Title

Some names included in the category Candidatus
(Taxonomic category not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code)

Number of names cited in this file: 361

 

It is important to note that the category Candidatus is not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code. Consequently, a name included in the category Candidatus cannot be validly published, and it also cannot be designated sp. nov., gen. nov., etc.

Contents

Introduction

All names proposed in the IJSB/IJSEM and some names proposed outside the IJSB/IJSEM

Introduction

In 1994, Murray and Schleifer [1] published a taxonomic note in which they proposed the concept of a waiting position for putative taxa in a category called Candidatus, which would have indefinite rank.
Minute 9 of the minutes of the 1994 meetings of the Judicial Commission in Prague [2] introduced a recommendation that the new category of indefinite rank (Candidatus) be established for certain putative taxa that could not be described in sufficient detail to warrant establishment of a novel taxon. The commission also recommended to the ICSB (now ICSP) that a Candidatus list should be established in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (now International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology). The Judicial Commission appointed Murray and Stackebrandt to prepare a taxonomic note to introduce the Candidatus concept.
The taxonomic note proposing the establishment of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes was published in the January 1995 issue of the IJSB [3]. According to this note, the category Candidatus should be used for describing procaryotic entities for which more than a mere sequence is available but for which characteristics required for description according to the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) are lacking. In addition to genomic information such as sequences apt to determine the phylogenetic position of the organism, all information, including structural, metabolic, and reproductive features should be included in the description, together with the natural environment in which the organism can be identified by in situ hybridization or other similar techniques for cell identification.
During the 1996 meetings in Jerusalem [4], the Judicial Commission considered the proposal by Murray and Stackebrandt and recommended that the sentence "Cultivated or not cultivated" (see Table I of the paper by Murray and Stackebrandt) should be changed to "Not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages". With that amendment, the Commission unanimously voted to recommend to the ICSB (now ICSP) that the taxonomic note by Murray and Stackebrandt be adopted as an Appendix to the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). Thereafter, the proposal of the Judicial Commission was unanimously accepted by the ICSB (now ICSP) [5].
On 29 July 2002, the Judicial Commission decided that the concept of "Candidatus" should be mentioned in the main body of the Code, despite the fact that such names have no standing in nomenclature and proposed that this will be done in Rule 18a and/or 18f as a note indicating that "The concept of Candidatus is defined in Minute 11 of the ICSB (now ICSP) meeting in IJSB 47 (1997) 597-600 as recommended in IJSEM 52 (2002) 1043-1047" [6].

According to the "Ad Hoc Committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology" [7], microbiologists are encouraged to use the "Candidatus" concept for well characterized but as yet uncultured organisms.

The names included in the category Candidatus are usually written as follows: Candidatus (in italics), the subsequent name(s) in roman type (with an initial cap for the genus name) and the entire name in quotation marks. For example, "Candidatus Phytoplasma", "Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae".

According to the "IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group" the abbreviation for Candidatus should be Ca. [8].

References


1 MURRAY (R.G.E.) and SCHLEIFER (K.H.): Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 174-176.
Original article in IJSB Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the meetings, 2 and 6 July 1994, Prague, Czech Republic. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 195-196.
Original article in IJSB Online
3 MURRAY (R.G.E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Taxonomic Note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 186-187.
Original article in IJSB Online
4 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: VIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 240-241.
Original article in IJSB Online
5 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: VIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17, 18, and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 597-600.
Original article in IJSB Online
6 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
Original article in IJSEM Online
7 STACKEBRANDT (E.), FREDERIKSEN (W.), GARRITY (G.M.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), KÄMPFER (P.), MAIDEN (M.C.J.), NESME (X.), ROSSELLO-MORA (R.), SWINGS (J.), TRÜPER (H.G.), VAUTERIN (L.), WARD (A.C.) and WHITMAN (W.B.): Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1043-1047.
Original article in IJSEM Online
8 The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1243-1255.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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All names proposed in the IJSB/IJSEM and some names proposed outside the IJSB/IJSEM

"Candidatus Acaryochloris bahamiensis" López-Legentil et al. 2011.
Reference: LÓPEZ-LEGENTIL (S.), SONG (B.), BOSCH (M.), PAWLIK (J.R.) and TURON (X.): Cyanobacterial diversity and a new acaryochloris-like symbiont from bahamian sea-squirts. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23938. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023938. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Acidianus copahuensis" Giaveno et al. 2013.
Reference: GIAVENO (M.A.), URBIETA (M.S.), ULLOA (J.R.), GONZÁLEZ TORIL (E.) and DONATI (E.R.): Physiologic versatility and growth flexibility as the main characteristics of a novel thermoacidophilic Acidianus strain isolated from copahue geothermal area in Argentina. Microb Ecol., 2013, 65, 336-346. Publication online

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"Candidatus Aciduliprofundum boonei" Schouten et al. 2008.
Reference: SCHOUTEN (S.), BAAS (M.), HOPMANS (E.C.), REYSENBACH (A.L.) and DAMSTE (J.S.): Tetraether membrane lipids of Candidatus "Aciduliprofundum boonei", a cultivated obligate thermoacidophilic euryarchaeote from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Extremophiles, 2008, 12, 119-124. Publication online

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"Candidatus Accumulibacter" Hesselmann et al. 1999.
Reference: HESSELMANN (R.P.), WERLEN (C.), HAHN (D.), VAN DER MEER (J.R.) and ZEHNDER (A.J.): Enrichment, phylogenetic analysis and detection of a bacterium that performs enhanced biological phosphate removal in activated sludge. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1999, 22, 454-465. Publication online

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"Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" Hesselmann et al. 1999.
Reference: HESSELMANN (R.P.), WERLEN (C.), HAHN (D.), VAN DER MEER (J.R.) and ZEHNDER (A.J.): Enrichment, phylogenetic analysis and detection of a bacterium that performs enhanced biological phosphate removal in activated sludge. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1999, 22, 454-465. Publication online

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"Candidatus Actinobaculum timonae" Drancourt et al. 2004.
Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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"Candidatus Adiaceo aphidicola" Darby et al. 2005.
Reference: DARBY (A.C.), CHANDLER (S.M.), WELBURN (S.C.) and DOUGLAS (A.E.): Aphid-symbiotic bacteria cultured in insect cell lines. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 4833-4839. Publication online

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"Candidatus Allobeggiatoa" Hinck et al. 2011.
Reference: HINCK (S.), MUßMANN (M.), SALMAN (V.), NEU (T.R.), LENK (S.), DE BEER (D.) and JONKERS (H.M.): Vacuolated Beggiatoa-like filaments from different hypersaline environments form a novel genus. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 13, 3194-3215. Publication online

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"Candidatus Allobeggiatoa salina" Hinck et al. 2011.
Reference: HINCK (S.), MUßMANN (M.), SALMAN (V.), NEU (T.R.), LENK (S.), DE BEER (D.) and JONKERS (H.M.): Vacuolated Beggiatoa-like filaments from different hypersaline environments form a novel genus. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 13, 3194-3215. Publication online

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"Candidatus Alysiomicrobium bavaricum" Kragelund et al. 2006.
Reference: KRAGELUND (C.), KONG (Y.), VAN DER WAARDE (J.), THELEN (K.), EIKELBOOM (D.), TANDOI (V.), THOMSEN (T.R.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants. Microbiology, 2006, 152, 3003-3012. Publication online

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"Candidatus Alysiosphaera europaea" Kragelund et al. 2006.
Reference: KRAGELUND (C.), KONG (Y.), VAN DER WAARDE (J.), THELEN (K.), EIKELBOOM (D.), TANDOI (V.), THOMSEN (T.R.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants. Microbiology, 2006, 152, 3003-3012. Publication online

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"Candidatus Amoebinatus massiliae" Greub et al. 2004.
Reference: GREUB (G.), LA SCOLA (B.) and RAOULT (D.): Amoebae-resisting bacteria isolated from human nasal swabs by amoebal coculture. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2004, 10, 470-477. Publication online

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"Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus" Horn et al. 2001.
Reference: HORN (M.), HARZENETTER (M.D.), LINNER (T.), SCHMID (E.N.), MULLER (K.D.), MICHEL (R.) and WAGNER (M.): Members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum as intracellular bacteria of acanthamoebae: proposal of ‘Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus’. Environ. Microbiol., 2001, 3, 440-449. Publication online

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"Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia ranarum" Martel et al. 2013.
Reference: MARTEL (A.), ADRIAENSEN (C.), SHARIFIAN-FARD (M.), VANDEWOESTYNE (M.), DEFORCE (D.), FAVOREEL (H.), BERGEN (K.), SPITZEN-VAN DER SLUIJS (A.), DEVISSCHER (S.), ADRIAENS (T.), LOUETTE (G.), BAERT (K.), HYATT (A.), CRAMERI (S.), HAESEBROUCK (F.) and PASMANS (F.): The novel ‘Candidatus Amphibiichlamydia ranarum’ is highly prevalent in invasive exotic bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). Environ. Microbiol. Rep., 2013, 5, 105-108. Publication online

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"Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles" Vannini et al. 2010.
Reference: VANNINI (C.), FERRANTINI (F.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): ‘Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles’ and ‘Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes’, two new Rickettsiales hosted by the protist ciliate Euplotes harpa (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 4047-4054. Publication online

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"Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae" Strassert et al. 2012.
Reference: STRASSERT (J.F.), KÖHLER (T.), WIENEMANN (T.H.), IKEDA-OHTSUBO (W.), FAIVRE (N.), FRANCKENBERG (S.), PLARRE (R.), RADEK (R.) and BRUNE (A.): ‘Candidatus Ancillula trichonymphae’, a novel lineage of endosymbiotic Actinobacteria in termite gut flagellates of the genus Trichonympha. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 3259-3270. Publication online

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"Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus" Kartal et al. 2007.
Reference: KARTAL (B.), RATTRAY (J.), VAN NIFTRIK (L.A.), VAN DE VOSSENBERG (J.), SCHMID (M.C.), WEBB (R.I.), SCHOUTEN (S.), FUERST (J.A.), SINNINGHE DAMSTÉ (J.), JETTEN (M.S.M.) and STROUS (M.): Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus" a new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2007, 30, 39-49. Publication online

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"Candidatus Aquiluna rubra" Hahn 2009.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ565416.
Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Aquirestis calciphila" Hahn and Schauer 2007.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ786341.
Reference: HAHN (M.W.) and SCHAUER (M.): ‘Candidatus Aquirestis calciphila’ and ‘Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens’, filamentous, planktonic bacteria inhabiting natural lakes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 936-940.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus" Wirsen et al. 2002.
Reference: WIRSEN (C.O.), SIEVERT (S.M.), CAVANAUGH (C.M.), MOLYNEAUX (S.J.), AHMAD (A.), TAYLOR (L.T.), DELONG (E.F.) and TAYLOR (C.D.): Characterization of an autotrophic sulfide-oxidizing marine Arcobacter sp. that produces filamentous sulfur. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2002, 68, 316-325. Publication online

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"Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus" Dale et al. 2002.
Reference: DALE (C.), BEETON (M.), HARBISON (C.), JONES (T.) and PONTES (M.): Isolation, pure culture, and characterization of "Candidatus Arsenophonus arthropodicus," an intracellular secondary endosymbiont from the hippoboscid louse fly Pseudolynchia canariensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72, 2997-3004. Publication online

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"Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus" Bressan et al. 2012.
Reference: BRESSAN (A.), TERLIZZI (F.) and CREDI (R.) : Independent origins of vectored plant pathogenic bacteria from arthropod-associated Arsenophonus endosymbionts. Microb. Ecol., 2012, 63, 628-638. Publication online

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"Candidatus Arsenophonus triatominarum" Hypsa and Dale 1997.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank U91786.
Reference: HYPSA (V.) and DALE (C.): In vitro culture and phylogenetic analysis of "Candidatus Arsenophonus triatominarum", an intracellular bacterium from the triatomine bug, Triatoma infestans. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 1140-1144.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: 16S rDNA sequence analysis and preliminary morphological characterization suggest that this bacterium is a member of the genus ¤ Arsenophonus Gherna et al. 1991. As the phenotypic tests required for its valid description could not be performed, the authors propose the provisional status of Candidatus.

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"Candidatus Arthromitus" Snel et al. 1995.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EMBL X80834 (segmented filamentous bacteria from chickens), X87244 (segmented filamentous bacteria from rats), X77814 (segmented filamentous bacteria from mice).
Reference: SNEL (J.), HEINEN (P.P.), BLOK (H.J.), CARMAN (R.J.), DUNCAN (A.J.), ALLEN (P.C.) and COLLINS (M.D.): Comparison of 16S rRNA sequences of segmented filamentous bacteria isolated from mice, rats, and chickens and proposal of "Candidatus Arthromitus". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 780-782.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Aschnera chinzeii" Hosokawa et al. 2012.
Reference: HOSOKAWA (T.), NIKOH (N.), KOGA (R.), SATO (M.), TANAHASHI (M.), MENG (X.Y.) and FUKATSU (T.): Reductive genome evolution, host-symbiont co-speciation and uterine transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria in bat flies. ISME J., 2012, 6, 577-587. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bacilloplasma" Kostanjšek et al. 2007.
Reference: KOSTANJŠEK (R.), ŠTRUS (J.) and AVGUŠTIN (G.): ‘Candidatus Bacilloplasma’, a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 73, 5566-5573. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bacteroides massiliae" Drancourt et al. 2004.
Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella ancashi" Blazes et al. 2013.
Reference: BLAZES (D.L.), MULLINS (K.), SMOAK (B.L.), JIANG (J.), CANAL (E.), SOLORZANO (N.), HALL (E.), MEZA (R.), MAGUINA (C.), MYERS (T.), RICHARDS (A.L.) and LAUGHLIN (L.): Novel bartonella agent as cause of verruga peruana. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2013, 9, 1111-1114. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella antechini" Kaewmongkol et al. 2011.
Reference: KAEWMONGKOL (G.), KAEWMONGKOL (S.), OWEN (H.), FLEMING (P.A.), ADAMS (P.J.), RYAN (U.), IRWIN (P.J.) and FENWICK (S.G.): Candidatus Bartonella antechini: A novel Bartonella species detected in fleas and ticks from the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), an Australian marsupial. Vet. Microbiol., 2011, 149, 517-521. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella bandicootii" Kaewmongkol et al. 2011.
Reference: KAEWMONGKOL (G.), KAEWMONGKOL (S.), BURMEJ (H.), BENNETT (M.D.), FLEMING (P.A.), ADAMS (P.J.), WAYNE (A.F.), RYAN (U.), IRWIN (P.J.) and FENWICK (S.G.): Diversity of Bartonella species detected in arthropod vectors from animals in Australia. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2011, 34, 411-417. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis" Lin et al. 2010.
Reference: LIN (E.Y.), TSIGRELIS (C.), BADDOUR (L.M.), LEPIDI (H.), ROLAIN (J.M.), PATEL (R.) and RAOULT (D.): Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis and endocarditis. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2010, 16, 500-503. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii" Chomel et al. 2012.
Reference: CHOMEL (B.B.), McMILLAN-COLE (A.C.), KASTEN (R.W.), STUCKEY (M.J.), SATO (S.), MARUYAMA (S.), DINIZ (P.P.) and BREITSCHWERDT (E.B.): Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a potential new zoonotic Bartonella species in canids from Iraq. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(9): e1843. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001843. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella thailandensis" Saisongkorh et al. 2009.
Reference: SAISONGKORH (W.), WOOTTA (W.), SAWANPANYALERT (P.), RAOULT (D.) and ROLAIN (J.M.): "Candidatus Bartonella thailandensis": A new genotype of Bartonella identified from rodents. Vet. Microbiol.,  2009, 139, 197-201. Publication online

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"Candidatus Bartonella washoensis subsp. cynomysii" Bai et al. 2008.
Reference: BAI (Y.), KOSOY (M.), MARTIN (A.), RAY (C.), SHEFF (K.), CHALCRAFT (L.) et COLLINGE (S.K.): Characterization of Bartonella strains isolated from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 2008, 8, 1-6. Publication online

Note: This taxon cannot be included in the category Candidatus because it can be cultivated (type strain: CL8606co = ATCC BAA-1342 = CCUG 53213)!

