Colección de Microorganismos Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. Carrera 7 Nº 43-82. Colombia.

CN: Wellcome Collection of Bacteria, Burroughs Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, Kent, UK.

CNBLM: Collectione Nationale de Bacteria, Lab. Microbiologia, Centro per l'Ecologia Teorica e Applicata CETA, Via Vittorio Veneto 19, I-34170, Gorizia, Ital.

CNCM = CNCMI: Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes, Institut Pasteur, 25 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France.

CNCTC: Czech National Collection of Type Cultures, National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 110 42 Praha 10, Czech Republic.

CNPBS: Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Biologia do Solo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

CNRZ: Centre National de Recherches Zootechniques, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

CNS: Centre National des Salmonella, Paris, France.

CNU: Collection of Newcastle University, Department of Microbiology, The Medical School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom.

CNY: Centre National des Yersinia, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

CPAC: Cpac-Embrapa, Embrapa-Cerrados, CX.Postal 08223, Planaltina, DF, 73301-970, Brazil.

CPCC: Canadian Phycological Culture Centre (formerly known as the University of Toronto Culture Collection of Algae and Cyanobacteria, UTCC), Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W., Waterloo, ON, CANADA N2L3G1.

CPHS: WHO/FAO/OIE Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Western Pacific Region, Laboratory of Microbiology and Pathology, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Queensland Department of Health, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains. Qld. 4108, Australia.

CPPIPP: Collection of Plant Pathogens, Plant Protection Institute, Miczurina 20, 60-318 Poland.

CPZ: Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Casilla 3092 Correo Central, Martinez, Buenos Aires, D-3300, Argentina.

CRAB: Centre National de Référence des Antibiotiques, Bacterial strains available from the CRAB, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux - 75724 Paris Cedex 15.

CRBIP: Centre de Ressources Biologiques de l'Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

CRIPP: Culture Collection of Rhizobia, Research Institute of Crop Production, DrnovskÁ 507, 161 06 Praha 6 - RuzynÅ, Czech Republic.

CRL: Centro de Referencia Para Lactobacilos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Chacabuco 145, San Miguel de Tucuman, Tucuman, 4000, Argentina.

CSCC: CSIRO Starter Culture Collection, CSIRO Division of Foodscience, Graham Road, Highett. Vic. 3190, Australia.

CSIR: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa.

CSMA: Centro di Studio dei Microorganismi Autotrofi - CNR, Instituto di Microbiologia Agraria e Tecnica Universita degli Studi - Firenze, P.zale Cascine, 27, Firenze 50144, Italy.

CSUR: Collection de Souches de l'Unité des Rickettsies, Unité des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR6020, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France.

CUB = CCUB: Actinomycete Culture Collection, University of Bradford, Richmon Rd., Bradford, Yorkshire BD7 1DP, U.K.

CUETM: Collection de l'Unité d'Écotoxicologie Microbienne, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 369 rue Jules Guesde, B.P. 39, 59651 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex, France.

CVCC: China Veterinary Culture Collection Center, National Control Institute of Veterinary Bio-products and Pharmaceutical (NCIVBP), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

CVCM: Centro Venezolano de Colecciones de Microorganismos, Instituto de Biologia Experimental, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Calle Suapure, Colinas de Bello Monte, Caracas, DC, 1041-A, Venezuela.

CY: Centre des Yersinia, Institut Pasteur, 25 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris, 75724 Cedex 15, France.

DACT: Dept. Agricult. Chem. Technol., Technical University of Budapest, Gellert ter 4, 1111 Budapest XI., Hungary.

DAOM: National Mycological Herbarium, Plant Research Institute, Department of Agriculture Ottawa, Canada. See: ¤ CCFC/DAOM.

DAPP-PG: Dipartimento di Arboricoltura e Protezione delle Piante, Università di Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno, 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy.

DAR: Plant Pathology Herbarium, Orange Agricultural Institute, Forest Road, Orange. NSW 2800, Australia.

DBM: Collection of Yeasts and Industrial Microorganisms, Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, TechnickÁ 5, 166 28 Praha 6, Czech Republic.

DBS: Department of Biological Culture Collection, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Road 119260, Singapore.

DBUA: Department of Biology, Section of Ecology and Systematics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, G-15784, Athens, Greece.

DBUM;IPT: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, U50603 Kuala LumpurMalaysia, Malaysia.

DBVPG: Collezione del Lieviti Industriali, Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgno XX Giugno, 74, I-06121, Perugia.

DCC: Dairy Culture Collection, Faculty of Biotechnology, Agricultural College of Athens, Iera Odos 75, G- 11855, Otanikos Athens, Greece.

DE-CSIRO: CSIRO Insect Pathogen Collection, CSIRO Division of Entomology, PO Box 1700, Canberra. ACT 2601, Australia.

DMBUK: Department of Microbiology, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

DMCCUM: Microbiology Department Culture Collection, Department of Microbiology, University of Melbourne, Royal Parade, Parkville. Vic. 3052, Australia.

DMCCUS: School of Biological Sciences Culture Collection, University of Surrey, Stag Hill, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 5XH, United Kingdom.

DMKKU1: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mitraparp, Muang, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

DMMZ: Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, CH-8028, Zurich, Switzerland.

DMPMC: Department of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6009, Australia.

DMSRDE: DMSRDE Culture Collection, DRDO New Delhi, G.T. Road Post Box No. 320, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208 013, India.

DMSRDE: DMSRDE Culture Collection, DRDO New Delhi, G.T. Road Post Box No. 320, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208 013, India.

DMST: Department of Medical Sciences Culture Collection, National Institute of Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Tiwanond Road, Nonthaburi, 11000, Thailand.

DMUIJ: Department of Microbiology, University of Indonesia, J1. Pegangsaan Timur 16, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia.

DMVB: Department of Microbiology, Veterinary Branch of National Strain Collection, The National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantow 57, Pulawy 24-100, Poland.

DPC: Dairy Products Research Center, Teagasc, Moorepark, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland.

DPDU: Instituto de difesa delle Plante, Unvinersita degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy.

DPIWE-FHU: Fish Disease Culture Collection, Fish Health Unit, Department of Primary Industries Water Environment, 165 Westbury Road, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250, Australia.

DPUA: Departamento de Patologia/ICB, Universidade do Amazonas, Campus Universitario, Estrada do Contorno, S/N, 69.000 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

DRL: Diagnostical and Research Laboratory, Budapest, Hungary.

DSIR: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mount Albert Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand.

DSM = DSMZ: DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Inhoffenstrasse 7B, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

ECOR: Escherichia coli Reference Collection, Microbial Evolution Laboratory, 165 Food Safety & Toxicology Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

EMCC: Egypt Microbial Culture Collection, Cairo Microbiological Resources Centre (Cairo MIRCEN), Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriculture, P.O.Box 68, Shoubra Garden, Cairo, 11241, Egypt.

ENCB-IPN: Coleccion de cultivos de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas. I.P.N., Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Mexico D.F., Mexico, 11340, Mexico.

ESAP: Instituto Zimotecnico-Z, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz-ESALQ-USP, Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Agroindustrial, Av. Padua Dias, 11, 09, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil.

ETH: Kultursammlungen der Eidgenosische Technische Hochschule, Zurich , Switzerland .

ETHZ: Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule-Zentrum, Mikrobiologisches Institut, Zürich, Switzerland

EX: Microbiological culture collection, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

FAT: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

FBABC: Freshwater Biological Association Bacterial Collection, Ferry House, Far Sawrey, Ambleside, Cumbria LA 22 0LP, United Kingdom.

FBGMU: Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, J1.Teknika Selatan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

FDA: US Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C., USA.

FDC: Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, Massachussetts 02115, USA.

FERM: Patent Microorganism Depository, National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology (NIBHT) (formerly the Fermentation Research Institute (FRI), Agency of Industrial Science & Industry, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, 305 Japan.

FIRDI: Food Industry Research and Development Institute, HsinChu, 30052, Taiwan, ROC.

FLRM: Farmitalia Laboratori Ricerche Microbiologia, Milan, Italy.

FMJ: Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan.

FMR: Facultad de Medicina, Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

FNCC: Food and Nutrition Culture Collection, Gadjah Mada University, Jl. Teknika Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.

FPC: Fish Pathogen Collection, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

FRI: Australian Food Science, Princess Highway, Werribee. Vic. 3030, Australia.

FRI: Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Japan.

FRR: CSIRO Division of Food Research, CSIRO Food science, PO Box 52, North Ryde. NSW. 2113, Australia.

FTCC: Food Technology Culture Collection, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Food Technology Centre, MARDI, GPO Box 12301, Kuala Lumpur, 50774, Malaysia.

GAB: Greek Aquaculture Bacteria, Laboratory of Ichthyology, Veterinary Medicine, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki & Laboratory of Ichthyopathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaly - Institute of Aquaculture of the Hellenic Center for Marine Research Athen, AUTH campus, PO BOX 395, Thessaloniki 52124, Greece(Hellenic Rep.).

GAM: Grupo Actinomicetales Merida Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, P.O. Box 164Merida, 5101A, Venezuela.

GCL: Central Laboratories, Ministry of Health Jerusalem, Jaffa Street 86, Jerusalem, Israel.

GDMCC: Guangdong Microbial Culture Collection Center, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Building 59th, Xianlie Central Road 100, Guangzhou 510070, PR China.

GIEM: Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

GIFU: See: ¤ GTC-GIFU.

GSF: National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

GTC: See: ¤ GTC-GIFU.

GTC-GIFU: Gifu Type Culture Collection (GTC), Gifu University Culture Collection (GIFU), Department of Microbiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 40 Tsukasa-Machi, Gifu 500-8705, Japan.

HAC: Faculty of Agriculture, Kobe University, Japan.

HACC: Research Laboratories, Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd., India.

HAM: Institut für Allgemeine Mikrogiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany.

HAMBI: Culture Collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

HAU: Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

HCC (formerly International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection): Hawaii Culture Collection, Marine Bioproducts Engineering Center (MarBEC), University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, HIG 131, Honolulu, HI 96822-2219, USA.

HDP: Centre National de Référence des Streptocoques, Service de Microbiologie, Hôtel-Dieu Paris (HDP), Université Paris VI, 1 place du Parvis Notre-Dame, F-75181 Paris 04, France.

HKI: Hans-Knöll-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung e.V., D-07745 Jena, Germany.

HKUCC: The University of Hong Kong Culture Collection, Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, China.

HMGB: Hungarian Microbiology Gene Bank, Microbiological Department, Group of the Department of Food Technology and Microbiology of the University of Horticulture, 1064 Budapest, Izabella, Hungary. ¤ NCAIM.

HNCMB = OKI: Hungarian National Collection of Medical Bacteria, "B. Johan" National Center for Epidemiology, Gyali ut 2-6, H-1097 Budapest, Hungary.

HPKTCC: Helicobacter pylori Korean Type Culture Collection, Gyeongsang National University College of Medine, 90 Chiram-dong, Jiju, Gyeongsangnam-do, 660-751, Republic of Korea.

HSCC: Culture Collection of the Research and Development Department, Higeta Shoyu, Co., Ltd., 2-8 Chuo-cho, Choshi, Chiba 288, Japan.

HULL: Department of Biochemistry, The University, Hull HU6 7RX North Humbersid, United Kingdom.

HUT: Laboratory for Fermentation, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Japan.

IACR: Long Ashton Research Station, Integrated Approach to Crop Research, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bristol, Long Ashton, Bristol BS18 9AF, United Kingdom.

IAF: Institute Armand Frappier, Centre de Recherche en Bactériologie, Quebec, Canada.

IAFB: Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology (IAFB), Rakowiecka 36, PL-02-532 Warsaw, Poland.

IAL: Secao de Colecao de Culturas, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355, Sao Paulo 01246-902, Brazil.

IAM (IAMCC): Institute of Applied Microbiology, Culture Collection, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunko-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. (Collection transferred to ¤ JCM). 

IAUR: Institute of Antibiotics, University of Recife, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

IAW: Research and Development Centre for Biotechnology Culture Collection, ul. Staroscinska 5, 02-516 Warszawa, Poland.

IBA: Collection of Microorganisms Producing Antibiotics, Institute of Biotechnology and Antibiotics, Staroscinska 5, PL-02-516 Warsaw, Poland.

IBAC: Institute of Botany, Academica Sinica, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

IBL: Botanical Institute, Lisbon Faculty of Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal.

IBPhM: Department of Type Culture of Microorganisms, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, URSS Academy of Sciences, Puschino, Moscow Region, Russia.

IBPRM: Culture Collection of the Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Prospect Entusiastov, 13Saratov, 410015, Russia.

IBRC: Iranian Biological Resources Center, Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR), No. 80, West Howeyzeh St., North Sohrevardi Ave.,Tehran,Tehran,1551916111, Iran.

IBS: Institut de Bactériologie de la Faculté de Médecine, Université Louis-Pasteur, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 3 rue Koeberlé, 6700 Strasbourg, France.