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"Candidatus Bartonella woyliei" Kaewmongkol et al. 2011.
Reference: KAEWMONGKOL (G.), KAEWMONGKOL (S.), BURMEJ (H.), BENNETT (M.D.), FLEMING (P.A.), ADAMS (P.J.), WAYNE (A.F.), RYAN (U.), IRWIN (P.J.) and FENWICK (S.G.): Diversity of Bartonella species detected in arthropod vectors from animals in Australia. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2011, 34, 411-417. Publication online

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"Candidatus Baumannia" Moran et al. 2003.
Reference: MORAN (N.A.), DALE (C.), DUNBAR (H.), SMITH (W.A.) and OCHMAN (H.): Intracellular symbionts of sharpshooters (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellinae) form a distinct clade with a small genome. Environ. Microbiol., 2003, 5, 116-126. Publication online

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"Candidatus Baumannia cicadellinicola" Moran et al. 2003.
Reference: MORAN (N.A.), DALE (C.), DUNBAR (H.), SMITH (W.A.) and OCHMAN (H.): Intracellular symbionts of sharpshooters (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellinae) form a distinct clade with a small genome. Environ. Microbiol., 2003, 5, 116-126. Publication online

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"Candidatus Benitsuchiphilus tojoi" Hosokawa et al. 2010.
Reference: HOSOKAWA (T.), KIKUCHI (Y.), NIKOH (N.), MENG (X.Y.), HIRONAKA (M.) and FUKATSU (T.): Phylogenetic position and peculiar genetic traits of the midgut bacterial symbiont in the stinkbug Parastrachia japonensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 4130-4135. Publication online

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"Candidatus Berkiella aquae" Mehari et al. 2016.
Reference: MEHARI Y. T., HAYES, B. J., REDDING, K. S., MARIAPPAN, P. V., GUNDERSON, J. H., FARONE, A. L. and FARONE, M. B. 2016. Description of ‘Candidatus Berkiella aquae’ and ‘Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis’, two intranuclear bacteria of freshwater amoebae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 536-541.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis" Mehari et al. 2016.
Reference: MEHARI Y. T., HAYES, B. J., REDDING, K. S., MARIAPPAN, P. V., GUNDERSON, J. H., FARONE, A. L. and FARONE, M. B. 2016. Description of ‘Candidatus Berkiella aquae’ and ‘Candidatus Berkiella cookevillensis’, two intranuclear bacteria of freshwater amoebae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 536-541.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Blochmannia" Sauer et al. 2000.
Reference: SAUER (C.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), GADAU (J.), HÖLLDOBLER (B.) and GROSS (R.): Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1877-1886.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus" Sauer et al. 2000.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank X92549.
Reference: SAUER (C.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), GADAU (J.), HÖLLDOBLER (B.) and GROSS (R.): Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1877-1886.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Blochmannia herculeanus" Sauer et al. 2000.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank X92550.
Reference: SAUER (C.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), GADAU (J.), HÖLLDOBLER (B.) and GROSS (R.): Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1877-1886.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Blochmannia rufipes" Sauer et al. 2000.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank X92552.
Reference: SAUER (C.), STACKEBRANDT (E.), GADAU (J.), HÖLLDOBLER (B.) and GROSS (R.): Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1877-1886.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Borrelia texasensis" Lin et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF467976 (16S rRNA) and AF264901 (flaB gene).
Reference: LIN (T.), GAO (L.), SEYFANG (A.) and OLIVER Jr (J.H.): ‘Candidatus Borrelia texasensis’, from the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 685-693.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), KVELLESTAD (A.), MITCHELL (S.O.), STEINUM (T.), FALK (K.), COLQUHOUN (D.J.) and HORN (M.): A novel betaproteobacterial agent of gill epitheliocystis in seawater farmed atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PLoS One, 2012;7(3):e32696. Publication online

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"Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans" Jetten et al. 2001.
Reference: JETTEN (M.S.M.), WAGNER (M.), FUERST (J.), VAN LOOSDRECHT (M.), KUENEN (G.) and STROUS (M.): Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation ('anammox') process. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 2001, 12, 283-288. Publication online

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"Candidatus Brocadia caroliniensis" Magrí et al. 2012.
Reference: MAGRÍ (A.), VANOTTI (M.B.) and SZÖGI (A.A.): Anammox sludge immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel carriers. Bioresour. Technol., 2012, 114, 231-240. Publication online

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"Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" Kartal et al. 2004.
Reference: KARTAL (B.), VAN NIFTRIK (L.), SLIEKERS (O.), SCHMID (M.C.), SCHMIDT (I.), VAN DE PAS-SCHOONEN (K.), CIRPUS (I.), VAN DER STAR (W.), VAN LOOSDRECHT (M.), ABMA (W.), KUENEN (G.J.), MULDER (J.W.), JETTEN (M.S.M.), STROUS (M.) and VAN DE VOSSENBERG (J.): Application, eco-physiology and biodiversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., 2004, 3, 255-264. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Brocadia sinica" Hu et al. 2010.
Reference: HU (B.L.), ZHENG (P.), TANG (C.J.), CHEN (J.W.), VAN DER BIEZEN (E.), ZHANG (L.), NI (B.J.), JETTEN (M.S.), YAN (J.), YU (H.Q.) and KARTAL (B.): Identification and quantification of anammox bacteria in eight nitrogen removal reactors. Water Res., 2010, 44, 5014-5020. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" Gruwell et al. 2010.
Reference: GRUWELL (M.E.), HARDY (N.B.), GULLAN (P.J.) and DITTMAR (K.): Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts in the mealybug subfamily Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 7521-7525. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia andongensis" Lemaire et al. 2011.
Reference: LEMAIRE (B.), ROBBRECHT (E.), VAN WYK (B.), VAN OEVELEN (S.), VERSTRAETE (B.), PRINSEN (E.), SMETS (E.) and DESSEIN (S.): Identification, origin, and evolution of leaf nodulating symbionts of Sericanthe (Rubiaceae). J. Microbiol., 2011, 49, 935-941. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia calva" Van Oevelen et al. 2004.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY277697.
Reference: VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE WACHTER (R.), VANDAMME (P.), ROBBRECHT (E.) and PRINSEN (E.): ‘Candidatus Burkholderia calva’ and ‘Candidatus Burkholderia nigropunctata’ as leaf gall endosymbionts of African Psychotria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2237-2240.
Original article in IJSEM Online 

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"Candidatus Burkholderia hispidae" Lemaire et al. 2012.
Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank HQ849122, HQ849178, HQ849231.
Reference: LEMAIRE (B.), VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE BLOCK (P.), VERSTRAETE (B.), SMETS (E.), PRINSEN (E.) and DESSEIN (S.): Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 202-209.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia kirkii" Van Oevelen et al. 2002.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF475063.
Reference: VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE WACHTER (R.), VANDAMME (P.), ROBBRECHT (E.) and PRINSEN (E.): Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf galls of Psychotria (Rubiaceae, angiosperms) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Burkholderia kirkii’ sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 2023-2027.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia nigropunctata" Van Oevelen et al. 2004.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY277698.
Reference: VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE WACHTER (R.), VANDAMME (P.), ROBBRECHT (E.) and PRINSEN (E.): ‘Candidatus Burkholderia calva’ and ‘Candidatus Burkholderia nigropunctata’ as leaf gall endosymbionts of African Psychotria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2237-2240.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia petitii" Lemaire et al. 2011.
Reference: LEMAIRE (B.), ROBBRECHT (E.), VAN WYK (B.), VAN OEVELEN (S.), VERSTRAETE (B.), PRINSEN (E.), SMETS (E.) and DESSEIN (S.): Identification, origin, and evolution of leaf nodulating symbionts of Sericanthe (Rubiaceae). J. Microbiol., 2011, 49, 935-941. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia rigidae" Lemaire et al. 2012.
Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank HQ849120, HQ849176, HQ849229.
Reference: LEMAIRE (B.), VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE BLOCK (P.), VERSTRAETE (B.), SMETS (E.), PRINSEN (E.) and DESSEIN (S.): Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 202-209.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Burkholderia schumannianae" Lemaire et al. 2012.
Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank HQ849124, HQ849180, HQ849233.
Reference: LEMAIRE (B.), VAN OEVELEN (S.), DE BLOCK (P.), VERSTRAETE (B.), SMETS (E.), PRINSEN (E.) and DESSEIN (S.): Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts in leaf nodules of Pavetta (Rubiaceae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 202-209.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Caedibacter acanthamoebae" Horn et al. 1999.
Reference: HORN (M.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), GAUTOM (R.K.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and WAGNER (M.): Novel bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. related to the Paramecium caudatum symbiont Caedibacter caryophilus. Environ. Microbiol., 1999, 1, 357-367. Publication online

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"Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum" Nunoura et al. 2011.
Reference: NUNOURA (T.), TAKAKI (Y.), KAKUTA (J.), NISHI (S.), SUGAHARA (J.), KAZAMA (H.), CHEE (G.J.), HATTORI (M.), KANAI (A.), ATOMI (H.), TAKAI (K.) and TAKAMI (H.): Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic protein modifier systems revealed by the genome of a novel archaeal group. Nucleic Acids Res., 2011, 39, 3204-3223. Publication online

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"Candidatus Campylobacter hominis" Lawson et al. 1998.
Reference: LAWSON (AJ, LINTON (D.) and STANLEY (J.): 16S rRNA gene sequences of ‘Candidatus Campylobacter hominis’, a novel uncultivated species, are found in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans. Microbiology, 1998, 144, 2063-2071. Publication online

¤ Campylobacter hominis Lawson et al. 2001, sp. nov.

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"Candidatus Captivus acidiprotistae" Baker et al. 2003.
Reference: BAKER (B.J.), HUGENHOLTZ (P.), DAWSON (S.C.) and BANFIELD (J.F.): Extremely acidophilic protists from acid mine drainage host Rickettsiales-lineage endosymbionts that have intervening sequences in their 16S rRNA genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2003, 69, 5512-5518. Publication online

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"Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" Zchori-Fein et al. 2004.
Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank AY331187 (16S rRNA), GenBank AY332003 (gyrB gene).
Reference: ZCHORI-FEIN (E.), PERLMAN (S.J.), KELLY (S.E.), KATZIR (N.) and HUNTER (M.S.): Characterization of a ‘Bacteroidetes’ symbiont in Encarsia wasps (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): proposal of ‘Candidatus Cardinium hertigii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 961-967.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Carsonella" Thao et al. 2000.
Reference: THAO (M.L.), MORAN (N.A.), ABBOT (P.), BRENNAN (E.B.), BURCKHARDT (D.H.) and BAUMANN (P.): Cospeciation of psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2000, 66, 2898-2905. Publication online

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"Candidatus Carsonella ruddii" Thao et al. 2000.
Reference: THAO (M.L.), MORAN (N.A.), ABBOT (P.), BRENNAN (E.B.), BURCKHARDT (D.H.) and BAUMANN (P.): Cospeciation of psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2000, 66, 2898-2905. Publication online

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"Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum" Bryant et al. 2007.
Reference: BRYANT (D.A.), COSTAS (A.M.), MARESCA (J.A.), CHEW (A.G.), KLATT (C.G.), BATESON (M.M.), TALLON (L.J.), HOSTETLER (J.), NELSON (W.C.), HEIDELBERG (J.F.) and WARD (D.M.): Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum: an aerobic phototrophic Acidobacterium. Science, 2007, 317, 523-526. Publication online

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"Candidatus Chlorothrix" Klappenbach and Pierson 2004.
Reference: KLAPPENBACH (J.A.) and PIERSON (B.K.): Phylogenetic and physiological characterization of a filamentous anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacterium "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" gen. nov., sp. nov., recovered from hypersaline microbial mats. Arch. Microbiol., 2004, 181, 17-25. Publication online

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"Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" Klappenbach and Pierson 2004.
Reference: KLAPPENBACH (J.A.) and PIERSON (B.K.): Phylogenetic and physiological characterization of a filamentous anoxygenic photoautotrophic bacterium "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" gen. nov., sp. nov., recovered from hypersaline microbial mats. Arch. Microbiol., 2004, 181, 17-25. Publication online

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"Candidatus Chryseobacterium massiliae" Greub et al. 2004.
Reference: GREUB (G.), LA SCOLA (B.) and RAOULT (D.): Amoebae-resisting bacteria isolated from human nasal swabs by amoebal coculture. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2004, 10, 470-477. Publication online

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"Candidatus Chryseobacterium timonae" Drancourt et al. 2004.
Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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"Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola" Karlsen et al. 2008.
Reference: KARLSEN (M.), NYLUND (A.), WATANABE (K.), HELVIK (J.V.), NYLUND (S.) and PLARRE (H.): Characterization of ‘Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola': an intracellular bacterium infecting salmonid fish. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 10, 208-218. Publication online

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"Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans" Pelletier et al. 2008.
Reference: PELLETIER (E.), KREIMEYER (A.), BOCS (S.), ROUY (Z.), GYAPAY (G.), CHOUARI (R.), RIVIÈRE (D.), GANESAN (A.), DAEGELEN (P.), SGHIR (A.), COHEN (G.N.), MÉDIGUE (C.), WEISSENBACH (J.) and LE PASLIER (D.): "Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans": genome sequence reconstruction provides a first glimpse of a new bacterial division. J. Bacteriol., 2008, 190, 2572-2579. Publication online

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"Candidatus comitans" Jacobi et al. 1996.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EMBL X91814.
Reference: JACOBI (C.A.), REICHENBACH (H.), TINDALL (B.J.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): "Candidatus comitans", a bacterium living in coculture with Chondromyces crocatus (Myxobacteria). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 119-122.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Competibacter" Crocetti et al. 2002.
Reference: CROCETTI (G.R.), BANFIELD (J.F.), KELLER (J.), BOND (P.L.) and BLACKALL (L.L.): Glycogen-accumulating organisms in laboratory-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment processes. Microbiology, 2002 148, 3353-3364. Publication online

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"Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" Crocetti et al. 2002.
Reference: CROCETTI (G.R.), BANFIELD (J.F.), KELLER (J.), BOND (P.L.) and BLACKALL (L.L.): Glycogen-accumulating organisms in laboratory-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment processes. Microbiology, 2002 148, 3353-3364. Publication online

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"Candidatus Consessoris aphidicola" Darby et al. 2005.
Reference: DARBY (A.C.), CHANDLER (S.M.), WELBURN (S.C.) and DOUGLAS (A.E.): Aphid-symbiotic bacteria cultured in insect cell lines. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 4833-4839. Publication online

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"Candidatus Contubernalis" Zhilina et al. 2005.
Reference: ZHILINA (T.N.), ZAVARZINA (D.G.), KOLGANOVA (T.V.), TOUROVA (T.P.) and ZAVARZIN (G.A.): "Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum," an obligately syntrophic alkaliphilic bacterium capable of anaerobic acetate oxidation in a coculture with Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Mikrobiologiya, 74, 800-809 (English translation Microbiology, 74, 695-703). Publication online

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"Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum" Zhilina et al. 2005.
Reference: ZHILINA (T.N.), ZAVARZINA (D.G.), KOLGANOVA (T.V.), TOUROVA (T.P.) and ZAVARZIN (G.A.): "Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum," an obligately syntrophic alkaliphilic bacterium capable of anaerobic acetate oxidation in a coculture with Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Mikrobiologiya, 74, 800-809 (English translation Microbiology, 74, 695-703). Publication online

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"Candidatus Cryptoprodotis polytropus" Ferrantini et al. 2009.
Reference: FERRANTINI (F.), FOKIN (S.I.), MODEO (L.), ANDREOLI (I.), DINI (F.), GÖRTZ (H.D.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): "Candidatus Cryptoprodotis polytropus," A Novel Rickettsia-Like Organism in the Ciliated Protist Pseudomicrothorax dubius (Ciliophora, Nassophorea). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 2009, 56, 119-129. Publication online

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"Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri" Toju et al. 2009.
Reference: TOJU (H.), HOSOKAWA (T.), KOGA (R.), NIKOH (N.), MENG (X.Y.), KIMURA (N.) and FUKATSU (T.): "Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri", a novel clade of bacterial endocellular symbionts from weevils of the genus Curculio. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 275-282. Publication online

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"Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes" Vannini et al. 2010.
Reference: VANNINI (C.), FERRANTINI (F.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): ‘Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles’ and ‘Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes’, two new Rickettsiales hosted by the protist ciliate Euplotes harpa (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 4047-4054. Publication online

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"Candidatus Cyrtobacter zanobii" Boscaro et al. 2013.
Reference: BOSCARO (V.), PETRONI (G.), RISTORI (A.), VERNI (F.) and VANNINI (C.): "Candidatus Defluviella procrastinata" and "Candidatus Cyrtobacter zanobii", two novel ciliate endosymbionts belonging to the "Midichloria clade". Microb. Ecol., 2013, 65, 302-310. Publication online

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"Candidatus Defluviella procrastinata" Boscaro et al. 2013.
Reference: BOSCARO (V.), PETRONI (G.), RISTORI (A.), VERNI (F.) and VANNINI (C.): "Candidatus Defluviella procrastinata" and "Candidatus Cyrtobacter zanobii", two novel ciliate endosymbionts belonging to the "Midichloria clade". Microb. Ecol., 2013, 65, 302-310. Publication online