IBSBF: Biological Institute Culture Collection of Phytopathogenic Bacteria, Instituto Biologico, Rodovia Heitor Penteado, Km 3,5, Caixa Postal 70, Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13001-970, Brazil.

IBSO: see: ¤ CC IBSO.

ICBB: Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, ICBB Culture Collection for Microorganisms and Cell Culture, Taman Yasmin Sektor VI No. 150, Bogor, West Java, 16006, Indonesia.

ICCF: Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical Research and Development (ICCF), 112 Soseaua Vitan, Bucharest, sector 3, 74373, Romania.

ICMP = PDDCC: International Collection of Micro-organisms from Plants, Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand.
The ICMP is the repository for micro-organisms of plant and soil origin of the New Zealand Reference Culture Collection (¤ NZRCC).

ICPB: International Collection of Phytopathogenic Bacteria, USDA, Ft. Detrick, MD, USA

IEBC: International Entomopathogenic Bacillus Centre (WHO), Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, Paris 75015, France.

IEGM: Regional Specialized Alkanotrophic Microorganism Collection of the Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch RAS. Goleva Str., 13, Perm, 614081, Russia.

IEM: Czech National Collection of Type Cultures, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Prague, Czech.

IEKC, SSI: The International Escherichia and Klebsiella Centre (WHO), Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, Copenhagen 2300 S, Denmark.

IFAM: Institut für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, Universität Kiel, Am Botauischen Garten 1-9, Kiel, D-24118, Germany.

IFBM: Streptokokken Sammlung, Institut fur Hygiene an der Bundesanstalt fur Milchforschung, Hermann Weigmann Strasse 1, D-2300 Kiel, Germany.

IFM: IFM Quality Services Pty Ltd, 4/58 Stennett Road, Ingleburn, NSW, 2565, Australia.

IFM: Research Center for Pathogenic Fungi and Microbial Toxicoses, Chiba University, Chiba, Chiba 260-8673, Japan.

IFO: Institute for Fermentation, Culture Collection of Microorganizms, 17-85, Juso-honmachi, 2-chome, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-8686, Japan. ¤ NBRC. From July 01, 2002, all cultures preserved in the IFO have been transferred to the NBRC. NBRC number corresponds to the same IFO number (ex., NBRC 12345 = IFO 12345).

IGESALQ: Colecao Microorganismos, Departmento de Genetica Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Av.Padua Dias 11-P.O.Box 83, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 13400-970, Brazil.

IIBM-UNAM: Industrial Culture Collection, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, México DF, Mexico.

IID: Laboratory Culture Collection, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

IJFM: Instituto Jaime Ferrán de Microbiología Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.

IMAC: Institute of Microbiology, Academica Sinica, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

IMAS: Museum of Cultures, Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.

IMCC: Inha Microbe Culture Collection, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Republic of Korea.

IMD: Industrial Microbiology Dublin, Dept. of Industrial Microbiology, University College, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4, Ireland.

IMET = ZIMET: Institute for Microbiology and Experimental Therapy (Zentralinstitut für Mikrobiologie und Experimentelle Therapie), Beutenbergstrasse 11, Jena 69, Germany.
IMET = ZIMET was incorporated into the ¤ DSMZ.

IMG: Collection of Genetically Modified Microorganisms of the Institute of Molecular Genetics, RAS, Kurchatov Sq., 46, Moscow123182, Russia.

IMG: Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Göttingen, Germany.

IMI: see ¤ CABI GRC.

IMMIB: Culture Collection of the Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology of the University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud Str. 25, D-53127 Bonn, Germany.

IMRU: Institute of Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, USA

IMSNU: Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea.

IMV: see: ¤ UCM.

IMVS: Clinical Microbiology Culture Collection, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, PO Box 14, Rundle Mall, Adelaide. SA 5000, Australia.

IMYZA: Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, C.C.25 (1712), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

INA: Institute for New Antibiotics, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya II, Moscow 119867, Russia.

INCQS: Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saude-INCQS, Av. Brasil, 4365-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.

INDRE: Pathogen Fungi and Actinomycetes Collection, Instituto Nacional de Diagnostico y Referencia Epidemiologica S. S., Carpio No. 470. Santo Tomas. M, Mexico, D.F., 700009, Mexico.

INMI: Culture Collection of the Institute for Microbiology, USSR Academy of Sciences, 7 Bldg 2, Prospekt 60-letiya Oktiyabriya, Moscow GSP-7, 117811, Russia.

INPA: National Institute of Amazonia Research, Manaus, Brazil.

INRA: Microbiologie des Sols, ACRONYM, 17 Rue Sully, B.V. 1540, Dijon Cedex.21034, France.

IOC (CAAS): Institute of Oil Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

IOEB: Institut d'Oenologie de Bordeaux, Faculté d'Oenologie Université de Bordeaux 2, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence, France.

IOMCC: International Organization for Mycoplasmatology Culture Collection, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

IPDH: Institue for Poultry Disease, The School of Veterinary Medicine, D-3000 Hannover, Germany.

IPF: Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, Institute of Fermentation Industry, ul. Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warszawa, Poland.

IPOD: International Patent Organism Depositary, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

IPPAS: Collection of Microalgae of the Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya 35, Moscow 127276, Russia.

IPR: Culture Collection of the Institute of Plant Physiology, RAS, Botanicheskaja St. 35, Moscow, 127276, Russia.

IPT: Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo, Av. Professor Almeida Prado, 532, CEP 05508-901, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

IPV: Instituto di Patologia Vegetale, Milano, Italia.

ISC: International Salmonella Centre (W.H.O.), Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 75724 Cedex 15, France.

ISP: International Streptomyces Project, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, 43015, USA (Terminated).

ISPB: Institut des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Laboratoire de Microbiologie, 8 avenue Rockefeller, 69373 Lyon cedex 08, France.

ISRI: Indonesian Sugar Research Institute (Pusat Penelitian Perkebunan Gula Indonesia), Jl. Pahlawan 25, Pasuruan 67126, Indonesia.

ISS: Collection of Bacteria, Institute of Soil Science, Department of Soil Microbiology, Teodora Drajzera 7, pob 33, Belgrade, Serbia, 11000, Yugoslavia.

ITA: Bacteriology Laboratory, Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, 165 Westbury Road, Launceston. Tas. 7250, Australia.

ITALSL: Secao de Leite e Derivados, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Av. Brasil, 288013073 Campinas, SP, Cx. Postal 139, Brazil.

ITALSM: Secao de Microbiologia, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Av. Brasil, 288013073 Campinas, SP, Cx. Postal 139, Brazil.

ITBCC: Institute of Technology Bandung Culture Collection, Laboratory for Microbiology & Fermentation Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia.

ITCC: Indian Type Culture Collection, Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Mycology Div, I.A.R.I., New Delhi 110012, India.

ITD: Coleccion de Cepas Microbianas, Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Felipe Pescador 1830, Durango, Mexico.

ITDI: Industrial Technology Development Institute, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig, M.M., Philippines.

ITEM: Agri-Food Toxigenic Fungi Culture Collection, I.S.P.A.,  Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Via Amendola, 122/O - 70126 Bari, Italy.

ITG: Institut français des fromages, 419 Route des Champs Laitiers, La Roche Sur Foron 74801, France.

ITH: W.H.O./F.A.O. Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Leptospirosis, Royal Tropical Institute, Dept. of Biomedical Research, Meibergdreef 39, Amsterdam 1105 AZ Z.O, The Netherlands.

IUNG = CRS: Collection of Rhizobium Strains, Institute of Soil Sciences (IUNG), Department of Microbiology, ul. Gorskiego 7 (Osada Palacowa), 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

IW = DMVB: Veterinary Branch of National Strain Collection, Veterinary Institute, Department of Microbiology, Al. Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

IZ: Departamento de Tecnologia Rural, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"-USP, Av. Padua Dias, 1113400 Piracicaba, SP, Cx. Postal 9, Brazil.

JBRI: Jeju Biodiversity Research Institute, Jeju 690-121, Republic of Korea.

JCM: Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0074, Japan.

JCT: James Cook Townsville Culture Collection, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia.

KACC: Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC), National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST), 249 Seodundong Kweonseonku, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

KBS: W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA

KCC: Culture Collection of Actinomycetes, Kaken Chemical Company Ltd., 6-42 Jujodai-1-Chome, Tokyo 114, Japan. (Collection transferred to ¤ JCM).

KCCM: Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms, Yurim Bild., 361-221, Hongje-dong, Sodaemoon-ku, Seoul 120-091, Republic of Korea.

KCTC: Korean Collection for Type Cultures, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Yusong, Taejon 305-600, Republic of Korea.

KEMB (formerly KEMC): Korea Environmental Microorganism Bank, Kyonggi University, 94-6 Yiui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 443-760, Pepublic of Korea.

KEMH: KEMH/PMH Culture Collection, King Edward Memorial Hospital/PMH for Children, Thomas Street, Subiaco. WA. 6008, Australia.

KFCC: Korean Federation of Culture Collections, Shinchondong Sodaemunku, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

KIT: Laboratorium voor Tropische Hygiene, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, Meibergdreef 39, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

KLMB: The Key Laboratory of Microbial Diversity in Southwest China, Ministry of Education and Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650091, PR China.

KM MGU: Collection of Microorganisms of the Department of Microbiology, Moscow State University. Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow State University, Biology Faculty, Department of Microbiology, Moscow, 119899, Russia.

KMM: Collection of Marine Microorganisms, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok, Prospekt 100 Let Vladivostoku 159, Russia.

KORDI: Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744, Republic of Korea.

KOS: Collection of Salmonella Microorganisms, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, National Salmonella Centre, Powstania Styczniowego 9 b, PL-81-519 Gdynia, Poland.

KPB: Prostate Tissue and microorganism, Korea Prostate Bank, 5010 Catholic Research Institutes 505 Banpo-dong Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040, Republic of Korea.

KUKENS: Centre for Research and Application of Culture Collections of Microorganisms, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Temel Bilimler Binasi, TR-34390 Capa-Istanbul, Turkey.

KY: Tokyo Research Laboratory, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.

LAKTO-FLORA: Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms, Milcom Servis a.s., BÅlohorskÁ 128, 169 00 Praha 6, Czech Republic.

Lancefield-Streptococcus Collection: Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Box 172, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA

LBG: Institute for Agricultural Bacteriology and Fermentation Biology, Confederated Technical High School, Zurich, Switzerland.

LCC: Labatt Culture Collection, Labatt Brewing Company Ltd., 150 Simcoe St., London, Ontario, N6A 4M3, Canada.

LCC: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Institute of Food Biotechnology, PL.Cieszynski Nr.1, r115, Olsztyn 10-957, Poland.

LCDC: Laboratory Center for Disease Control, Health and Welfare Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A OL2, Canada.

LDDC: Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40511, USA.

LE: Servico de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas - UERJ, Rua Prof. Manuel de Abreu, 48, Rio de Janeiro 20550 RJ, Brazil.

LHMC: Department of Oral Microbiology, Royal London Hospital Medical College, London, United Kingdom.

LIA: Cryobank of Microorganisms, Research Institute of Antibiotics and Enzymes, St. Petersburg, Russia.

LIA: Department of Microbiology, Latvian Academy of Agriculture, Jelgava, Latvia.

LIA: Museum of Cultures, Leningrad Research Institute of Antibiotics, 23 Ogorodnikov Prospect, Leningrad L-20, Russia.

LIPIMC: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (Indonesian Institute for Sciences), Pusat Penenlitian dan Pengembangan Biologi (Research and Development Centre for Biology) Address: Pustlitbang Biologi, JI. Juanda 18, Bogor, Indonesia.

LIPP: Leptospirotheque, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, Paris 75724 Cedex 15, France.

LMAU: Laboratory Microbiology, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

LMCH: Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier, BP 269, Cahors 46005, France.

LMD: Laboratorium voor Microbiologie der Technische Hogeschool, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67A, 2628 BC Delft, The Netherlands. ¤ NCCB.

LMG = BCCM/LMG: Collection of the Laboratorium voor Microbiologie en Microbiele Genetica, Rijksuniversiteit, Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000, Gent, Belgium.

LMS: Carolina Biological Supply Company, 2700 York Road, Burlington, North Carolina, 27215-3387, USA

LOCK: Centre of Industrial Microorganisms, Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Technical University, ul. Gdanska 166 (= Wolczanska 171/173 - corner), 90-537 Lodz, Poland.

LRTL: Laboratoire de Recherches et Technologies Laitière de Rennes, Rennes, France.

LSHB: Biochemistry Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

LSU: Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA

LTH: Institut für Lebensmitteltechnologie, Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

LTI: Cryobank of Microorganisms-Destructors, Department of Molecular biotechnology, Leningrad Lensoviet Institute of Technology, Moscowsky Prospekt, 26, Leningrad 198013, Russian Federation.

LUH: Collection L. Dijkshoorn, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

MAFF: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Genebank, National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8602 Japan.

MAO: Mircen Afrique Ouest, ISRA-CNRA, B.P. 53, Bambey, Senegal.