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"Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator" Chivian et al. 2008.
Reference: CHIVIAN (D.), BRODIE (E.L.), ALM (E.J.), CULLEY (D.E.), DEHAL (P.S.), DESANTIS (T.Z.), GIHRING (T.M.), LAPIDUS (A.), LIN (L.H.), LOWRY (S.R.), MOSER (D.P.), RICHARDSON (P.M.), SOUTHAM (G.), WANGER (G.), PRATT (L.M.), ANDERSEN (G.L.), HAZEN (T.C.), BROCKMAN (F.J.), ADAM P. ARKIN (A.P.) and ONSTOTT (T.C.): Environmental genomics reveals a single-species ecosystem deep within earth. Science, 2008, 322, 275-278. Publication online

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"Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae" Sato et al. 2009.
Reference: SATO (T.), HONGOH (Y.), NODA (S.), HATTORI (S.), UI (S.) and OHKUMA (M.): Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae, a novel intracellular symbiont of the flagellate Trichonympha agilis in termite gut. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 11, 1007-1015. Publication online

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"Candidatus Devosia euplotis" Vannini et al. 2004.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL AJ548825.
Reference: VANNINI (C.), ROSATI (G.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): Identification of the bacterial endosymbionts of the marine ciliate Euplotes magnicirratus (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Devosia euplotis’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1151-1156.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Ecksteinia adelgidicola" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), PENZ (T.), NARZT (T.), COLLINGRO (A.), SCHMITZ-ESSER (S.), PFEIFFER (S.), KLEPAL (W.), WAGNER (M.), WEINMAIER (T.), RATTEI (T.) and HORN (M.): Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). ISME J., 2012, 6, 384-396. Publication online

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"Candidatus Ehrlichia walkerii" Brouqui et al. 2003.
Reference: BROUQUI (P, SANOGO (Y.O.), CARUSO (G.), MEROLA (F.) and RAOULT (D.): Candidatus Ehrlichia walkerii: a new Ehrlichia detected in Ixodes ricinus tick collected from asymptomatic humans in Northern Italy. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2003, 990, 134-140. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endobugula glebosa" Lim and Haygood 2004.
Reference: LIM (G.E.) and HAYGOOD (M.G.): "Candidatus Endobugula glebosa," a specific bacterial symbiont of the marine bryozoan Bugula simplex. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 70, 4921-4929. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endobugula sertula" Haygood and Davidson 1997.
References: 1 HAYGOOD (M.G.) and DAVIDSON (S.K.): Small-subunit rRNA genes and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial symbionts in the larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and proposal of "Candidatus endobugula sertula". Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1997. 63, 4612-4616. Publication online 2 ERRATUM: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1998, 64, 1587. Erratum online

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"Candidatus Endolissoclinum faulkneri" Kwan et al. 2012.
Reference: KWAN (J.C.), DONIA (M.S.), HAN (A.W.), HIROSE (E.), HAYGOOD (M.G.) and SCHMIDT (E.W.): Genome streamlining and chemical defense in a coral reef symbiosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 2012, 109, 20655-20660. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis" Pérez-Matos et al. 2007.
Reference: PÉREZ-MATOS (A.E.), ROSADO (W.) AND GOVIND (N.S.): Bacterial diversity associated with the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 2007, 92, 155-164. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endomicrobia" Stingl et al. 2005.
Reference: STINGL (U.), RADEK (R.), YANG (H.) and BRUNE (A.): "Endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 1473-1479. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endomicrobium" Stingl et al. 2005.
Reference: STINGL (U.), RADEK (R.), YANG (H.) and BRUNE (A.): "Endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 1473-1479. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endomicrobium pyrsonymphae" Stingl et al. 2005.
Reference: STINGL (U.), RADEK (R.), YANG (H.) and BRUNE (A.): "Endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 1473-1479. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endomicrobium trichonymphae" Stingl et al. 2005.
Reference: STINGL (U.), RADEK (R.), YANG (H.) and BRUNE (A.): "Endomicrobia": cytoplasmic symbionts of termite gut protozoa form a separate phylum of prokaryotes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 1473-1479. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endonucleobacter bathymodioli" Zielinski et al. 2009.
Reference: ZIELINSKI (F.U.), PERNTHALER (A.), DUPERRON (S.), RAGGI (L.), GIERE (O.), BOROWSKI (C.) and DUBILIER (N.): Widespread occurrence of an intranuclear bacterial parasite in vent and seep bathymodiolin mussels. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 11, 1150-1167. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endoriftia persephone" Robidart et al. 2008.
Reference: ROBIDART (J.C.), BENCH (S.R.), FELDMAN (R.A.), NOVORADOVSKY (A.), PODELL (S.B.), GAASTERLAND (T.), ALLEN (E.E.) et FELBECK (H.): Metabolic versatility of the Riftia pachyptila endosymbiont revealed through metagenomics. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 10, 727-737. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endowatersipora palomitas " Anderson and Haygood 2007.
Reference: ANDERSON (C.M.) and HAYGOOD (M.G.): α-Proteobacterial symbionts of marine bryozoans in the genus Watersipora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 73, 303-311. Publication online

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"Candidatus Endowatersipora rubus " Anderson and Haygood 2007.
Reference: ANDERSON (C.M.) and HAYGOOD (M.G.): α-Proteobacterial symbionts of marine bryozoans in the genus Watersipora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 73, 303-311. Publication online

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"Candidatus Entotheonella palauensis" Schmidt et al. 2000.
Reference: SCHMIDT (E.W.), OBRATSOVA (A.Y.), DAVIDSON (S.K.), FAULKNER (D.J.) and HAYGOOD (M/G.): Identification of the antifungal peptide-containing symbiont of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as a novel δ-proteobacterium, "Candidatus Entotheonella palauensis". Mar. Biol., 2000, 136, 969-977. Publication online

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"Candidatus Epiflobacter spp." Xia et al. 2008.
Reference: XIA (Y.), KONG (Y.), THOMSEN (T.R.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): Identification and ecophysiological characterization of epiphytic protein -hydrolyzing Saprospiraceae (Candidatus Epiflobacter spp.) in activated sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 74, 2229-2238. Publication online

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"Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" Capuzzo et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ586620.
Reference:: CAPUZZO (C.), FIRRAO (G.), MAZZON (L.), SQUARTINI (A.) and GIROLAMI (V.): ‘Candidatus Erwinia dacicola’, a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1641-1647.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Evansia muelleri" Kuechler et al. 2013.
Reference: KUECHLER (S.M.), GIBBS (G.), BURCKHARDT (D.), DETTNER (K.) and HARTUNG (V.): Diversity of bacterial endosymbionts and bacteria-host co-evolution in Gondwanan relict moss bugs (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha: Peloridiidae). Environ. Microbiol., published online: March 04, 2013 (doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12101). Publication online

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"Candidatus Flaviluna lacus" Hahn 2009.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AM939567.
Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Fodinabacter communificans" Bertin et al. 2011.
Reference: BERTIN (P.N.), HEINRICH-SALMERON (A.), PELLETIER (E.), GOULHEN-CHOLLET (F.), ARSENE-PLOETZE (F.), GALLIEN (S.), LAUGA (B.), CASIOT (C.), CALTEAU (A.), VALLENET (D.), BONNEFOY (V.), BRUNEEL (O.), CHANE-WOON-MING (B.), CLEISS-ARNOLD (J.), DURAN (R.), ELBAZ-POULICHET (F.), FONKNECHTEN (N.), GILOTEAUX (L.), HALTER (D.), KOECHLER (S.), MARCHAL (M.), MORNICO (D.), SCHAEFFER (C.), SMITH (A.A.), VAN DORSSELAER (A.), WEISSENBACH (J.), MEDIGUE (C.) and LE PASLIER (D.): Metabolic diversity among main microorganisms inside an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by meta- and proteo-genomics. ISME J., 2011, 5, 1735-12747. Publication online

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"Candidatus Francisella noatunensis subsp. endociliophora" Schrallhammer et al. 2011.
Reference: SCHRALLHAMMER (M.), SCHWEIKERT (M.), VALLESI (A.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): Detection of a novel subspecies of Francisella noatunensis as endosymbiont of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi. Microb. Ecol., 2011, 61, 455-464. Publication online

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"Candidatus Frankia datiscae" Persson et al. 2011.
Reference: PERSSON (T.), BENSON (D.R.), NORMAND (P.), VANDEN HEUVEL (B.), PUJIC (P.), CHERTKOV (O.), TESHIMA (H.), BRUCE (D.C.), DETTER (C.), TAPIA (R.), HAN (S.), HAN (J.), WOYKE (T.), PITLUCK (S.), PENNACCHIO (L.), NOLAN (M.), IVANOVA (N.), PATI (A.), LAND (M.L.), PAWLOWSKI (K.) and BERRY (A.M.): Genome sequence of "Candidatus Frankia datiscae" Dg1, the uncultured microsymbiont from nitrogen-fixing root nodules of the dicot Datisca glomerata. J. Bacteriol., 2011, 193, 7017-7018. Publication online

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"Candidatus Fritschea bemisiae" Everett et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY140910.
Reference: EVERETT (K.D.E.), THAO (M.), HORN (M.), DYSZYNSKI (G.E.) and BAUMANN (P.): Novel chlamydiae in whiteflies and scale insects: endosymbionts ‘Candidatus Fritschea bemisiae’ strain Falk and ‘Candidatus Fritschea eriococci’ strain Elm. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1581-1587.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Fritschea eriococci" Everett et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY140911.
Reference: EVERETT (K.D.E.), THAO (M.), HORN (M.), DYSZYNSKI (G.E.) and BAUMANN (P.): Novel chlamydiae in whiteflies and scale insects: endosymbionts ‘Candidatus Fritschea bemisiae’ strain Falk and ‘Candidatus Fritschea eriococci’ strain Elm. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 1581-1587.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Gillettellia cooleyia" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Gilliamella apicola" Martinson et al. 2012.
Reference: MARTINSON (V.G.), MOY (J.) and MORAN (N.A.): Establishment of characteristic gut bacteria during development of the honey bee worker. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 78, 2830-2840. Publication online

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"Candidatus Glomeribacter" Bianciotto et al. 2003.
Reference: BIANCIOTTO (V.), LUMINI (E.), BONFANTE (P.) and VANDAMME (P.): ‘Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum’ gen. nov., sp. nov., an endosymbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 121-124.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum" Bianciotto et al. 2003.
Nucleic acid sequences: Genbank X89727, AJ251634, AJ251635, AJ251636 and AJ251633.
Reference: BIANCIOTTO (V.), LUMINI (E.), BONFANTE (P.) and VANDAMME (P.): ‘Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum’ gen. nov., sp. nov., an endosymbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 121-124.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Gortzia infectiva" Boscaro et al. 2012.
Reference: BOSCARO (V.), FOKIN (S.I.), SCHRALLHAMMER (M.), SCHWEIKERT (M.) and PETRONI (G.): Revised systematics of Holospora-like bacteria and characterization of "Candidatus Gortzia infectiva", a novel macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium jenningsi. Microb. Ecol., published online: September 01, 2012. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens" Hahn and Schauer 2007.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ786327.
Reference: HAHN (M.W.) and SCHAUER (M.): ‘Candidatus Aquirestis calciphila’ and ‘Candidatus Haliscomenobacter calcifugiens’, filamentous, planktonic bacteria inhabiting natural lakes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 936-940.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Halomonas phosphatis" Nguyen et al. 2012.
Reference: NGUYEN (H.T.), NIELSEN (J.L.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): ‘Candidatus Halomonas phosphatis’, a novel polyphosphate-accumulating organism in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 2826-2837. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa" Moran et al. 2005.
Reference: MORAN (N.A.), RUSSELL (J.A.), KOGA (R.) and FUKATSU (T.): Evolutionary relationships of three new species of Enterobacteriaceae living as symbionts of aphids and other insects. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 3302-3310. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Helicobacter bovis" De Groote et al. 1999.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF127027.
Reference: DE GROOTE (D.), VAN DOORN (L.J.), DUCATELLE (R.), VERSCHUUREN (A.), TILMANT (K.), QUINT (W.G.V.), HAESEBROUCK (F.) and VANDAMME (P.): Phylogenetic characterization of ‘Candidatus Helicobacter bovis’, a new gastric helicobacter in cattle. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1707-1715.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" O'Rourke et al. 2004.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ AF506786 (16S rRNA gene), and GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ AF508012 (partial urease gene).
Reference: O'ROURKE (J.L.), SOLNICK (J.V.), NEILAN (B.A.), SEIDEL (K.), HAYTER (R.), HANSEN (L.M.) and LEE (A.): Description of ‘Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii’ based on DNA sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and urease genes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2203-2211.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" was previously known as "Helicobacter heilmannii" type two.

¤ Helicobacter heilmannii Smet et al. 2012, sp. nov.  

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"Candidatus Helicobacter suis" De Groote et al. 1999.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF127028.
Reference: DE GROOTE (D.), VAN DOORN (L.J.), DUCATELLE (R.), VERSCHUUREN (A.), HAESEBROUCK (F.), QUINT (W.G.V.), JALAVA (K.) and VANDAMME (P.): ‘Candidatus Helicobacter suis’, a gastric helicobacter from pigs, and its phylogenetic relatedness to other gastrospirilla. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1769-1777.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: "Candidatus Helicobacter suis" includes strains previously known as "Helicobacter heilmannii" type one.

¤ Helicobacter suis Baele et al. 2008, sp. nov.

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"Candidatus Heliomonas lunata" Asao et al. 2012.
Reference: ASAO (M.), TAKAICHI (S.) and MADIGAN (M.T.): Amino acid-assimilating phototrophic heliobacteria from soda lake environments: Heliorestis acidaminivorans sp. nov. and ‘Candidatus Heliomonas lunata’. Extremophiles, 2012, 16, 585-595. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" Bing et al. 2013.
Reference: BING (X.L.), YANG (J.), ZCHORI-FEIN (E.), WANG (X.W.) and LIU (S.S.): Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2013, 79, 569-575. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hemobacterium ranarum" Zhang and Rikihisa 2004.
Reference: ZHANG (C.) and RIKIHISA (Y.): Proposal to transfer ‘Aegyptianella ranarum’, an intracellular bacterium of frog red blood cells, to the family Flavobacteriaceae as ‘Candidatus Hemobacterium ranarum’ comb. nov. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 6, 568-573. Publication Online

Note: "Candidatus Hemobacterium ranarum" Zhang and Rikihisa 2004 was previously known as "Aegyptianella ranarum Desser 1987.

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"Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum" Wang et al. 2004.
Reference: WANG (Y.), STINGL (U.), ANTON-ERXLEBEN (F.), ZIMMER (M.) and BRUNE (A.): ‘Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum’ gen. nov., sp. nov., a new, stalk-forming lineage of Rickettsiales colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod. Arch. Microbiol., 2004, 181, 299-304. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei" Numan et al. 2013.
Reference: NUNAN (L.M.), PANTOJA (C.R.), GOMEZ-JIMENEZ (S.) and LIGHTNER (D.V.): ‘Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei’, an intracellular pathogenic bacterium enteric in the hepatopancreas of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea:Decopoda). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2013, 79, 1407-1409. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum" Wang et al. 2004.
Reference: WANG (Y.), STINGL (U.), ANTON-ERXLEBEN (F.), GEISLER (S.), BRUNE (A.) and ZIMMER (M.): "Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum," a new, stalk-forming lineage of Mollicutes colonizing the midgut glands of a terrestrial isopod. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 70, 6166-6172. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola" McCutcheon et al. 2009.
Reference: McCUTCHEON (J.P.), McDONALD (B.R.) and MORAN (N.A): (2009) Origin of an alternative genetic code in the extremely small and GC–rich genome of a bacterial symbiont. PLoS Genet., 2009, 5: e1000565. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000565. Publication Online

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"Candidatus intracellularis" Murray and Stackebrandt 1995.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank L15739.
Reference: MURRAY (R.G.E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 186-187.
Original article in IJSB Online

¤ Lawsonia intracellularis McOrist et al. 1995, gen. nov. sp. nov.

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"Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata" Hosokawa et al. 2006.
Reference: HOSOKAWA (T.), KIKUCHI (Y.), NIKOH (N.), SHIMADA (M.) and FUKATSU (T.): Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria. PLoS Biol., 2006, 4, e337. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Isobeggiatoa divolgata" Salman et al. 2011.
Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Jettenia asiatica" Quan et al. 2008.
Reference: QUAN (Z.X.), RHEE (S.K.), ZUO (J.E.), YANG (Y.), BAE (J.W.), PARK (J.R.), LEE (S.T.) and PARK (Y.H.): Diversity of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in a granular sludge anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) reactor. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 10, 3130-3139. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium blastocrithidii" Du et al. 1994.
Reference: DU (Y.), MASLOV (D.A.) and CHANG (K.P.): Monophyletic origin of beta-division proteobacterial endosymbionts and their coevolution with insect trypanosomatid protozoa Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia spp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 1994, 91, 8437-8441. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium crithidii" Du et al. 1994.
Reference: DU (Y.), MASLOV (D.A.) and CHANG (K.P.): Monophyletic origin of beta-division proteobacterial endosymbionts and their coevolution with insect trypanosomatid protozoa Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia spp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 1994, 91, 8437-8441. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Kleidoceria" Küchler et al. 2010.
Reference: KÜCHLER (S.M.), DETTNER (K.) and KEHL (S.): Molecular characterization and localization of the obligate endosymbiotic bacterium in the birch catkin bug Kleidocerys resedae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae, Ischnorhynchinae). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 2010, 73, 408-418. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Kleidoceria schneideri" Küchler et al. 2010.
Reference: KÜCHLER (S.M.), DETTNER (K.) and KEHL (S.): Molecular characterization and localization of the obligate endosymbiotic bacterium in the birch catkin bug Kleidocerys resedae (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae, Ischnorhynchinae). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 2010, 73, 408-418. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Kopriimonas aquarianus" Quinn et al. 2012.
Reference: QUINN (R.A.), METZLER (A.), TLUSTY (M.), SMOLOWITZ (R.M.), LEBERG (P.) and CHISTOSERDOV (A.Y.): Lesion bacterial communities in American lobsters with diet-induced shell disease. Dis. Aquat. Organ., 2012, 98, 221-233. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum" Elkins et al. 2008.
Reference: ELKINS (J.G.), PODAR (M.), GRAHAM (D.E.), MAKAROVA (K.S.), WOLF (Y.), RANDAU (L.), HEDLUND (B.P.), BROCHIER-ARMANET (C.), KUNIN (V.), ANDERSON (I.), LAPIDUS (A.), GOLTSMAN (E.), BARRY (K.), KOONIN (E.V.), HUGENHOLTZ (P.), KYRPIDES (N.), WANNER (G.), RICHARDSON (P.), KELLER (M.) and STETTER (K.O.): A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 2008, 105, 8102-8107. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Koribacter versatilis" Ward et al. 2009.
Reference: WARD (N.L.), CHALLACOMBE (J.F.), JANSSEN (P.H.), HENRISSAT (B.), COUTINHO (P.M.), WU (M.), XIE (G.), HAFT (D.H.), SAIT (M.), BADGER (J.), BARABOTE (R.D.), BRADLEY (B.), BRETTIN (T.S.), BRINKAC (L.M.), BRUCE (D.), CREASY (T.), DAUGHERTY (S.C.), DAVIDSEN (T.M.), DEBOY (R.T.), DETTER (J.C.), DODSON (R.J.), DURKIN (A.S.), GANAPATHY (A.), GWINN-GIGLIO (M.), HAN (C.S.), KHOURI (H.), KISS (H.), KOTHARI (S.P.), MADUPU (R.), NELSON (K.E.), NELSON (W.C.), PAULSEN (I.), PENN (K.), REN (Q.), ROSOVITZ (M.J.), SELENGUT (J.D.), SHRIVASTAVA (S.), SULLIVAN (S.A.), TAPIA (R.), THOMPSON (L.S.), WATKINS (K.L.), YANG (Q.), YU (C.), ZAFAR (N.), ZHOU (L.) and KUSKE (C.R.): Three genomes from the phylum Acidobacteria provide insight into the lifestyles of these microorganisms in soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 75, 2046-2056. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Kuenenia" Schmid et al. 2000.
Reference: SCHMID (M.), TWACHTMANN (U.), KLEIN (M.), STROUS (M.), JURETSCHKO (S.), JETTEN (M.), METZGER (J.W.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and WAGNER (M.): Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2000, 23, 93-106. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" Schmid et al. 2000.
Reference: SCHMID (M.), TWACHTMANN (U.), KLEIN (M.), STROUS (M.), JURETSCHKO (S.), JETTEN (M.), METZGER (J.W.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and WAGNER (M.): Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2000, 23, 93-106. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Lariskella arthropodarum" Matsuura et al. 2012.
Reference: MATSUURA (Y.), KIKUCHI (Y.), MENG (X.Y.), KOGA (R.) and FUKATSU (T.): A novel clade of alphaproteobacterial endosymbionts associated with stinkbugs and other arthropods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 78, 4149-4156. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Legionella jeonii" Park et al. 2004.
Reference: PARK (M.), YUN (S.T.), KIM (M.S.), CHUN (J.) and AHN (TI.): Phylogenetic characterization of Legionella-like endosymbiotic X-bacteria in Amoeba proteus: a proposal for ‘Candidatus Legionella jeonii’ sp. nov. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 6, 1252-1263. Publication Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter americanus" Teixeira et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank no. AY742824.
Reference: TEIXEIRA (D.C.), SAILLARD (C.), EVEILLARD (S.), DANET (J.L.), DA COSTA (P.I.), AYRES (A.J.) and BOVÉ (J.): ‘Candidatus Liberibacter americanus’, associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 55, 1857-1862.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter africanus" corrig. Jagoueix et al. 1994.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank L22533.
References: 1 JAGOUEIX (S.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and GARNIER (M.): The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of the α subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 379-386 (Original article in IJSB Online). 2 MURRAY (R.G.E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 186-187.
Original article in IJSB Online

Note: The original spelling ("Candidatus Liberobacter africanum) was corrected by Garnier et al. 2000.
Reference: GARNIER (M.), JAGOUEIX-EVEILLARD (S.), CRONJE (P.R.), LE ROUX (H.F.) and BOVÉ (J.M.): Genomic characterization of a liberibacter present in an ornamental rutaceous tree, Calodendrum capense, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Proposal of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus subsp. capensis’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2119-2125.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter africanus subsp. capensis" Garnier et al. 2000.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF137368.
Reference: GARNIER (M.), JAGOUEIX-EVEILLARD (S.), CRONJE (P.R.), LE ROUX (H.F.) and BOVÉ (J.M.): Genomic characterization of a liberibacter present in an ornamental rutaceous tree, Calodendrum capense, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Proposal of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus subsp. capensis’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2119-2125.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter africanus" Roberts et al. 2015.
Reference: ROBERTS, R., STEENKAMP, E. T. and PIETERSEN, G. 2015. Three novel lineages of «Candidatus Liberibacter africanus» associated with native rutaceous hosts of Trioza erytreae in South Africa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 723-731
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" corrig. Jagoueix et al. 1994.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank L22532.
References: 1 JAGOUEIX (S.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and GARNIER (M.): The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of the α subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 379-386 (Original article in IJSB Online). 2 MURRAY (R.G.E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 186-187.
Original article in IJSB Online

Note: The original spelling ("Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticum) was corrected by Garnier et al. 2000.
Reference: GARNIER (M.), JAGOUEIX-EVEILLARD (S.), CRONJE (P.R.), LE ROUX (H.F.) and BOVÉ (J.M.): Genomic characterization of a liberibacter present in an ornamental rutaceous tree, Calodendrum capense, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Proposal of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter africanus subsp. capensis’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2119-2125.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus" Raddadi et al. 2011.
Reference: RADDADI (N.), GONELLA (E.), CAMEROTA (C.), PIZZINAT (A.), TEDESCHI (R.), CROTTI (E.), MANDRIOLI (M.), ATTILIO BIANCO (P.), DAFFONCHIO (D.) and ALMA (A.): 'Candidatus Liberibacter europaeus’ sp. nov. that is associated with and transmitted by the psyllid Cacopsylla pyri apparently behaves as an endophyte rather than a pathogen. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 13, 414-426. Publication online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous" Hansen et al. 2008.
Reference: HANSEN (A.K.), TRUMBLE (J.T.), STOUTHAMER (R.) and PAINE (T.D.): A new huanglongbing species, "Candidatus. Liberibacter psyllaurous", found to infect tomato and potato is vectored by the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 74, 5862-5865. Publication online

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"Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" Liefting et al. 2009.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EU834130.
Reference: LIEFTING (L.W.), WEIR (B.S.), PENNYCOOK (S.R.) and CLOVER (G.R.G.): "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum", associated with plants in the family Solanaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2274-2276.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Limnoluna rubra" Hahn 2009.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AM943659.
Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Lumbricincola" Nechitaylo et al. 2009.
Reference: NECHITAYLO (T.Y.), TIMMIS (K.N.) and GOLYSHIN (P.N.): ‘Candidatus Lumbricincola’, a novel lineage of uncultured Mollicutes from earthworms of family Lumbricidae. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 11, 1016-1026. Publication online

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"Candidatus Macropleicola appendiculatae" KÖLSCH et al. 2009.
Reference: KÖLSCH (G.), MATZ-GRUND (C.) and PEDERSEN (B.V.): Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of endosymbionts of the reed beetle genus Macroplea (Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae), and proposal of "Candidatus Macropleicola appendiculatae" and "Candidatus Macropleicola muticae". Can. J. Microbiol., 2009, 55, 1250-1260. Publication online

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"Candidatus Macropleicola muticae" KÖLSCH et al. 2009.
Reference: KÖLSCH (G.), MATZ-GRUND (C.) and PEDERSEN (B.V.): Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of endosymbionts of the reed beetle genus Macroplea (Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae), and proposal of "Candidatus Macropleicola appendiculatae" and "Candidatus Macropleicola muticae". Can. J. Microbiol., 2009, 55, 1250-1260. Publication online

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"Candidatus Magnetobacterium" Murray and Stackebrandt 1995.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): EMBL X71838.
Reference: MURRAY (R.G.E.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Taxonomic note: implementation of the provisional status Candidatus for incompletely described procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 186-187.
Original article in IJSB Online

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"Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum" Spring et al. 1993.
Reference: SPRING (S.), AMANN (R.), LUDWIG (W.),SCHLEIFER (K.H.), VAN GEMERDEN (H.) and PETERSEN (N.): Dominating role of an unusual magnetotactic bacterium in the microaerobic zone of a freshwater sediment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1993, 59, 2397-2403.
Publication online

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"Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis" Abreu et al. 2007.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ EF014726.
Reference: ABREU (F.), MARTINS (J.L.), SILVEIRA (T.S.), KEIM (C.N.), LINS DE BARROS (H.G.P.), GUEIROS FILHO (F.J.) and LINS (U.): ‘Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis’, a multicellular, magnetotactic prokaryote from a hypersaline environment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1318-1322.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Magnospira bakii" Snaidr et al. 1999.
Reference: SNAIDR (J.), FUCHS (B.), WALLNER (G.), WAGNER (M.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and AMANN (R.): Phylogeny and in situ identification of a morphologically conspicuous bacterium, Candidatus Magnospira bakii, present at very low frequency in activated sludge. Environ. Microbiol., 1999, 1, 125-135. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Maribeggiatoa vulgaris" Salman et al. 2011.
Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Marithioploca araucae" Salman et al. 2011.
Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Marithrix sessilis" Salman et al. 2011.
Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" Corsaro et al. 2013.
Reference: CORSARO (D.), MÜLLER (K.D.), WINGENDER (J.) andMICHEL (R.): "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae), a novel chlamydia parasite of free-living amoebae. Parasitol. Res., 2013, 112, 829-838. Publication onine

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"Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris" Corsaro et al. 2010.
Reference: CORSARO (D.), MICHEL (R.), WALOCHNIK (J.), MÜLLER( K.D.) and GREUB (G.): Saccamoeba lacustris, sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Lobosea: Hartmannellidae), a new lobose amoeba, parasitized by the novel chlamydia ‘Candidatus Metachlamydia lacustris’ (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae). Eur. J. Protistol., 2010, 46, 86-95. Publication online

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"Candidatus Methanogranum caenicola" Iino et al. 2013.
Reference: IINO, T., TAMAKI, H., TAMAZAWA, S., UENO, Y., OHKUMA, M., SUZUKI, K., IGARASHI, Y. and HARUTA, S. 2013. Candidatus Methanogranum caenicola: a novel methanogen from the anaerobic digested sludge, and proposal of Methanomassiliicoccaceae fam. nov. and Methanomassiliicoccales ord. nov., for a methanogenic lineage of the class Thermoplasmata. Microbes. Environ. 28, 244-250
Publication online

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"Candidatus Methanomethylophilus alvus" Borrel et al. 2012.
Reference: BORREL (G.), HARRIS (H.M.), TOTTEY (W.), MIHAJLOVSKI (A.), PARISOT (N.), PEYRETAILLADE (E.), PEYRET (P.), GRIBALDO (S.), O'TOOLE (P.W.) and BRUGÈRE (J.F.): Genome sequence of "Candidatus Methanomethylophilus alvus" Mx1201, a methanogenic archaeon from the human gut belonging to a seventh order of methanogens. J. Bacteriol., 2012, 194, 6944-6945. Publication online

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"Candidatus Methanoregula boonei" Bräuer et al. 2006.
Reference: BRÄUER (S.L.), CADILLO-QUIROZ (H.), YASHIRO (E.), YAVITT (J.B.) and ZINDER (S.H.): Isolation of a novel acidiphilic methanogen from an acidic peat bog. Nature, 2006, 442, 192–194. Publication online

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"Candidatus Methylacidiphilum infernorum" Hou et al. 2008.
Reference: HOU (S.), MAKAROVA (K.S.), SAW (J.H.), SENIN (P.), LY (B.V.), ZHOU (Z.), REN (Y.), WANG (J.), GALPERIN (M.Y.), OMELCHENKO (M.V.), WOLF (Y.I.), YUTIN (N.), KOONIN (E.V.), STOTT (M.B.), MOUNTAIN (B.W.), CROWE (M.A.), SMIRNOVA (A.V.), DUNFIELD (P.F.), FENG (L.), WANG (L.) and ALAM (M.): Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Biol Direct. 2008, 3:26 (doi:10.1186/1745-6150-3-26). Publication online

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"Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" Ettwig et al. 2010.
Reference: ETTWIG (K.F.), BUTLER (M.K.), LE PASLIER (D.), PELLETIER (E.), MANGENOT (S.), KUYPERS (M.M.), SCHREIBER (F.), DUTILH (B.E.), ZEDELIUS (J.), DE BEER (D.), GLOERICH (J.), WESSELS (H.J.), VAN ALEN (T.), LUESKEN (F.), WU (M.L.), VAN DE PAS-SCHOONEN (K.T.), OP DEN CAMP (H.J.), JANSSEN-MEGENS (E.M.), FRANCOIJS (K.J.), STUNNENBERG (H.), WEISSENBACH (J.), JETTEN (M.S.) and STROUS (M.): Nitrite-driven anaerobic methane oxidation by oxygenic bacteria. Nature, 2010, 464, 543-548. Publication online

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"Candidatus Microthrix calida" Levantesi et al. 2006.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): .
Reference: LEVANTESI (C.), ROSSETTI (S.), THELEN (K.), KRAGELUND (C.), KROONEMAN (J.), EIKELBOOM (D.), NIELSEN (P.H.) and TANDOI (V.): Phylogeny, physiology and distribution of ‘Candidatus Microthrix calida’, a new Microthrix species isolated from industrial activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 8, 1552-1563. Publication online

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"Candidatus Microthrix parvicella" Blackall et al. 1996.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EMBL X82546.
Reference: BLACKALL (L.L.), STRATTON (H.), BRADFORD (D.), DEL DOT (T.), SJÖRUP (C.), SEVIOUR (E.M.) and SEVIOUR (R.J.): "Candidatus Microthrix parvicella", a filamentous bacterium from activated sludge sewage treatment plants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 344-346.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" Sassera et al. 2006.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the gyrB gene sequence of "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" is AM159536.
Reference:: SASSERA (D.), BENINATI (T.), BANDI (C.), BOUMAN (E.A.P.), SACCHI (L.), FABBI (M.) and LO (N.): 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii’, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 2535-2540.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Midichloriaceae" Montagna et al. 2013.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EMBL X82546.
Reference: MONTAGNA (M.), SASSERA (D.), EPIS (S.), BAZZOCCHI (C.), VANNINI (C.), LO (N.), SACCHI (L.), FUKATSU (T.), PETRONI (G.) and BANDI (C.): "Candidatus Midichloriaceae" fam. nov. (Rickettsiales), an ecologically widespread clade of intracellular alpha-proteobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2013, 79, 3241-3248. Publication online

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"Candidatus Monilibacter batavus" Kragelund et al. 2006.
Reference: KRAGELUND (C.), KONG (Y.), VAN DER WAARDE (J.), THELEN (K.), EIKELBOOM (D.), TANDOI (V.), THOMSEN (T.R.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants. Microbiology, 2006, 152, 3003-3012. Publication online

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"Candidatus Moranella endobia" McCutcheon and von Dohlen 2011.
Reference: McCUTCHEON (J.P.) and VON DOHLEN CD: An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs. Curr. Biol., 2011, 21, 1366-1372. Publication online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma aoti" Barker et al. 2011.
Reference: BARKER (E.N.), HELPS (C.R.), NEIMARK (H.), PETERS (I.R.), PETERS (W.) and TASKER (S.): A novel haemoplasma species identified in archived primate blood smears. Vet. Microbiol., 2011, 149, 478-481. Publication online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma corallicola" Neulinger et al. 2009.
Reference: NEULINGER (S.C.), GÄRTNER (A.), JÄRNEGREN (J.), LUDVIGSEN (M.), LOCHTE (K.) and DULLO (W.C.): Tissue-associated "Candidatus Mycoplasma corallicola" and filamentous bacteria on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 75, 1437-1444. Publication online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum" Sykes et al. 2005.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank no. AY383241.
Reference: SYKES (J.E.), BALL (L.M.), BAILIFF (N.L.) and FRY (M.M.): ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’, a novel small haemotropic mycoplasma from a dog. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 27-30.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" Tagawa et al. 2008.
Reference: TAGAWA (M.), MATSUMOTO (K.) and INOKUMA (H.): Molecular detection of Mycoplasma wenyonii and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos’ in cattle in Hokkaido, Japan. Vet. Microbiol., 2008, 132, 177-180. Publication online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis" Messick et al. 2002.
Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF178676.
Reference: MESSICK (J.B.), WALKER (P.G.), RAPHAEL (W.), BERENT (L.) and SHI (X.): ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis’ sp. nov., ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae’ sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 693-698.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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"Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis" Neimark et al. 2001.
Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank U88563 (strain Ohio-Florida), U95297 (strain Illinois), AF178677 (strain Oklahoma).
Synonym: ¤ Haemobartonella felis (ex Clark 1942) Kreier and Ristic 1984.
Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that ¤ Haemobartonella felis (ex Clark 1942) Kreier and Ristic 1984 is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that ¤ Haemobartonella felis be transferred to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma as "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis".
  • To avoid confusion with ¤ Mycoplasma felis Cole et al. 1967 (Approved Lists 1980), Neimark et al. 2001 form the new name haemofelis.
  • According to the Associate Editor of the IJSEM and to the Judicial Commission, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify ¤ Haemobartonella felis as "Candidatus" is not possible because the genus name has been validly published.
    References: 1 ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233. 2 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
    Notification List in IJSEM Online
    Original article by De Vos et al. 2005 in IJSEM Online

    ¤ Mycoplasma haemofelis (Kreier and Ristic 1984) Neimark et al. 2002, nom. nov.