MAR: Grasslands Rhizobium Collection, Soil Productivity Research Laboratory, Private Bag 3757, Marondera, Zimbabwe.

MarBEC: MarBEC Culture Collection, Monto Kumagai, 1955 East-West Road, Agricultural Science Building Rm. 415M, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA.

MBIC = MBICC: Marine Biotechnology Institute Culture Collection, 3-75-1 Heita, Kamaishi, Iwate 026-001, Japan.

MCC: Microbial Culture Collection, National Centre for Cell Science, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, 411007, India.

MCCM: Medical Culture Collection Marburg, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Philipps University, Pilgrimstein 2, D-35037 Marburg, Germany.

MCC-NIES: Microbial Culture Collection at National Institute for Environmental Studies (MCC-NIES), 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

MCC-UPLB: Microbial Culture Collection of the Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031, Philippines.

MCITM: Bacterial Culture Collection, Institute Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, Antwerpen B 2000, Belgium.

MCM culture collection centre: Maharashtra Association for Cultivation of Science Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India.

MCML: Mc Master Culture Collection, CSIRO Division of Animal Health, Private Bag No 1, Cnr. Flemington Road and Park Drive, Melbourne. Vic. 3052, Australia.

MDA: M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

MDC: Microbial Depository Center, Center of Microbiology and Microbial Depository, NAS of Armenia, 6 Arzni street, Abovian, Kotayk, 2201, Armenia.

MDC: Molecular Diagnostics Center, Biomolecular Technologies S.L. and Universidad Miguel Hernández, Orihuela E-03300, Alicante, Spain.

MIM: Collection of the Cattedra di Microbiologia Industriale, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA.

MMCA: Medical Microbiology Culture Collection, Aarhus, Denmark.

MML: Medical Microbiological Laboratory, Ulleval Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

MOLA: Collection of Microbial Observatory Laboratoire Arago, Laboratoire Arago, avenue Fontaule, Banyuls sur Mer 66650, France.

MSCL: Microbial Strain Collection of Latvia, University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Kronvalda Blvd. 4, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia.

MSCMU: Microbiology Section, Chiang Mai University (MSCMU), Department of Biology, Faculty of science, Chang Mai University, Thailand, 239 Huay Kaew Road, Chiang Mai, Muang, 50202, Thailand.

MSDJ: Culture Collection of the Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Sols, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, F-21034 Dijon Cedex, France.

MTCC: Microbial Type Culture Collection & Gene Bank, Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector39-A, Chandigarh, India.

MTHU: Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medicine, Tahoku University, Miyagi-ken, Japan.

MU: Mugla University Collection of Microorganisms, Mugla Universitesi, Mugla University, Egitim Fakultesi, Mugla, Kotekli, TR-48170, Turkey.

MUCOB: Manchester University Collection of Bacteria, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom.

MUL: Department of Microbiology MUL-B 250, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Sainte Foy, Quebec, G1K-7P4, Canada.

MUSCL: Microbial Strain Collection of Latvia, University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Kronvalda Blvd. 4, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia.

NADC: National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa, USA

NAU: Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

NBBCRU: North Bengal University Bacterial Culture Repository Unit, Siliguri- 734430, West Bengal, India.

NBIMCC: National Bank for Industrial Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, 125 Tsarigradsko chaussee blvd., Bl.2, BG-1113 Sofia, Bulagaria.

NBRC: Biological Resource Center, National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE), 2-5-8, Kazusakamatari, Kisarazu-shi, Chiba Pref., 292-0812, Japan.
From July 01, 2002, all cultures preserved in the ¤ IFO have been transferred to the NBRC. NBRC number corresponds to the same ¤ IFO number (ex., NBRC 12345 = IFO 12345).

NCA: National Canners Association, San Francisco, California, USA

NCAIM: National Collection of Agricultural and Industrial Microorganisms, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Horticulture and Food Industry, Somlói út. 14-16, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary.

NCAM: National Collection of Agricultural Microorganisms, Institute of Microbiology, Abdulla Qadiriy 7 B, Tashkent 700128, Uzbekistan.

NCB: National Culture Bank, Università di Udine, Dip. Biologia Applicata Difesa Piante, Area Rizzi, Via delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine, Italy.

NCC: Nantes Culture Collection, Université de Nantes, 2 Rue de La Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes, France.

NCC: Nestlé Culture Collection, Nestlé Research Centre, Route du Jorat 57, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland.

NCCB: Netherlands Culture Collection of Bacteria (formerly Phabagen and LMD), NCCB/CBS, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

NCCP: National Culture Collection for Pathogens, National Institute of Health, Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Nokbeon-dong Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-701, Korea.

NCDC: National Collection of Dairy Cultures, National Dairy Research Institute, D.M.Divn, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana, 132001, India.

NCDO: National Collection of Dairy Organisms. See: ¤ NCFB.

NCFB: National Collection of Food Bacteria (previously named NCDO). Transferred from the IFR (Institute of Food Resarch) Reading to National Collections of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria, 23 Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 3RY, Scotland. ¤ NCIMB

NCH: National Chubu Hospital, Obu, Aichi, Japan 474.

NCIB: National Collection of Industrial Bacteria, Torry Research Station, P.O. Box 31, 135 Abbey Rd., Aberdeen AB9 8DG, Scotland, United Kingdom. ¤ NCIMB.

NCIM: National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms, National Chemical Laboratory, Poona 8, Maharashtra, India.

NCIMB: National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria, National Collections of Industrial, Food and Marine Bacteria, NCIMB Ltd, Ferguson Building, Craibstone Estate, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, AB21 9YA, UK Scotland.

NCMB: National Collection of Marine Bacteria, Torry Research Station Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom. ¤ NCIMB.

NCMH: The North Carolina Memorial Hostital, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

NCPPB: National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, United Kingdom.

NCSC: National Center of Streptococcus Collection, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Chulalongkorn University, Rama 4 Road, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

NCTC: National Collection of Type Cultures, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale Ave., London NW9 5HT, England, United Kingdom.

NEM: Faculté de Médecine Necker-Enfants Malades, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France.

NEU: Collection of Microorganisms, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

NGR: Plant Pathology, Department of Primary Industry, P.O. Box 2417, Konedobu, Port Moresby, 7250, Papua New Guinea.

NHL: National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

NIAES: Cultures of the Microbiology Division, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Yatabe, Ibaraki, Japan.

NIAH: National Institute of Animal Health, Ibaraki, Japan.

NIAID: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA

NIBH: National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Higashi 1-Chome, Tsukubashi, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan.