    Note: The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published name to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematofelis" to ¤ Mycoplasma haemofelis nom. nov.

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" Messick et al. 2002.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF306346.
    Reference: MESSICK (J.B.), WALKER (P.G.), RAPHAEL (W.), BERENT (L.) and SHI (X.): ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis’ sp. nov., ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae’ sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 693-698.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" Maggi et al. 2013.
    Reference: MAGGI (R.G.), MASCARELLI (P.E.), BALAKRISHNAN (N.), ROHDE (C.M.), KELLY (C.M.), RAMAIAH (L.), LEACH (M.W.) and BREITSCHWERDT (E.B..): ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque’ and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2013, 51, 1408-1411. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" Foley and Pedersen 2001.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank U88564.
    Reference: FOLEY (J.E.) and PEDERSEN (N.C.): ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, a low-virulence epierythrocytic parasite of cats. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 815-817.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" Foley and Pedersen 2001 was previously known as "Haemobartonella felis small form (Hfsm)".

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris" Neimark et al. 2001.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank U82963.
    Synonym: ¤ Haemobartonella muris (Mayer 1921) Tyzzer and Weinman 1939 (Approved Lists 1980).
    Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Notes:

  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that ¤ Haemobartonella muris (Mayer 1921) Tyzzer and Weinman 1939 (Approved Lists 1980) is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that ¤ Haemobartonella muris be transferred to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma as "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris".
  • To avoid confusion with ¤ Mycoplasma muris McGarrity et al. 1983, Neimark et al. 2001 form the new name haemomuris.
  • According to the Associate Editor of the IJSEM and to the Judicial Commission, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify ¤ Haemobartonella muris as "Candidatus" is not possible because the genus name has been validly published.
    References: 1 ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233. 2 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
    Notification List in IJSEM Online
    Original article by De Vos et al. 2005 in IJSEM Online

    ¤ Mycoplasma haemomuris (Mayer 1921) Neimark et al. 2002, nom. nov.

    Note: The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published name to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris" to ¤ Mycoplasma haemomuris nom. nov.

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi" Harasawa et al. 2015.
    Reference: HARASAWA, R., FUJITA, H., KADOSAKA, T., ANDO, S. and RIKIHISA, Y. 2015. Proposal for “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi” in mice, and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti” in rats. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 734-737
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti" Harasawa et al. 2015.
    Reference: HARASAWA, R., FUJITA, H., KADOSAKA, T., ANDO, S. and RIKIHISA, Y. 2015. Proposal for “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. musculi” in mice, and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris subsp. ratti” in rats. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 734-737
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" Neimark et al. 2001.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank U88565 and AF029394.
    Synonym: ¤ Eperythrozoon suis Splitter 1950 (Approved Lists 1980).
    Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Notes:

  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that ¤ Eperythrozoon suis Splitter 1950 (Approved Lists 1980) is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that ¤ Eperythrozoon suis be transferred to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma as "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis".
  • To avoid confusion with Mycoplasma suis (sic), Neimark et al. 2001 form the new name haemosuis. However, the name Mycoplasma suis has no standing in nomenclature!
  • According to the Associate Editor of the IJSEM and to the Judicial Commission, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify ¤ Eperythrozoon suis as "Candidatus" is not possible because the genus name has been validly published.
    References: 1 ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233. 2 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
    Notification List in IJSEM Online
    Original article by De Vos et al. 2005 in IJSEM Online

    ¤ Mycoplasma haemosuis (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, nom. nov. [Illegitimate name! See ¤ Mycoplasma suis corrig. (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.].

    Note: The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published name to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis" to ¤ Mycoplasma haemosuis nom. nov.

    ¤ Mycoplasma suis corrig. (Splitter 1950) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis" Hornok et al. 2009.
    Reference: HORNOK (S.), MELI (M.L.), ERDOS (A.), HAJTOS (I.), LUTZ (H.) and HOFMANN-LEHMANN (R.): Molecular characterization of two different strains of haemotropic mycoplasmas from a sheep flock with fatal haemolytic anaemia and concomitant Anaplasma ovis infection. Vet. Microbiol., 2009, 136, 372-377. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemozalophi" Volokhov et al. 2011.
    Reference: VOLOKHOV (D.V.), NORRIS (T.), RIOS (C.), DAVIDSON (M.K.), MESSICK (J.B.), GULLAND (F.M.) and CHIZHIKOV (V.E.): Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Vet. Microbiol., 2011, 149, 262-268. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma kahanei" Neimark et al. 2002.
    Reference: NEIMARK (H.), BARNAUD (A.), GOUNON (P.), MICHEL (J.C.) and CONTAMIN (H.): The putative haemobartonella that influences Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in squirrel monkeys is a haemotrophic mycoplasma. Microbes Infect., 2002, 4, 693-698. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma ravipulmonis" Neimark et al. 1998.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF001173.
    Reference: NEIMARK (H.), MITCHELMORE (D.) and LEACH (R.H.): An approach to characterizing uncultivated prokaryotes: the Grey Lung agent and proposal of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, "Candidatus Mycoplasma ravipulmonis". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 389-394.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (sic!) Willi et al. 2006.
    Reference: WILLI (B.), BORETTI (F.S.), BAUMGARTNER (C.), TASKER (S.), WENGER (B.), CATTORI (V.), MELI (M.L.), REUSCH (C.E.), LUTZ (H.) and HOFMANN-LEHMANN (R.): Prevalence, risk factor analysis, and follow-up of infections caused by three feline hemoplasma species in cats in Switzerland. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2006, 44, 961-969.

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    "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii" Neimark et al. 2001.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF016546.
    Synonym: ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii Adler and Ellenbogen 1934 (Approved Lists 1980).
    Reference: NEIMARK (H.), JOHANSSON (K.E.), RIKIHISA (Y.) and TULLY (J.G.): Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 891-899.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Notes:

  • Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences shows that ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii Adler and Ellenbogen 1934 (Approved Lists 1980) is closely related to species in the genus ¤ Mycoplasma Nowak 1929 (Approved Lists 1980). To reflect this phylogenetic affiliation, Neimark et al. 2001 propose that ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii be transferred to the genus ¤ Mycoplasma as "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii".
  • According to the Associate Editor of the IJSEM and to the Judicial Commission, the proposal of Neimark et al. to reclassify ¤ Eperythrozoon wenyonii as "Candidatus" is not possible because the genus name has been validly published.
    References: 1 ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 3, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 2001, 51, 1231-1233. 2 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
    Notification List in IJSEM Online
    Original article by De Vos et al. 2005 in IJSEM Online

    ¤ Mycoplasma wenyonii (Adler and Ellenbogen 1934) Neimark et al. 2002, comb. nov.

    Note: The Candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status; changing validly published name to Candidatus would lose their standing in nomenclature. So, Neimark et al. revise "Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii " to ¤ Mycoplasma wenyonii comb. nov.

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    "Candidatus Nardonella" Lefèvre et al. 2004.
    Reference: LEFÈVRE (C.), CHARLES (H.), VALLIER (A.), DELOBEL (B.), FARRELL (B.) and HEDDI (A.): Endosymbiont phylogenesis in the dryophthoridae weevils: evidence for bacterial replacement. Mol. Biol. Evol., 2004, 21, 965-973. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nebulobacter yamunensis" Boscaro et al. 2012.
    Reference: BOSCARO (V.), VANNINI (C.), FOKIN (S.I.), VERNI (F.) and PETRONI (G.): Characterization of "Candidatus Nebulobacter yamunensis" from the cytoplasm of Euplotes aediculatus (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) and emended description of the family Francisellaceae. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 432-440. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Neoehrlichia lotoris" Yabsley et al. 2008.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank EF633744 (16S rRNA), EF633745 (groESL), EF633746 (gltA), EF633747 (rpoB).
    Reference: YABSLEY (M.J.), MURPHY (S.M.), LUTTRELL (M.P.), WILCOX (B.R.), HOWERTH (E.W.) and MUNDERLOH (U.G.): Characterization of ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia lotoris’ (family Anaplasmataceae) from raccoons (Procyon lotor). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2794-2798.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" Kawahara et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank AB084582 and AB084583.
    Reference: KAWAHARA (M.), RIKIHISA (Y.), ISOGAI (E.), TAKAHASHI (M.), MISUMI (H.), SUTO (C.), SHIBATA (S.), ZHANG (C.) and TSUJI (M.): Ultrastructure and phylogenic analysis of ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1837-1843.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum" Blainey et al. 2011.
    Reference: BLAINEY (P.C.), MOSIER (A.C.), POTANINA (A.), FRANCIS (C.A.) and QUAKE (S.R.): Genome of a low-salinity ammonia-oxidizing archaeon determined by single-cell and metagenomic analysis. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6, e16626. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis" Kim et al. 2011.
    Reference: KIM (B.K.), JUNG (M.Y.), YU (D.S.), PARK (S.J.), OH (T.K.), RHEE (S.K.) and KIM (J.F.): Genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing soil archaeon, "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis" MY1. J. Bacteriol., 2011, 193, 5539-5540. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia" Blainey et al. 2011.
    Reference: BLAINEY (P.C.), MOSIER (A.C.), POTANINA (A.), FRANCIS (C.A.) and QUAKE (S.R.): Genome of a low-salinity ammonia-oxidizing archaeon determined by single-cell and metagenomic analysis. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6, e16626. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii" de la Torre et al. 2008.
    Reference: DE LA TORRE (J.R.), WALKER (C.B.), INGALLS (A.E.), KÖNNEKE (M.) and STAHL (D.A.): Cultivation of a thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon synthesizing crenarchaeol. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 10, 810-813. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilaceae" Könneke et al. 2005.
    Reference: KÖNNEKE (M.), BERNHARD (A.E.), DE LA TORRE (J.R.), WALKER (C.B.), WATERBURY (J.B.) and STAHL (D.A.): Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature, 2005, 437, 543-546. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilales" Könneke et al. 2005.
    Reference: KÖNNEKE (M.), BERNHARD (A.E.), DE LA TORRE (J.R.), WALKER (C.B.), WATERBURY (J.B.) and STAHL (D.A.): Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature, 2005, 437, 543-546. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus" Könneke et al. 2005.
    Reference: KÖNNEKE (M.), BERNHARD (A.E.), DE LA TORRE (J.R.), WALKER (C.B.), WATERBURY (J.B.) and STAHL (D.A.): Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature, 2005, 437, 543-546. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus koreensis" Park et al. 2012.
    Reference: PARK (S.J.), KIM (J.G.), JUNG (M.Y.), KIM (S.J.), CHA (I.T.), KWON (K.), LEE (J.H.) and RHEE (S.K.): Draft genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus koreensis" AR1, from marine sediment. J. Bacteriol., 2012, 194, 6940-6941. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus" Könneke et al. 2005.
    Reference: KÖNNEKE (M.), BERNHARD (A.E.), DE LA TORRE (J.R.), WALKER (C.B.), WATERBURY (J.B.) and STAHL (D.A.): Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon. Nature, 2005, 437, 543-546. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus salaria" Mosier et al. 2012.
    Reference: MOSIER (A.C.), ALLEN (E.E.), KIM (M.), FERRIERA (S.) and FRANCIS (C.A.): Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus salaria" BD31, an Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon from the San Francisco Bay Estuary. J. Bacteriol., 2012, 194, 2121-2122. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sediminis" Park et al. 2012.
    Reference: PARK (S.J.), KIM (J.G.), JUNG (M.Y.), KIM (S.J.), CHA (I.T.), GHAI (R.), MARTÍN-CUADRADO (A.B.), RODRÍGUEZ-VALERA (F.) and RHEE (S.K.): Draft genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus sediminis" AR2, from Svalbard in the Arctic Circle. J. Bacteriol., 2012, 194, 6948-6949. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis" Hatzenpichler et al. 2008.
    Reference: HATZENPICHLER (R.), LEBEDEVA (E.V.), SPIECK (E.), STOECKER (K.), RICHTER (A.), DAIMS (H.) and WAGNER (M.): A moderately thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote from a hot spring. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 2008, 105, 2134-2139. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrososphaera viennensis" Tourna et al. 2011.
    Reference: TOURNA (M.), STIEGLMEIER (M.), SPANG (A.), KONNEKE (M.), SCHINTLMEISTER (A.), URICH (T.), ENGELD (M.), SCHLOTERD (M.), WAGNERC (M.), RICHTERC (A.) and SCHLEPERA (C.): Nitrososphaera viennensis, an ammonia oxidizing archaeon from soil. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2011, 108, 8420–8425. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrospira bockiana" Lebedeva et al. 2008.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EU084879.
    Reference: LEBEDEVA (E.V.), ALAWI (M.), MAIXNER (F.), JOZSA (P.G.), DAIMS (H.) and SPIECK (E.): Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a novel lithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, ‘Candidatus Nitrospira bockiana’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 242-250.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii" Spieck et al. 2006.
    Reference: SPIECK (E.), HARTWIG (C.), McCORMACK (I.), MAIXNER (F.), WAGNER (M.), LIPSKI (A.) and DAIMS (H.): Selective enrichment and molecular characterization of a previously uncultured Nitrospira-like bacterium from activated sludge. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 8, 405-415. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra" Lehtovirta-morley et al. 2011.
    Reference: LEHTOVIRTA-MORLEY (L.E.), STOECKER (K.), VILCINSKAS (A.), PROSSER (J.I.) and NICOL (G.W.): Cultivation of an obligate acidophilic ammonia oxidizer from a nitrifying acid soil. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2011, 108, 15892-15897. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nitrotoga arctica" Alawi et al. 2007.
    Reference: ALAWI (M.), LIPSKI (A.), SANDERS (T.), PFEIFFER (E.M.) and SPIECK (E.): Cultivation of a novel cold-adapted nitrite oxidizing betaproteobacterium from the Siberian Arctic. ISME J., 2007, 1, 256-264. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Nostocoida limicola" Blackall et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequences: isolate Ver1: EMBL Y14595, isolate Ver2: EMBL Y14596, isolate Ben67: EMBL Y14597, isolate Ben17: EMBL X85211, isolate Ben18: EMBL X85212.
    Reference: BLACKALL (L.L.), SEVIOUR (E.M.), BRADFORD (D.), ROSSETTI (S.), TANDOI (V.) and SEVIOUR (R.J.): ‘Candidatus Nostocoida limicola’, a filamentous bacterium from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 703-709.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: On the basis of extensive chemotaxonomic and molecular evidences "Candidatus Nostocoida limicola" strains Ben 17, Ben 18, Ben 67, Ben 68 and Ben 74 must be placed into the species ¤ Tetrasphaera jenkinsii, "Candidatus Nostocoida limicola" strain Ben 70 into ¤ Tetrasphaera vanveenii, and "Candidatus Nostocoida limicola" strains Ver 1 and Ver 2 into ¤ Tetrasphaera veronensis.