NIES: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Microbial Culture Collection, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan.

NIH: National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20014, USA

NIH: National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

NIHJ: National Institute of Health, Tokyo, Japan.

NIPH: Collection A. Nemec, National Institute of Public Health, Srobárova 48, 10042 Prague, Czech Republic.

NIVA: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA Culture Collection of Algae, PO Box 173 Kjelsås, N-0411 Oslo, Norway.

NLEP: The National Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens (NLEP), Health Canada, 1015 Arlington St, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

NMH: North Middlesex Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

NML or NML-HCCC: National Microbiology Laboratory Health Canada Culture Collections, National Microbiology Laboratory-Health Canada, 1015 Arlington Street suite H5040, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 3R2, Canada.

NRC = NRCC: National Research Council of Canada Culture Collection, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OR6, Canada.

NRCM: National Reference Centre for Mycobacteriology, National Microbiology Laboratory, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3E 3R2.

NRIC: NODAI Research Institute Culture Collection, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka 1-1-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.

NRL: Neisseria Reference Laboratory, US Public Health Service Hospital, Seattle, Washington 98114, USA

NRL (CZ): National Reference Laboratory, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic.

NRRL: Northen Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, US Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA
- NRRL B: The prefix B- denotes strains that were obtained directly from individuals or strains that were isolated at the Northern Regional Research Center.
- NRRL NRS: The prefix NRS- designates strains from the Bacillus collection of N.R. Smith, which has been deposited in the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection in toto by R.E. Gordon.

NRZEC: Nationales Referenzzentrum für Escherichia coli, Berlin, Germany.

NSCNFB: Novi Sad Collection of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Bul.King Petar I 67, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, 21000, Yugoslavia.

NTCCI: Culture Collection, Microbiology and Cell Biology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnatka, 560012, India.

NTHC: North Technical Hogskolles Collection, Department of Biochemistry, Technical University of Norway, Trondheim MTH, Norway.

NUA: Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National University of Athens, 75M. Asias Str., Goudi - 115 27, Athens 115 27, Greece.

NUM: Department of Microbiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Matsudo, Chiba 271, Japan.

NUSDM: Department of Microbiology, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore.

NZFS: Forest Research Culture Collection, New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand.

NZP: New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Applied Biochemistry Division, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

NZRCC: See ¤ ICMP (in part), ¤ NZRD (in part), ¤ NZRM (in part), ¤ NZRP (in part), ¤ WARC (in part).

NZRD (= NZDRI?): New Zealand Reference Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Dairy Section, New Zealand Dairy Research Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

NZRM: New Zealand Reference Culture Collection, Medical Section, Communicable Disease Group, ESR Kenepuru Science Centre, PO Box 50 348, Porirua, New Zealand.

NZRP: New Zealand Reference Culture Collection and Soil Section, c/o Plant Disease Division, Auckland, DSIR, Private bag, New Zealand.

OCM: Oregon Collection of Methanogens, PO Box 19600, Portland, OR 97291-1000, USA

OEU: Tennoji Branch, Osaka University of Liberal Arts and Education, Minami-Kawabori-Cho, Tennojiku, Osaka, Japan.

OGC: Oregon Graduate Center Collection, Beaverton, Oregon 97006-1992, USA

OGI: Collection of Methanogenic Archaeobacteria, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology ¤ OCM.

OMZ: Institut für Orale Mikrobiologie und Allgemeine Immunologie, Zentrum für Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde der Universität Zürich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8028, Zürich, Switzerland.

OOB: Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.

ORS: Culture Collection of the Laboratory of Soil Microbiology, ORSTOM, Dakar, Sénégal.

OUT: Department of Fermentation Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

PAH: Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia.

PBC: Pacific Bacterial Collection, 3190 Maile Way, St John Plant Science Building 315, Honolulu Hi 96822, USA.

PBF: Perum Bio Farma, Jl. Pasteur 28, Bandung, 40161, Indonesia.

PCC: Pasteur Culture Collection of Cyanobacteria, Unité de Physiologie Microbienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

PCM: Polish Collection of Microorganisms (Central Centre of Microorganisms Collections), Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Czerska 12, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland.

PCU: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Culture Collection (PCU), Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

PD: Culture Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Plant Protection Service, P.O.Box 9102, Geertjesweg 15, Wageningen 6700 HC, The Netherlands.

PDDCC = ICMP: Culture Collection of Plant Diseases Division, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand.

PGSC: Pseudomonas Genetic Stock Center, East Carolina University, School of Medicine in Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

PHLS/WHO: Collaborating Center for Research And Reference for Leptospirosis, County Hospital, Hereford HR1 2ER, United Kingdom.

PICC: Incorrect acronym for ¤ CIP.

PIR: Bulgarian Research Culture Collection, N. Poushkarov-Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, Bul. Makedonia No.8, Sofia 1606, Bulgaria.

PNCM-BIOTECH: Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms, National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, BIOTECH-UPLB, College Laguna, 4031, Philippines.

PPCC: Plant Pathology Culture Collection, Plant Pathology Branch, Department of Primary Industry, Meiers Road, Indooroopilly. Qld. 4069, Australia.

PPPPB: South African Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria, Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X 134, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.

PSA: Progetto Sistematica Actinomiceti, Institute of Microbiology, Milano University, Milano, Italy.

PTCC: Pakistan Type Culture Collections, Biotechnology & Food Research Center. Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Lahore, Punjab, 54600, Pakistan.

PTCCI: Persian Type Culture Collection, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Biotechnology Research Center, No.71, Forsat st, Ferdowsi sq, Tehran, I.R.Iran.

PZH: Collection of Cultures, Institute of Hygiene, Warsow, Poland.

QualiconTM: Qualicon Europe Ltd, Drakes Court, Wythall, 302 Alcester Road, Birmingham B47 6JR, United Kingdom.

RB: Raiffeisen-Bioforschung GmbH, Tulln, Austria.

RBCAR: Romanian Bioresource Centre and Advanced Research, Sector 6, Bucharest Romania.

RCC: Roscoff Culture Collection of Marine Phytoplancton, Station Biologique, Place G. Tessier, 29680 Roscoff, France.

RCDM: See ¤ MDC.

RCS: Imperial College of Science & Technology, London University, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BB, United Kingdom.

RH: Collection of Dr R Hugh, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

RHMU: Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medical Science, Ramathibordi Hospital, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok, Payathai, 10400, Thailand.

RIA: Culture Collection of the Institute for New Antibiotics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Bolshaja Pirogovskaja 11, Moscow, 119867, Russia.

RIB: National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-0046, Japan.

RIFIS: Culture Collection of Microorganisms with Application in the Fodder Industry, Food Research Institute, RadiovÁ 7, 102 31 Praha 10, Czech Republic.

RIFY: Research Institute of Fermentation, Yamanashi University, Kofu, Japan.

RIMD: Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Research Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0071, Japan.

RITFC: Research Institute for Tobacco and Fibre Crops Address: J1. Raya Karang Ploso, P.O.Box 199, Malang, Indonesia.

RKM: The Republic collection of microorganisms, The National center for biotechnology of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Valihanova, 43, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan.

RLCC: Roussel Laboratories Culture Collection, Microbiological QC, Roussel Laboratories Ltd, Kingfisher Drive, Covingham, Swindon, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

RM: Rumen Microorganisms, Grasslands Research Centre, AgResearch, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

RMIT: Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia 3001.

RML: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories Collection, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA

RRLB: Department of Microbiology, Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa, India.

RSCS: Republican Specialized Centre of Surgery, Medical Culture Collection, Farkhadskaya str., 10, Tashkent, 700115, Uzbekistan.

RSKK: Refik Saydam National Type Culture Collection, Refik Saydam National Institute of Hygiene, Cemal Gursel Cad. No:18, Sihhiye, Ankara 06100, Turkey.

RV: Collection of Leptospira Strains, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma-Nomentano, Italy.

RVAU: Strains Collection, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Bülowsvej 13, DK-1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

SABAMMRCCC: South American Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology, Microbiological Resource Center Culture Collection (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization), Tucumán, Argentina.

SAG: Sammlung von Algenkulturen, Universität Göttingen, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

SAITP: School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide. SA. 5000, Australia.

SBT: Technology and Research Institute, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd, Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan.

SC: Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

SCCM: Sporometrics Culture Collection of Microorganisms, Sporometrics Inc., 219 Dufferin Street, Suite 20C, Toronto, Ontario, M6K 1Y9, Canada.

SCSIO: South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya, 572000, PR China.

SEBR: Sanofi ELF Biorecherches, Labège Innopole, BP 137, 31676 Labège Cedex, France.

SEMIA: Colecao de Culturas de Rhizobium da Fepagro, Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Rua Goncalves Dias, 570, CEP90 130.060, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do sul, Brazil.

SFRI (CAAS): Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijiing, People's Republic of China.

SG: Schott & Gen. Jena, Mikrobiologisches Labor., Jena, Germany.

SGSC: Salmonella Genetic Stock Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

SICGH: Social Insurance Central General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

SIIA: Sichuan Industrial Institute of Antibiotics, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

SK&F: Smith Kline & French Laboratories, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101, USA

SKUK: Simpanan Kultur Universiti Kebangsaan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

SLCC: Special Listeria Culture Collection, Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

SMCC: Soil Microbiology Culture Collection, CSIRO Division of Soils, Private Bag No 2, Glen Osmond. SA. 5064, Australia.

SMCC-W: Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection, Western Branch, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Portland, Oregon 97291-1000, USA

SMTWA: School of Medical Technology Western Australia, School of Medical Technology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth. WA. 6001, Australia.

SMUM: St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

SPMCC: Sungei Putih Microbial Culture Collection, Sungei Putih Research Center for Estate Crops Address: P.O.Box 416, Medan 20000, Indonesia.

SRAICC: SRAI's culture collection, Scientific Research Agricultural Institute, Gvardeiskiy, Zhambylskaya oblast', 485444, Kazakhstan.

SRC CCM: Collection of Cultures of Microorganisms, VECTOR - State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, 633159 Koltsovo, Novosibirsk region, Russia.

SRI: Sugar Research Institute, Mackay, Australia.

SRRC: Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA, USA.

SSIC: Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Escherichia and Klebsiella, Statens Serum Institute, 5 Artillerivei, Copenhagen 2300 S, Denmark.

ST IVEL: Starter & Development Laboratory, St Ivel, Station Road, Wooton Barrett, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.

STM: Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, UMR 113, Campus International de Baillarguet TA 10/J, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.

SWC: Suzugamine Women's College, Hiroshima, Japan.

TC: Thaxter Collection, Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02138, USA

TCFB: Tasmanian Collection of Fish Bacteria, Fish Health Unit, Department of Primary Industries & Water, 165 Westbury Road, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250, Australia.

TISTR: Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 196 Phahonyothin Rd, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

TMC: The Mollicutes Collection of Cultures and Antisera, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, 725 Harrison Street, Room VPRB B13, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027, USA.

TMC: Trudeau Mycobacterium Collection, Trudeau Institute, 100 Algonquin Avenue, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA.

TMW: Technische Mikrobiologie Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Technische Mikrobiologie, Weihenstephaner Steig 16, 85350 Freising, Germany.

TPH: Microbiological Culture Collection, Public Health Laboratory, Ontario Department of Health, Toronto 116, Canada.

TUA: Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuraga-oka 1-1-1n Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156, Japan.

UASM: University of Alberta Soil Microbiology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada.

UBA: Microbiological Resource Center Culture Collection, South American Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology, Tucuman, Argentina.

UBC: University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.

UC: Upjohn Culture Collection, The Upjohn Co. Kalamazoo, MI, USA.

UCCM: University of Calabar Collection of Microorganisms, University of Calabar, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria.

UCD: University of California, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Davis, California, USA

UCL: Catholic University of Louvain, Av. Hippocrate 54, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.

UCLAF: HMR/Romainville, Hoechst Marion Roussel, 102 Route de Noisy, 93235 Romainville, France.

UCM: Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms, Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, 143 Zabolotny Srt. 252143 Kyiv, Ukraine.

UFPEDA: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departmento de Antibioticos, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, S/N, Recife, Pernambuco, 50739, Brazil.

UFRJIM: Departamento de Microbiologia Medica, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowski, S/N, CCS, Cidade Universitaria, 21.944 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Cx. Postal 68040, Brazil.

UICC: University of Indonesia Culture Collection, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, University of Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.

UJB: University of Jaffna Botany, Dept. of Botany, Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

UKKP: Universiti Kebangsaan Kultur Perubatan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, 50300, Malaysia.

UKNCC: United Kingdom National Culture Collection (The United Kingdom National Culture Collection co-ordinates the activities, marketing and research of the UK national service collections).

UMASS: University of Massachusetts, Institute of Microbiology, USA.

UMFFTD: Food and Fermentation Technology Division, Dept. of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, Nathalal Parekh Marg, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400 019, India.

UMH: University of Missouri Dunn-Palmer Herbarium, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA

UMIP: Collection de Champignons et Actinomycètes Pathogènes, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, Paris 75724 Cedex 15, France.