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    "Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis" Birtles et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF069496 (strain L13).
    Reference: BIRTLES (R.J.), ROWBOTHAM (T.J.), MICHEL (R.), PITCHER (D.G.), LASCOLA (B.), ALEXIOU-DANIEL (S.) and RAOULT (D.): ‘Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis’ gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligate intracellular parasite of Acanthamoeba species. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 63-72.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: In the paper by Birtles et al. 2000, this taxa is proposed as "Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis" gen. nov., sp. nov.

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    "Candidatus Ovobacter propellens" Fenchel and Thar 2004.
    Reference: FENCHEL (T.) and THAR (R.): "Candidatus Ovobacter propellens": a large conspicuous prokaryote with an unusual motility behaviour. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 2004, 48, 231-238. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii" Noel and Atibalentja 2006.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences of ‘Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii’ are DQ314214 and DQ314215.
    Reference: NOEL (G.R.) and ATIBALENTJA (N.): ‘Candidatus Paenicardinium endonii’, an endosymbiont of the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida), affiliated to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1697-1702.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Parabeggiatoa communis" Salman et al. 2011.
    Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Paracaedibacter acanthamoebae" Horn et al. 1999.
    Reference: HORN (M.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), GAUTOM (R.K.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and WAGNER (M.): Novel bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. related to the Paramecium caudatum symbiont Caedibacter caryophilus. Environ. Microbiol., 1999, 1, 357-367. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Paracaedibacter symbiosus" Horn et al. 1999.
    Reference: HORN (M.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), GAUTOM (R.K.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and WAGNER (M.): Novel bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. related to the Paramecium caudatum symbiont Caedibacter caryophilus. Environ. Microbiol., 1999, 1, 357-367. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Paraholospora nucleivisitans" Eschbach et al. 2009.
    Reference: ESCHBACH (E.) PFANNKUCHEN (M.), SCHWEIKERT (M.), DRUTSCHMANN (D.), BRÜMMER (F.), FOKIN (S.), LUDWIG (W.) and GÖRTZ (H.D.): "Candidatus Paraholospora nucleivisitans", an intracellular bacterium in Paramecium sexaurelia shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of its host. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 32, 490-500. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola" Stride et al. 2013.
    Reference: STRIDE (M.C.), POLKINGHORNE (A.), MILLER (T.L.), GROFF (J.M.), LAPATRA (S.E.) and NOWAK (B.F.): Molecular characterisation of Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola, a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes), and the proposal of a new family, Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae fam. nov. (Order Chlamydiales). Appl. Environ Microbiol., 2013, 79, 1590-1597. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Pasteuria aldrichii" Giblin-Davis et al. 2011.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank GU186440.
    Reference: GIBLIN-DAVIS (R.M.), NONG (G.), PRESTON (J.F.), WILLIAMS (D.S.), CENTER (B.J.), BRITO (J.A.) and DICKSON (D.W.): ‘Candidatus Pasteuria aldrichii’, an obligate endoparasite of the bacterivorous nematode Bursilla sp. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2073-2080.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Pasteuria usgae" Giblin-Davis et al. 2003.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF254387 (strain S-1).
    Reference: GIBLIN-DAVIS (R.M.), WILLIAMS (D.S.), BEKAL (S.), DICKSON (D.W.), BRITO (J.A.), BECKER (J.O.) and PRESTON (J.F.): ‘Candidatus Pasteuria usgae’ sp. nov., an obligate endoparasite of the phytoparasitic nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 197-200.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Pelagibacter" Rappe et al. 2002.
    Reference: RAPPE (M.S.), CONNON (S.A.), VERGIN (K.L.) and GIOVANNONI (S.J.): Cultivation of the ubiquitous SAR11 marine bacterioplankton clade. Nature, 2002, 418, 630-633. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique" Rappe et al. 2002.
    Reference: RAPPE (M.S.), CONNON (S.A.), VERGIN (K.L.) and GIOVANNONI (S.J.): Cultivation of the ubiquitous SAR11 marine bacterioplankton clade. Nature, 2002, 418, 630-633. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Peptostreptococcus massiliae" Drancourt et al. 2004.
    Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae" Zreik et al. 1998.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank U91515.
    Reference: ZREIK (L.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and GARNIER (M.): Phylogenetic characterization of the bacterium-like organism associated with marginal chlorosis of strawberry and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 257-261.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Photodesmus" Hendry and Dunlap, 2011.
    Reference: HENDRY (T.A.) and DUNLAP (P.V.): The uncultured luminous symbiont of Anomalops katoptron (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) represents a new bacterial genus. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2011, 61, 834-843. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Photodesmus katoptron" Hendry and Dunlap, 2011.
    Reference: HENDRY (T.A.) and DUNLAP (P.V.): The uncultured luminous symbiont of Anomalops katoptron (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) represents a new bacterial genus. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2011, 61, 834-843. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma" Firrao et al. 2004 (the IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group).
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank M30790.
    Reference: The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1243-1255.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Notes:

  • The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group consists of: Firrao (G.), Andersen (M.), Bertaccini (A.), Boudon (E.), Bové (J.M.), Daire (X.), Davis (R.E.), Fletcher (J.), Garnier (M.), GIBB (K.S.), Gundersen-Rindal (D.E.), Harrison (N.), Hiruki (C.), Kirkpatrick (B.C.), Jones (P.), Kuske (C.R.), Lee (I.M.), Liefting (L.), Marcone (C.), Namba (S.), Schneider (B.), Sears (B.B.), Seemüller (E.), Smart (C.D.), Streten (C.) and Wang (K.).
  • In order to prevent nomenclatural confusion that may arise from the description of poorly differenciated novel taxa, the Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team of the IRPCM suggested rules for the description of organisms as novel taxa within "Candidatus Phytoplasma".
    Reference: The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1243-1255.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae" Marcone et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY135523.
    Reference: MARCONE (C.), GIBB (K.S.), STRETEN (C.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1025-1029.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum" Lee et al. 2006.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank DQ174122.
    Reference: LEE (I.M.), BOTTNER (K.D.), SECOR (G.) and RIVERA-VARAS (V.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum’, a phytoplasma associated with a potato purple top wilt disease complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1593-1597.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris" Lee et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank M30790 and M74770.
    Reference: LEE (I.M.), GUNDERSEN-RINDAL (D.E.), DAVIS (R.E.), BOTTNER (K.D.), MARCONE (C.) and SEEMÜLLER (E.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with aster yellows and related diseases. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1037-1048.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia" Zreik et al. 1995.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank U15442.
    Reference: ZREIK (L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and GARNIER (M.): Characterization of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with witches'-broom disease of lime and proposition of a Candidatus taxon for the organism, "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 449-453.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia" White et al. 1998.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EMBL Y10097.
    Reference: WHITE (D.T.), BLACKALL (L.L.), SCOTT (P.T.) and WALSH (K.B.): Phylogenetic positions of phytoplasmas associated with dieback, yellow crinkle and mosaic diseases of papaya, and their proposed inclusion in "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense" and a new taxon "Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 941-951.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: According to the "IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group", the taxon "Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia" White et al. 1998 should not be retained, as its 16S rRNA gene sequence is 99.5% similar to that of ¤ "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia" Zreik et al. 1995.
    Reference: The IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team - Phytoplasma taxonomy group: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’, a taxon for the wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1243-1255.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense" Davis et al. 1997.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank L76865.
    Reference: DAVIS (R.E.), DALLY (E.L.), GUNDERSEN (D.E.), LEE (I.M.) and HABILI (N.): "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 262-269.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae" Win et al. 2013.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AB689678.
    Reference: WIN (N.K.K.), LEE (S.Y.), BERTACCINI (A.), NAMBA (S.) and JUNG (H.Y.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae’ associated with witches’ broom disease of Balanites triflora. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 636-640.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense" Montano et al. 2001.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF147708.
    Reference: MONTANO (H.G.), DAVIS (R.E.), DALLY (E.L.), HOGENHOUT (S.), PIMENTEL (J.P.) and BRIOSO (P.S.T.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches’ broom disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1109-1118.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae" Arocha et al. 2005.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank no. AY725234.
    Reference: AROCHA (Y.), LÓPEZ (M.), PIÑOL (B.), FERNÁNDEZ (M.), PICORNELL (B.), ALMEIDA (R.), PALENZUELA (I.), WILSON (M.R.) and JONES (P.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae’, two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2451-2463.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae" Jung et al. 2002.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AB054986.
    Reference: JUNG (H.Y.), SAWAYANAGI (T.), KAKIZAWA (S.), NISHIGAWA (H.), MIYATA (S.), OSHIMA (K.), UGAKI (M.), LEE (J.T.), HIBI (T.) and NAMBA (S.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches’ broom disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 1543-1549.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii" Safarova et al. 2016.
    Reference: SAFAROVA, D., ZEMANEK, T., VALOVA, P. and NAVRATIL, M. 2016. Candidatus Phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop]. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1745-1753.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli" Martini et al. 2012.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL JN833705.
    Reference: MARTINI (M.), MARCONE (C.), MITROVIĆ (J.), MAIXNER (M.), DELIĆ (D.), MYRTA (A.), ERMACORA (P.), BERTACCINI (A.) and DUDUK (B.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli’, a new phytoplasma taxon associated with bindweed yellows in four European countries. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 2910-2915.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum" Lee et al. 2011.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank HQ225630.
    Reference: LEE (I.M.), BOTTNER-PARKER (K.D.), ZHAO (Y.), VILLALOBOS (W.) and MOREIRA (L.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum’ a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2822-2826.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis" Marcone et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ550984.
    Reference: MARCONE (C.), SCHNEIDER (B.) and SEEMÜLLER (E.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis’, the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1077-1082.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae" Valiunas et al. 2006.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank DQ086423.
    Reference: VALIUNAS (D.), STANIULIS (J.) and DAVIS (R.E.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma fragariae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon discovered in yellows diseased strawberry, Fragaria X ananassa. Int. J. Sys. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 277-281.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini" Griffiths et al. 1999.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF092209.
    Reference: GRIFFITHS (H.M.), SINCLAIR (W.A.), SMART (C.D.) and DAVIS (R.E.): The phytoplasma associated with ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: "Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1605-1614.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: The description of "Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini" was discussed by the Subcommittee on the taxonomy of mollicutes [1] because the name has been assigned to a group of strains which, according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences, are not identical and a type strain has been identified to represent the group. The subcommittee considered that the assignment of "Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini" to a group is not strictly in the spirit of the proposal of Murray and Schleifer [2].
    References: 1 BRADBURY (J.M.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. Subcommittee on the taxonomy of mollicutes. Minutes of the interim meetings, 13 and 19 July 2000, Fukuoka, Japan. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2227-2230. 2 MURRAY (R.G.E.) and SCHLEIFER (K.H.): Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 174-176.
    Original article by Brabdbury 2001 in IJSEM Online
    Original article by Murray and Schleifer 1994 in IJSB Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis" Arocha et al. 2005.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank no. AY725228.
    Reference: AROCHA (Y.), LÓPEZ (M.), PIÑOL (B.), FERNÁNDEZ (M.), PICORNELL (B.), ALMEIDA (R.), PALENZUELA (I.), WILSON (M.R.) and JONES (P.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma graminis’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma caricae’, two novel phytoplasmas associated with diseases of sugarcane, weeds and papaya in Cuba. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2451-2463.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum" Sawayanagi et al. 1999.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AB010425.
    Reference: SAWAYANAGI (T.), HORIKOSHI (N.), KANEHIRA (T.), SHINOHARA (M.), BERTACCINI (A.), COUSIN (M.T.), HIRUKI (C.) and NAMBA (S.): "Candidatus Phytoplasma japonicum", a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Japanese Hydrangea phyllody. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol, 1999, 49, 1275-1285.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici" Arocha et al. 2007.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank no. AY787136.
    Reference: AROCHA (Y.), ANTESANA (O.), MONTELLANO (E.), FRANCO (P.), PLATA (G.) and JONES (P.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici’, a phytoplasma associated with ‘hoja de perejil’ disease in Bolivia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1704-1710.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum" Nejat et al. 2013.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank EU371934.
    Reference: NEJAT (N.), VADAMALAI (G.), DAVIS (R.E.), HARRISON (N.A.), SIJAM (K.), DICKINSON (M.), ABDULLAH (S.N.A.) and ZHAO (Y.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum’, a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 540-548.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma mali" Seemüller and Schneider 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ542541.
    Reference: SEEMÜLLER (E.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1217-1226.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense" Al-Saady et al. 2008.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ EF666051.
    Reference: AL-SAADY (N.A.), KHAN (A.J.), CALARI (A.), AL-SUBHI (A.M.) and BERTACCINI (A.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense’, associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 461-466.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae" Jung et al. 2003.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank D12581 and AB052873.
    Reference: JUNG (H.Y.), SAWAYANAGI (T.), WONGKAEW (P.), KAKIZAWA (S.), NISHIGAWA (H.), WEI (W.), OSHIMA (K.), MIYATA (S.), UGAKI (M.), HIBI (T.) and NAMBA (S.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1925-1929.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola" Harrison et al. 2014.
    Reference: HARRISON, N. A., DAVIS, R. E., OROPEZA, C., HELMICK, E. E., NARVÁEZ, M. A., EDEN-GREEN, S., DOLLET, M. and DICKINSON, M. 2014. “Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola”, associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 1890-1899.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium" Verdin et al. 2003.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF515636.
    Reference: VERDIN (E.), SALAR (P.), DANET (J.L.), CHOUEIRI (E.), JREIJIRI (F.), EL ZAMMAR (S.), GÉLIE (B.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and GARNIER (M.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium’ sp. nov., a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging lethal disease of almond trees in Lebanon and Iran. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 833-838.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma pini" Schneider et al. 2005.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ no AJ632155.
    Reference: SCHNEIDER (B.), TORRES (E.), MARTÍN (M.P.), SCHRÖDER (M.), BEHNKE (H.D.) and SEEMÜLLER (E.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’, a novel taxon from Pinus silvestris and Pinus halepensis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 303-307.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni" Davis et al. 2013.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank JQ044393.
    Reference: DAVIS (R.E.), ZHAO (Y.), DALLY (E.L.), LEE (I.M.), JOMANTIENE (R.) and DOUGLAS (S.M.): 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’, a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 766-776.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ542544.
    Reference: SEEMÜLLER (E.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1217-1226.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri" Seemüller and Schneider 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ542543.
    Reference: SEEMÜLLER (E.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’, the causal agents of apple proliferation, pear decline and European stone fruit yellows, respectively. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1217-1226.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni" Marcone et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank X76431 and AJ583009.
    Reference: MARCONE (C.), GIBB (K.S.), STRETEN (C.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1025-1029.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi" Malembic-Maher et al. 2011.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY197648.
    Reference: MALEMBIC-MAHER (S.), SALAR (P.), FILIPPIN (L.), CARLE (P.), ANGELINI (E.) and FOISSAC (X.): Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2129-2134.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi" Franova et al. 2016.
    Reference: FRANOVA, J., DE SOUSA, E., KOLONIUK, I., MIMOSO, C., MATOS, J., CARDOSO, F., CONTALDO, N., PALTRINIERI, S. and BERTACCINI, A. 2016. Multigene characterization of a new ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi’-related strain associated with blackberry witches’ broom. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1438-1446.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" Quaglino et al. 2013.
    Reference: QUAGLINO, F., ZHAO, Y., CASATI, P., BULGARI, D., BIANCO, P. A., WEI, W. and DAVIS, R. E. 2013. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani ’, a novel taxon associated with stolbur- and bois noir-related diseases of plants. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 2879-2894.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii" Marcone et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank X92869.
    Reference: MARCONE (C.), GIBB (K.S.), STRETEN (C.) and SCHNEIDER (B.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii’, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni’ and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae’, respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1025-1029.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum" Davis et al. 2012.
    Nucleic acid sequences: GenBank GU292081 and GU292082.
    Reference: DAVIS (R.E.), ZHAO (Y.), DALLY (E.L.), JOMANTIENE (R.), LEE (I.M.), WEI (W.) and KITAJIMA (E.W.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum’, a novel taxon, and strain PassWB-Br4, a new subgroup 16SrIII-V phytoplasma, from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 984-989.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis" Zhao et al. 2009.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank FJ432664.
    Reference: ZHAO (Y.), SUN (Q.), WEI (W.), DAVIS (R.E.), WU (W.) and LIU (Q.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis’, a novel taxon discovered in witches’-broom-diseased salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2496-2504.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii" Hiruki and Wang 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY390261.
    Reference: HIRUKI (C.) and WANG (K.): Clover proliferation phytoplasma: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1349-1353.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi" Lee et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY197655.
    Reference: LEE (I.M.), MARTINI (M.), MARCONE (C.) and ZHU (S.F.): Classification of phytoplasma strains in the elm yellows group (16SrV) and proposal of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi’ for the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 337-347.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis" Marzorati et al. 2006.
    Reference: MARZORATI (M.), ALMA (A.), SACCHI (L.), PAJORO (M.), PALERMO (S.), BRUSETTI (L.), RADDADI (N.), BALLOI (A.), TEDESCHI (R.), CLEMENTI (E.), CORONA (S.), QUAGLINO (F.), BIANCO (P.A.), BENINATI (T.), BANDI (C.) and DAFFONCHIO (D.): A novel bacteroidetes symbiont is localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the insect vector of flavescence doree in Vitis vinifera. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72, 1467-1475. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi" Jung et al. 2003.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AB052875-AB052879.
    Reference: JUNG (H.Y.), SAWAYANAGI (T.), KAKIZAWA (S.), NISHIGAWA (H.), WEI (W.), OSHIMA (K.), MIYATA (S.), UGAKI (M.), HIBI (T.) and NAMBA (S.): ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with jujube witches'-broom disease. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1037-1041.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis" Draghi et al. 2004.
    Reference: DRAGHI 2nd (A.), POPOV (V.L.), KAHL (M.M.), STANTON (J.B.), BROWN (C.C.), TSONGALIS (G.J.), WEST (A.B.) and FRASCA Jr. (S.): Characterization of "Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis" (Order Chlamydiales), a Chlamydia-like bacterium associated with Epitheliocystis in farmed atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 5286-5297. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Planktoluna difficilis" Hahn 2009.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AM939566.
    Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Planktomarina temperata" Giebel et al. 2011.
    Reference: GIEBEL (H.A.), KALHOEFER (D.), LEMKE (A.), THOLE (S.), GAHL-JANSSEN (R.), SIMON (M.) and BRINKHOFF (T.): Distribution of Roseobacter RCA and SAR11 lineages in the North Sea and characteristics of an abundant RCA isolate. ISME J., 2011, 5, 8-19. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Planktophila limnetica" Jezbera et al. 2009.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): Genbank FJ428831.
    Reference: JEZBERA (J.), SHARMA (A.K.), BRANDT (U.), DOOLITTLE (W.F.) and HAHN (M.W.): 'Candidatus Planktophila limnetica’, an actinobacterium representing one of the most numerically important taxa in freshwater bacterioplankton. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2864-2869.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Portiera" Thao and Baumann 2004.
    Reference: THAO (M.L.) and BAUMANN (P.): Evolutionary relationships of primary prokaryotic endosymbionts of whiteflies and their hosts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 70, 3401-3406. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" Thao and Baumann 2004.
    Reference: THAO (M.L.) and BAUMANN (P.): Evolutionary relationships of primary prokaryotic endosymbionts of whiteflies and their hosts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 70, 3401-3406. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Prevotella massiliensis" Drancourt et al. 2004.
    Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Procabacter" Horn et al. 2002.
    Reference: HORN (M.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), LINNER (T.), GAUTOM (R.K.), HARZENETTER (M.D.) and WAGNER (M.): Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. related to the β-Proteobacteria: proposal of ‘Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae’ gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 599-605.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae" Horn et al. 2002.
    Nucleic acid sequences: 16S rDNA sequence accession number EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ AF177427; 23S rDNA sequence accession number EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ AF352393.
    Reference: HORN (M.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), LINNER (T.), GAUTOM (R.K.), HARZENETTER (M.D.) and WAGNER (M.): Obligate bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba spp. related to the β-Proteobacteria: proposal of ‘Candidatus Procabacter acanthamoebae’ gen. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 599-605.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Profftia tarda" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Profftia virida" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila" Collingro et al. 2005.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): Genbank no. BX908798.
    Reference: COLLINGRO (A.), TOENSHOFF (E.R.), TAYLOR (M.W.), FRITSCHE (T.R.), WAGNER (M.) and HORN (M.): ‘Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila’, an endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba spp. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 55, 1863-1866.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Puchtella pedicinophila" Fukatsu et al. 2009.
    Reference: FUKATSU (T.), HOSOKAWA (T.), KOGA (R.), NIKOH (N.), KATO (T.), HAYAMA (S.I.), TAKEFUSHI (H.) and TANAKA (I.): Intestinal endocellular symbiotic bacterium of the macaque louse Pedicinus obtusus: distinct endosymbiont origins in anthropoid primate lice and the Old World monkey louse. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 75, 3796-3799. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Puniceispirillum marinum" Oh et al. 2010.
    Reference: OH (H.M.), KWON (K.K.), KANG (I.), KANG (S.G.), LEE (J.H.), KIM (S.J.) and CHO (J.C.): Complete Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Puniceispirillum marinum" IMCC1322, a representative of the SAR116 clade in the Alphaproteobacteria. J. Bacteriol., 2010, 192, 3240-3241. Publication online

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    "Candidatus pentastirinorum" Bressan et al. 2009.
    Reference: BRESSAN (A.), ARNEODO (J.), SIMONATO (M.), HAINES (W.P.) and BOUDON-PADIEU (E.): Characterization and evolution of two bacteriome-inhabiting symbionts in cixiid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Pentastirini). Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 11, 3265-3279. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Regiella insecticola" Moran et al. 2005.
    Reference: MORAN (N.A.), RUSSELL (J.A.), KOGA (R.) and FUKATSU (T.): Evolutionary relationships of three new species of Enterobacteriaceae living as symbionts of aphids and other insects. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 3302-3310. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani" Corsaro and Work, 2012.
    Reference: CORSARO (D.) and WORK (T.M.): Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii. Dis. Aquat. Organ., 2012, 98, 249-254. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans" Corsaro et al. 2006.
    Reference: CORSARO (D.), THOMAS (V.), GOY (G.), VENDITTI (D.), RADEK (R.) and GREUB (G.): ‘Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans’, an intracellular bacterial pathogen of the cockroach Blatta orientalis (Insecta: Blattodea). Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2007, 30, 221-228. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis" Kostanjšek et al. 2004.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AY223862.
    Reference: KOSTANJŠEK (R.), ŠTRUS (J.), DROBNE (D.) and AVGUŠTIN (G.): ‘Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis’, an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 543-549.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

    Note: Morphology of "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis" Kostanjsek et al. 2004 corresponds to the description of "Chlamydia isopodii" Shay et al. 1985.

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    "Candidatus Rhizobium massiliae" Greub et al. 2004.
    Reference: GREUB (G.), LA SCOLA (B.) and RAOULT (D.): Amoebae-resisting bacteria isolated from human nasal swabs by amoebal coculture. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2004, 10, 470-477. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rhodoluna limnophila" Hahn 2009.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ565417.
    Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Rhodoluna planktonica" Hahn 2009.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AJ565415.
    Reference: HAHN (M.W.): Description of seven candidate species affiliated with the phylum Actinobacteria, representing planktonic freshwater bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 112-117.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" Labruna et al. 2004.
    Reference: LABRUNA (M.B., WHITWORTH (T.), BOUYER (D.H., McBRIDE (J.W.), CAMARGO (L.M.A.), CAMARGO (E.P.), POPOV (V.) and WALKER (D.H): Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma ticks from the state of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. J. Med. Entomol., 2004, 41, 1073–1081. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae" Jiang et al. 2005.
    Reference: JIANG (J.), BLAIR (P.J.), FELICES (V.), MORON (C.), CESPEDES (M.), ANAYA (E.), SCHOELER (G.B.), SUMNER (J.W.), OLSON (J.G.) and RICHARDS (A.L.): Phylogenetic analysis of a novel molecular isolate of spotted fever group rickettsiae from Northern Peru: Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2005, 1063, 337-342. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis" Jiang et al. 2013.
    Reference: JIANG (J.), MAINA (A.N.), KNOBEL (D.L.), CLEAVELAND (S.), LAUDISOIT (A.), WAMBURU (K.), OGOLA (E.), PAROLA (P.), BREIMAN (R.F.), NJENGA (M.K.) and RICHARDS (A.L.): Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, Asembo, Kenya. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., published online: May 15, 2013 (doi: 10.1089/vbz.2012.1123). Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" Mura et al. 2008.
    Reference: MURA (A.), MASALA (G.), TOLA (S.), SATTA (G.), FOIS (F.), PIRAS (P.), ROLAIN (J.M.), RAOULT (D.) and PAROLA (P.): First direct detection of rickettsial pathogens and a new rickettsia, ‘Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae’, in ticks from Sardinia, Italy. Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2008, 14, 1028-1033. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia hebeiii" Yaxue et al. 2011.
    Reference: YAXUE (Z.), QIUYUE (W.), ZHIXIN (F.), HONGTAO (J.), HUANHUAN (Y.), HONGWEI (G.), XI (Z.), PENGPENG (L.), QUAN (L.) and LIFENG (C.): Detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Haemaphysalis longicornis in Hebei Province, China. J. Parasitol., 2011, 97, 960-962. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia hungarica" Hornok et al. 2010.
    Reference: HORNOK (S.), MELI (M.L.), PERRETEN (A.), FARKAS (R.), WILLI (B.), BEUGNET (F.), LUTZ (H.) and HOFMANN-LEHMANN (R.): Molecular investigation of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) as potential vectors of rickettsial and mycoplasmal agents. Vet.Microbiol., 2010, 140, 98-104. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia hoogstraalii" Mattila et al. 2007.
    Reference: MATTILA (J.T.), BURKHARDT (N.Y.), HUTCHESON (H.J.), MUNDERLOH (U.G.) and KURTTI (T.J.): Isolation of cell lines and a rickettsial endosymbiont from the soft
    tick Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae: Ornithodorinae). J. Med. Entomol., 2007, 44, 1091-1101. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi" Rolain et al. 2006.
    Reference: ROLAIN (J.M.), MATHAI (E.), LEPIDI (H.), SOMASHEKAR (H.R.), MATHEW (L.G.), PRAKASH (J.A.) and RAOULT (D.): "Candidatus Rickettsia kellyi," India. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2006,12, 483-485. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia kingi" Anstead and Chilton 2013.
    Reference: ANSTEAD (C.A.) and CHILTON (N.B.): Detection of a novel Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) in rotund ticks (Ixodes kingi) from Saskatchewan, Canada. Ticks Tick Borne Dis., 2013, 4, 202-206. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia kotlanii" Sréter-Lancz et al. 2006.
    Reference: SRÉTER-LANCZ (Z.), SZÉLL (Z.), KOVÁCS (G.), EGYED (L.), MÁRIALIGETI (K.) and SRÉTER (T.): Rickettsiae of the spotted-fever group in ixodid ticks from Hungary: identification of a new genotype (‘Candidatus Rickettsia kotlanii'). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 2006, 100, 229-236. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia liberiensis" Mediannikov et al. 2012.
    Reference: MEDIANNIKOV (O.), DIATTA (G.), ZOLIA (Y.), BALDE (M.C.), KOHAR (H.), TRAPE (J.F.) and RAOULT (D.): Tick-borne rickettsiae in Guinea and Liberia. Ticks Tick-Borne Dis., 2012, 3, 43-48. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia principis" Mediannikov et al. 2006.
    Reference: MEDIANNIKOV (O.), SIDELNIKOV (Y.), IVANOV (L.), FOURNIER (P.E.), TARASEVICH (I.) and RAOULT (D.): Far eastern tick-borne rickettsiosis: identification of two new cases and tick vector. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2006, 1078, 80-88. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae" Shpynov et al. 2003.
    Reference: SHPYNOV (S.), FOURNIER (P.E.), RUDAKOV (N.) and RAOULT (D.): "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae" in Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Russia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2003, 990, 162-172.

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia tasmanensis" Izzard et al. 2009.
    Reference: IZZARD (L.), GRAVES (S.), COX (E.), FENWICK (S.), UNSWORTH (N.) and STENOS (J.): Novel rickettsia in ticks, tasmania, australia. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2009,15, 1654-1656. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Rickettsia vini" Palomar et al. 2012.
    Reference: PALOMAR (A.M.), PORTILLO (A.), SANTIBÁÑEZ (P.), SÁNTIBAÑEZ (S.), GARCIA-ÁLVAREZ (L.) and OTEO (J.A.): Genetic characterization of Candidatus Rickettsia vini, a new rickettsia amplified in ticks from La Rioja, Spain. Ticks Tick Borne Dis., 2012, 3, 319-321. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Riegeria" Gruber-Vodicka et al. 2011.
    Reference: GRUBER-VODICKA (H.R.), DIRKS (U.), LEISCH (N.), BARANYI (C.), STOECKER (K.), BULGHERESI (S.), HEINDL (N.R.), HORN (M.), LOTT (C.), LOY (A.), WAGNER (M.) and OTT (J.): Paracatenula, an ancient symbiosis between thiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and catenulid flatworms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 2011, 108, 12078-12083. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Riegeria galateiae" Gruber-Vodicka et al. 2011.
    Reference: GRUBER-VODICKA (H.R.), DIRKS (U.), LEISCH (N.), BARANYI (C.), STOECKER (K.), BULGHERESI (S.), HEINDL (N.R.), HORN (M.), LOTT (C.), LOY (A.), WAGNER (M.) and OTT (J.): Paracatenula, an ancient symbiosis between thiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and catenulid flatworms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A., 2011, 108, 12078-12083. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Riesia pediculicola" Sasaki-Fukatsu et al. 2006.
    Reference: SASAKI-FUKATSU (K.), KOGA (R.), NIKOH (N.), YOSHIZAWA (K.), KASAI (S.), MIHARA (M.), KOBAYASHI (M.), TOMITA (T.) and FUKATSU (T.): Symbiotic bacteria associated with stomach disc of human lice. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72, 7349-7352. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Rohrkolberia" Kuechler et al. 2011.
    Reference: KUECHLER (S.M.), DETTNER (K.) and KEHL (S.): Characterization of an obligate intracellular bacterium in midgut epithelium of bulrush bug Chilacis typhae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Artheneinae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 77, 2869-2876. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli" Kuechler et al. 2011.
    Reference: KUECHLER (S.M.), DETTNER (K.) and KEHL (S.): Characterization of an obligate intracellular bacterium in midgut epithelium of bulrush bug Chilacis typhae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Artheneinae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 77, 2869-2876. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Roseomonas massiliae" Greub et al. 2004.
    Reference: GREUB (G.), LA SCOLA (B.) and RAOULT (D.): Amoebae-resisting bacteria isolated from human nasal swabs by amoebal coculture. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2004, 10, 470-477. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Ruthia magnifica" Newton et al. 2007.
    Reference: NEWTON (I.L.), WOYKE (T.), AUCHTUNG (T.A.), DILLY (G.F.), DUTTON (R.J.), FISHER (M.C.), FONTANEZ (K.M.), LAU (E.), STEWART (F.J.), RICHARDSON (P.M.), BARRY (K.W.), SAUNDERS (E.), DETTER (J.C.), WU (D.), EISEN (J.A.), and CAVANAUGH (C.M.): The Calyptogena magnifica chemoautotrophic symbiont genome. Science, 2007, 315, 998-1000. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Salinibacter" Antón et al. 2000.
    Reference: ANTÓN (J.), ROSSELLÓ-MORA (R.), RODRIGUEZ-VALERA (F.) and AMANN (R.): Extremely halophilic bacteria in crystallizer ponds from solar salterns. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2000, 66, 3052-3057. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Savagella" Thompson et al. 2012.
    Reference: THOMPSON (C.L.), VIER (R.), MIKAELYAN (A.), WIENEMANN (T.) and BRUNE (A.): ‘Candidatus Arthromitus’ revised: segmented filamentous bacteria in arthropod guts are members of Lachnospiraceae. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1454-1465. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua arabica" Woebken et al. 2008.
    Reference: WOEBKEN (D.), LAM (P.), KUYPERS (M.M.), NAQVI (S.W.), KARTAL (B.), STROUS (M.), JETTEN (M.S.), FUCHS (B.M.) and AMANN (R.): A microdiversity study of anammox bacteria reveals a novel Candidatus Scalindua phylotype in marine oxygen minimum zones. Environ. Microbiol., 2008, 11, 3106-3119. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua brodae" Schmid et al. 2003.
    Reference: SCHMID (M.), WALSH (K.), WEBB (R.), RIJPSTRA (W.I.C.), VAN DE PAS-SCHOONEN (K.), VERBRUGGEN (M.J.), HILL (T.), MOFFETT (B.), FUERST (J.), SCHOUTEN (S.), SINNINGHE DAMSTÉ (J.S.), HARRIS (J.), SHAW (P.), JETTEN (M.) and STROUS (M.): Candidatus "Scalindua brodae", sp. nov., Candidatus "Scalindua wagneri", sp. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2003, 26, 529-538. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua pacifica" Dang et al. 2003.
    Reference: DANG (H.), ZHOU (H.), ZHANG (Z.), YU (Z.), HUA (E.), LIU (X.) and JIAO (N.): Molecular detection of Candidatus Scalindua pacifica and environmental responses of sediment Anammox bacterial community in the Bohai Sea, China. PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61330. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua profunda" Van De Vossenberg et al. 2008.
    Reference: VAN DE VOSSENBERG (J.), RATTRAY (J.E.), GEERTS (W.), KARTAL (B.), VAN NIFTRIK (L.), VAN DONSELAAR (E.G.), JAAP (S.), DAMSTÉ (S.), STROUS (M.), and JETTEN (M.S.M.): Enrichment and characterization of marine anammox bacteria associated with global nitrogen gas production. Environ. Microbiol., 2008,10, 3120–3129. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua richardsii" Fuchsman  et al. 2012.
    Reference: FUCHSMAN (C.A., STALEY (J.T.), OAKLEY (B.B.), KIRKPATRICK (J.B.) and MURRAY (J.W.): Free-living and aggregate-associated Planctomycetes in the Black Sea. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 2012, 80, 402-416. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii" Kuypers et al. 2003.
    Reference: KUYPERS (M.M.M.), SLIEKERS (A.O.), LAVIK (G.), SCHMID (M.), JØRGENSEN (B.B.), KUENEN (J.G.), SINNINGHE DAMSTÉ (J.S.), STROUS (M.) and JETTEN (M.S.M.): Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by anammox bacteria in the Black Sea. Nature, 2003, 422, 608-611. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Scalindua wagneri" Schmid et al. 2003.
    Reference: SCHMID (M.), WALSH (K.), WEBB (R.), RIJPSTRA (W.I.C.), VAN DE PAS-SCHOONEN (K.), VERBRUGGEN (M.J.), HILL (T.), MOFFETT (B.), FUERST (J.), SCHOUTEN (S.), SINNINGHE DAMSTÉ (J.S.), HARRIS (J.), SHAW (P.), JETTEN (M.) and STROUS (M.): Candidatus "Scalindua brodae", sp. nov., Candidatus "Scalindua wagneri", sp. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2003, 26, 529-538. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Serratia symbiotica" Moran et al. 2005.
    Reference: MORAN (N.A.), RUSSELL (J.A.), KOGA (R.) and FUKATSU (T.): Evolutionary relationships of three new species of Enterobacteriaceae living as symbionts of aphids and other insects. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 3302-3310. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Similichlamydia" Stride et al. 2013.
    Reference: STRIDE (M.C.), POLKINGHORNE (A.), MILLER (T.L.) and NOWAK (B.F.): Molecular characterisation of ‘Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola gen. nov., sp. nov.’ (Chlamydiales: Parilichlamydiaceae), a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., published online: June 14, 2013 (doi: 10.1128/AEM.00746-13). Publication online