UNIQEM: Unique and Extremophilic Microorganisms Collection of Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology RAS, Prospect 60 let Oktyabrya, 7/2, 117312 Moscow, Russia.

UNIQUEM: Incorrect acronym for ¤ UNIQEM.

UNSWCC or UNSW: University of New South Wales Culture Collection, The Culture Collection, School of Microbiology and Immunology, University of NSW, NSW 2052, Australia.

UPCC: Natural Sciences Research Institute Culture Collection, University of the Philippines, Southeast Corner Quirino Avenue and Velasquez Street, Quezon City 1101, Philippines.

UPL: Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.

UPM: Depatmento de Microbiologia, E.T.S. de Ingenerios Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica, Madrid, Spain.

UPMR: Universiti Pertanian Malaysia Rhizobium Collection, Department of Soil Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

UPRM: Rhizobium Culture Collection, University of Puerto Rico, BNF Laboratory, Dept.of Agronomy and Soils, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 00681-9030.

UQB: University of Queensland Microbiology Collection, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

UQM: Culture Collection, Department of Microbiology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. ¤ ACM.

USBA: Unidad de Saneamiento y Biotecnología Ambiental, Departamento de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, POB 56710, Bogotá, Colombia.

USCC: University of Surrey Culture Collection, Department of Microbiology, University of Surrey, Guilford, UK.

USDA: Beltsville Rhizobium Culture Collection, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Md., USA

UTCC: voir CPCC.

UTEX: Culture Collection of Algae/MCDB, 1 University Station A6700, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0183, USA.

UTMB: University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Pathology, Galveston, Texas, USA.

UTMC: University of Tehran Microorganisms Collection, Enghelab Ave., Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran, 14155-6455, Iran.

UUC: Janet A. Robertson Collection of Ureaplasma urealyticum Cultures, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Alberta, Medical Sciences Building, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H7, Canada.

UWO: University of Western Ontario Culture Collection, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 587, Canada.

VCP: Victorian College of Pharmacy, Victorian College of Pharmacy, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville. Vic. 3052, Australia.

VCRC: Volcani Center Rhizobium Collection, Dept. of Agronomy and Natural Resources Agriculture Research Organization The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50 250, Israel.

VIAM: Institute of Applied Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

VIZR: Culture Collection of the Institute of Plant Protection, RAS, Shosse Podbelskogo, 3, Puskin-6, St.Petersburg, 189620, Russia.

VKM: All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, 142292 Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia.

VKPM: Russian National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms at the Institute of Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Dorozhnyi Proezd, 1, Moscow, 113545, Russia.

VNIISCM: Culture Collection of the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shosse Podbelskogo 3, Pushkin-6, St.Petersburg, 189620, Russia.

VPB: Veterinary Pathology and Bacteriology Collection, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

VPI: Anaerobe Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Note: the Anaerobe Laboratory, curator of the VPI collection, no longer exists and part of the VPI collection was transferred to the ATCC Culture Collection.

VPRI: Plant Research Institute Herbarium, Plant Research Institute Herbarium, Swan Street, Burnley. Vic. 3121, Australia.

VSB: Veterinary Pathology Bacteriology, Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Pathology, University of Sydney, Sydney. NSW. 2006, Australia.

VTCC: Vietnam Type Culture Collection, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology (IMBT),Vietnam National University, E2 Building, 144 Xuan Thuy street, Hanoi city, Hanoi, 84-043, Viet Nam.

VTTCC: VTT Culture Collection, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Street address: Tietotie 2, Espoo, Finland.

VUT: School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

WA: see ¤ WAC.

WAC = WA (old acronym): Plant Research Division Culture Collection, Western Australian Department of Agriculture, Baron-May Court, South Perth. WA. 6151, Australia.

WACC: Western Australian Culture Collection, State Health Laboratory Service, GPO Box F312, Perth. WA. 6001, Australia.

WAITE: Insect Pathology Pathogen Collection, WAITE Agricultural Research Institute, 46 Sunnyside Road, Glen Osmond. SA. 5064, Australia.

WAL: Wadsworth Anaerobe Laboratory, Wadsworth Hospital Center, Veterans Administration, Wilshire and Sawtelle Blvds., Los Angeles, CA, USA.

WARC: New Zealand Reference Culture Collection, Wallaceville Animal Research Centre, Private Bag, Wellington, New Zealand.

WB: Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

WCUM: Working Collection, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center of Marine Biotechnology, 701 E. Pratt Street, Baltimore, MD, 21202, USA

WDds: Raul Lopez Sanchez, University of Granma, Bayamo, Granma, Cuba, Cuba.

WINDSOR: Culture Collection, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

WPBS: Welsh Plant Breeding Station, Nitrogen Fixation & Nutrient Cycling Group, Plant & Cell Biology Department, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3EB, United Kingdom.

WR: Azotobacteraceae Collection, Queensland Wheat Research Institute, PO Box 5282, Toowoomba. Qld. 4350, Australia.

WRI: Worcester Royal Infirmary, Worcester, England.

WRL: The Wellcome Bacterial Collection, PHLS Central Public Health Laboratory, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom.

WRRL: Western Utilization Research and Development Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California, USA

WS: General collection of bacteria, Unit of Microbiology, Zentralinstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelforschung (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

WSBC: Research collection of Bacillus cereus group species, Unit of Microbiology, Zentralinstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelforschung (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

WSLC: Research collection of Listeria, Unit of Microbiology, Zentralinstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelforschung (ZIEL), Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

WSRO = LCC: Collection of Dairy Cultures (Laboratory of the Culture Collection), Agricultural-Technical Academy, Department of Microbiology, Pl. Cieszynski 1 (= Kortowo Bl. 43), 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland.

WVB: Wuhan Institute of Virology, Academia Sinica Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

WVDH: West Virginia Hygienic Laboratory, West Virginia Department of Health, 167 11th Avenue, South Charleston, West Virginia, 25303, USA

WVU: West Virginia University, Department of Microbiology, Medical Center, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA

YIM: Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, P.R. China.

YIT: Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, 1796 Yaho, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan.

YM: Strains Collection of Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Yunnan University, Kunming, Yunnan, China, 650091.

ZENECA: Jealott's Hill Research Station, Plant Pathology Department, Imperial Chemical Industries, Jealott's Hill, Bracknell, Berks. RG12 6EY, United Kingdom.

ZIM: Zbirka Industrijskih Mikrorganizmov (Collection of Industrial Microorganisms), Biotechnical Faculty, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ZIMET: see ¤ IMET.

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