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    "Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola" Stride et al. 2013.
    Reference: STRIDE (M.C.), POLKINGHORNE (A.), MILLER (T.L.) and NOWAK (B.F.): Molecular characterisation of ‘Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola gen. nov., sp. nov.’ (Chlamydiales: Parilichlamydiaceae), a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., published online: June 14, 2013 (doi: 10.1128/AEM.00746-13). Publication online

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    "Candidatus Snodgrassella alvi" Martinson et al. 2012.
    Reference: MARTINSON (V.G.), MOY (J.) and MORAN (N.A.): Establishment of characteristic gut bacteria during development of the honey bee worker. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 78, 2830-2840. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Snodgrassella alvi" Martinson et al. 2012.
    Reference: MARTINSON (V.G.), MOY (J.) and MORAN (N.A.): Establishment of characteristic gut bacteria during development of the honey bee worker. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 78, 2830-2840. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Sodalis melophagi" Chrudimský et al. 2012.
    Reference: Chrudimský (T.), Husník (F.), Nováková (E.) and Hypša (V.): Candidatus Sodalis melophagi sp. nov.: phylogenetically independent comparative model to the tsetse fly symbiont Sodalis glossinidius. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40354. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Sodalis pierantonius" Oakeson et al. 2014.
    Whole-genome sequence accession no. for strain SOPE: CP006568.
    Reference: OAKESON, K. F., GIL, R., CLAYTON, A. L., DUNN, D. M., VON NIEDERHAUSERN, A. C., HAMIL, C., AOYAGI, A., DUVAL, B., BACA, A., SILVA, F. J., VALLIER, A., JACKSON, D. G., LATORRE, A., WEISS, R. B., HEDDI, A., MOYA, A. and DALE, C. 2014. Genome degeneration and adaptation in a nascent stage of symbiosis. Genome Biol. Evol., 6, 76-93.
    Publication online

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    "Candidatus Sphaeronema italicum" Kragelund et al. 2006.
    Reference: KRAGELUND (C.), KONG (Y.), VAN DER WAARDE (J.), THELEN (K.), EIKELBOOM (D.), TANDOI (V.), THOMSEN (T.R.) and NIELSEN (P.H.): Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants. Microbiology, 2006, 152, 3003-3012. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Stammerula tephritidis" Mazzon et al. 2008.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank accession nos EF469611–EF469624.
    Reference: MAZZON (L.), PISCEDDA (A.), SIMONATO (M.), MARTINEZ-SAŇUDO (I.), SQUARTINI (A.) and GIROLAMI (V.): Presence of specific symbiotic bacteria in flies of the subfamily Tephritinae (Diptera Tephritidae) and their phylogenetic relationships: proposal of ‘Candidatus Stammerula tephritidis’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1277-1287.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Steffania adelgidicola" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), PENZ (T.), NARZT (T.), COLLINGRO (A.), SCHMITZ-ESSER (S.), PFEIFFER (S.), KLEPAL (W.), WAGNER (M.), WEINMAIER (T.), RATTEI (T.) and HORN (M.): Bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts of the Adelges nordmannianae/piceae complex (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). ISME J., 2012, 6, 384-396. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi" Kaltenpoth et al. 2006.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the 28 ecotypes of "Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi" are DQ375779–DQ375806.
    Reference: KALTENPOTH (M.), GOETTLER (W.), DALE (C.), STUBBLEFIELD (J.W.), HERZNER (G.), ROESER-MUELLER (K.) and STROHM (E.): ‘Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi’, an endosymbiotic streptomycete in the antennae of Philanthus digger wasps. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1403-1411.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" Moran et al. 2005.
    Reference: MORAN (N.A.), TRAN (P.) and GERARDO (N.M.): Symbiosis and insect diversification: an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 8802-8810. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Sulfurovum sediminum" Park et al. 2012.
    Reference: PARK (S.J.), GHAI (R.), MARTÍN-CUADRADO (A.B.), RODRÍGUEZ-VALERA (F.), JUNG (M.Y.), KIM (J.G.) and RHEE (S.K.): Draft genome sequence of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium "Candidatus Sulfurovum sediminum" AR, which belongs to the Epsilonproteobacteria. J. Bacteriol., 2012 , 194, 4128-4129. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Symbiothrix" Hongoh et al.2007.
    Reference: HONGOH (Y.), SATO (T.), NODA (S.), UI (S.), KUDO (T.) and OHKUMA (M.): Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae: bristle-like Bacteroidales ectosymbionts of termite gut protists. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 9, 2631-2635. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae" Hongoh et al.2007.
    Reference: HONGOH (Y.), SATO (T.), NODA (S.), UI (S.), KUDO (T.) and OHKUMA (M.): Candidatus Symbiothrix dinenymphae: bristle-like Bacteroidales ectosymbionts of termite gut protists. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 9, 2631-2635. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" Usher et al. 2004.
    Reference: USHER (K.M.), FROMONT (J.), SUTTON (D.C.) and TOZE (S.): The biogeography and phylogeny of unicellular cyanobacterial symbionts in sponges from australia and the mediterranean. Microb. Ecol., 2004, 48, 167-177. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Tammella caduceiae" Hongoh et al. 2007.
    Reference: HONGOH (Y.), SATO (T.), DOLAN (M.F.), NODA (S.), UI (S.), KUDO (T.) and OHKUMA (M.): The motility symbiont of the termite-gut flagellate Caduceia versatilis is a member of the "Synergistes" Group. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2007, 73, 6270-6276. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga" Eddie et al. 2016.
    Reference: EDDIE, B. J., WANG, Z., MALANOSKI, A. P., HALL, R. J., OH, S. D., HEINER, C., LIN, B. and STRYCHARZ-GLAVEN, S. M. 2016. 'Candidatus Tenderia electrophaga', an uncultivated electroautotroph from a biocathode enrichment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 2178-2185.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum" Liu et al. 2012.
    Reference: LIU (Z.), KLATT (C.G.), LUDWIG (M.), RUSCH (D.B.), JENSEN (S.I.), KÜHL (M.), WARD (D.M.) and BRYANT (D.A.): 'Candidatus Thermochlorobacter aerophilum:’ an aerobic chlorophotoheterotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi defined by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. ISME J., 2012, 6, 1869-1882. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli" Rinke et al. 2006.
    Reference: RINKE (C.), SCHMITZ-ESSER (S.), STOECKER (K.), NUSSBAUMER (A.D.), MOLNAR (D.A.), VANURA (K.), WAGNER (M.), HORN (M.), OTT (J.A.) and BRIGHT (M.): "Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli," an ectosymbiotic bacterium covering the giant marine ciliate Zoothamnium niveum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72, 2014-2021. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thiodictyon syntrophicum" Peduzzi et al. 2012.
    Reference: PEDUZZI (S.), STORELLI (N.), WELSH (A.), PEDUZZI (R.), HAHN (D.), PERRET (X.) and TONOLLA (M.): Candidatus "Thiodictyon syntrophicum", sp. nov., a new purple sulfur bacterium isolated from the chemocline of Lake Cadagno forming aggregates and specific associations with Desulfocapsa sp. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 35, 139-144. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thioglobus singularis" Marshall and Morris, 2013.
    Reference: MARSHALL (K.T.) and MORRIS (R.M.): Isolation of an aerobic sulfur oxidizer from the SUP05/Arctic96BD-19 clade. ISME J., 2013, 7, 452-455. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thiomargarita joergensenii" Salman et al.2011.
    Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii" Salman et al.2011.
    Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thiophysa hinzei" Salman et al. 2011.
    Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thiopilula aggregata" Salman et al. 2011.
    Reference: SALMAN (V.), AMANN (R.), GIRNTH (A.C.), POLERECKY (L.), BAILEY (J.V.), HØGSLUND (S.), JESSEN (G.), PANTOJA (S.) and SCHULZ-VOGT (H.N.): A single-cell sequencing approach to the classification of large, vacuolated sulfur bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 243-259. Publication onine

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    "Candidatus Thioturbo danicus" Muyzer et al.2005.
    Reference: MUYZER (G.), YILDIRIM (E.), VAN DONGEN (U.), KUHL (M.) and THAR (R.): Identification of "Candidatus Thioturbo danicus," a microaerophilic bacterium that builds conspicuous veils on sulfidic sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2005, 71, 8929-8933. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Tremblaya" Thao et al. 2002.
    Reference: THAO (M.L.), GULLAN (P.J.) and BAUMANN (P.): Secondary (gamma-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the primary (beta-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2002, 68, 3190-3197. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" Gruwell et al. 2010.
    Reference: GRUWELL (M.E.), HARDY (N.B.), GULLAN (P.J.) and DITTMAR (K.): Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts in the mealybug subfamily Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2010, 76, 7521-7525. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps" Thao et al. 2002.
    Reference: THAO (M.L.), GULLAN (P.J.) and BAUMANN (P.): Secondary (gamma-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the primary (beta-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2002, 68, 3190-3197. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Troglogloea absoloni" Kostanjšek et al. 2013.
    Reference: KOSTANJŠEK (R.), PAŠIĆ (L.), DAIMS (H.) and SKET (B.): Structure and community composition of sprout-like bacterial aggregates in a dinaric karst subterranean stream. Microb. Ecol., published online: January 13, 2013 (doi: 10.1007/s00248-012-0172-1). Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Uzinura diaspidicola" Gruwell et al. 2007.
    Reference: GRUWELL (M.E.), MORSE (G.E.) and NORMARK (B.B.): Phylogenetic congruence of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and their primary endosymbionts from the phylum Bacteroidetes. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.,2007, 44, 267-280. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Vallotia cooleyia" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Vallotia tarda" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Vallotia virida" Toenshoff et al. 2012.
    Reference: TOENSHOFF (E.R.), GRUBER (D.) and HORN (M.): Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ. Microbiol., 2012, 14, 1284-1295. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus Veillonella atypica" Drancourt et al. 2004.
    Reference: DRANCOURT (M.), BERGER (P.) and RAOULT (D.): Systematic 16S rRNA gene sequencing of atypical clinical isolates identified 27 new bacterial species associated with humans. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2004, 42, 2197-2202. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Vesicomyosocius okutanii" Kuwahara et al. 2007.
    Reference: KUWAHARA (H.), YOSHIDA (T.), TAKAKI (Y.), SHIMAMURA (S.), NISHI (S.), HARADA (M.), MATSUYAMA (Y.), TAKISHITA (K.), KAWATO (M.), UEMATSU (K.), FUJIWARA (Y.), SATO (T.), KATO (C.), KITAGAWA (M.), KATO (I.) and MARUYAMA (T.): Reduced genome of the thioautotrophic intracellular symbiont in a deep-sea clam, Calyptogena okutanii. Curr. Biol., 2007, 17, 881-886. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Vestibaculum illigatum" Stingl et al. 2004.
    Reference: STINGL (U.), MAASS (A.), RADEK (R.) and BRUNE (A.): Symbionts of the gut flagellate Staurojoenina sp. from Neotermes cubanus represent a novel, termite-associated lineage of Bacteroidales: description of ‘Candidatus Vestibaculum illigatum’. Microbiology, 2004, 150, 2229-2235. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae" Gonella et al. 2011.
    Reference: GONELLA (E.), NEGRI (I.), MARZORATI (M.), MANDRIOLI (M.), SACCHI (L.), PAJORO (M.), CROTTI (E.), RIZZI (A.), CLEMENTI (E.), TEDESCHI (R.), BANDI (C.), ALMA (A.) and DAFFONCHIO (D.): Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois Noir in Vitis vinifera. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2011, 77, 1423-1435. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Wolinella africanus" Bohr et al. 2003.
    Reference: BOHR (U.R.), SEGAL (I.), PRIMUS (A.), WEX (T.), HASSAN (H.), ALLY (R.) and MALFERTHEINER (P.): Detection of a putative novel Wolinella species in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Helicobacter, 2003, 8, 608–612. Publication online

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    "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" Friedman et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF133090.
    Reference: FRIEDMAN (C.S.), ANDREE (K.B.), BEAUCHAMP (K.A.), MOORE (J.D.), ROBBINS (T.T.), SHIELDS (J.D.) and HEDRICK (R.P.): ‘Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis’, a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 847-855.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Xiphinematobacter" Vandekerckhove et al. 2000.
    Reference: VANDEKERCKHOVE (T.T.M.), WILLEMS (A.), GILLIS (M.) and COOMANS (A.): Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2197-2205.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Xiphinematobacter americani" Vandekerckhove et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF217460.
    Reference: VANDEKERCKHOVE (T.T.M.), WILLEMS (A.), GILLIS (M.) and COOMANS (A.): Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2197-2205.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Xiphinematobacter brevicolli" Vandekerckhove et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF217462.
    Reference: VANDEKERCKHOVE (T.T.M.), WILLEMS (A.), GILLIS (M.) and COOMANS (A.): Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2197-2205.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Xiphinematobacter rivesi" Vandekerckhove et al. 2000.
    Nucleic acid sequence(s): GenBank AF217461.
    Reference: VANDEKERCKHOVE (T.T.M.), WILLEMS (A.), GILLIS (M.) and COOMANS (A.): Occurrence of novel verrucomicrobial species, endosymbiotic and associated with parthenogenesis in Xiphinema americanum-group species (Nematoda, Longidoridae). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2197-2205.
    Original article in IJSEM Online

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    "Candidatus Zinderia insecticola" McCutcheon and Moran, 2010.
    Reference: McCUTCHEON (J.P.) and MORAN (N.A.): Functional convergence in reduced genomes of bacterial symbionts spanning 200 million years of evolution. Genome Biol. Evol., 2010, 2, 708-718. Publication Online

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    "Candidatus ζ-Proteobacteria" Emerson et al.
    Reference: EMERSON (D.), RENTZ (J.A.), LILBURN (T.G.), DAVIS (R.E.), ALDRICH (H.), CHAN (C.) and MOYER (C.L.): A novel lineage of Proteobacteria involved in formation of marine fe-oxidizing microbial mat communities. PLoS ONE, 2007, 2(8): e667. Publication Online

    Note: In the paper by Emerson et al., "Candidatus ζ-Proteobacteria" is also cited as "Zetaproteobacteria" class. nov.

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