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Taxa above the rank of class

(Taxonomic categories not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code)

See also: Validly published names of taxa above the rank of genus up to and including class

 

Taxonomic categories above the rank of class are not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code. Consequently, names included in these categories cannot be validly published, and the nomenclatural types cited below must be considered as proposed types.

 

The taxonomic categories above the rank of class are not covered by the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) [Rule 5b]. However, two divisions were included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names [1, 2], two divisions were cited on Validation List no. 15 [3], several taxa proposed by Cavalier-Smith [4] were listed in the Notification List published in the March 2002 issue of the IJSEM [5], nine phyla (= divisions) were cited in Validation List no. 85 [6], one phylum appears in the July 2003 issue of the IJSEM [7], one phylum is cited in the Validation List no. 98 [8], one phylum is cited in the Validation List no. 106 [9], two phyla are proposed in the 2009 issues of the IJSEM [10, 11], one phylum is cited on Validation List 132 [12], one phylum is cited in the June 2010 issue of the IJSEM [13], one phylum is cited in the June 2011 issue of the IJSEM [14], and seven phyla were cited on Validation List 143 [15]. Consequently, names of taxa above the rank of class, proposed in the Approved Lists, and in the IJSB/IJSEM, are listed below in alphabetical order.

The dates of publication are those of the original publications. For example, the phylum Aquificae was proposed by Reysenbach in 2001, then cited in Validation List no. 85 published in 2002. The phylum Aquificae is cited below as Aquificae Reysenbach 2001 (not Aquificae Reysenbach 2002).

References:

1 SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,1980, 30, 225-420.
2 SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Amended edition. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, 1989. See also the file "Names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names": HTML Format.
3 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. Validation List no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357.
4 CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76. (Original article in IJSEM Online)
5 LIST EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 52, part 1, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 293-295.
Notification List in IJSEM Online
6 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSEM. Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online
7 ZHANG (H.), SEKIGUCHI (Y.), HANADA (S.), HUGENHOLTZ (P.), KIM (H.), KAMAGATA (Y.) and NAKAMURA (K.): Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1155-1163.
Original article in IJSEM Online
8 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. Validation List no. 98. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1005-1006.
Validation List no. 98 in IJSEM Online
9 Validation of the publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. Validation List no. 106. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2235-2238.
Validation List no. 106 in IJSEM Online
10 JUMAS-BILAK (E.), ROUDIÈRE (L.) and MARCHANDIN (H.): Description of ‘Synergistetes’ phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum ‘Deferribacteres’ and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum ‘Firmicutes’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1028-1035.
Original article in IJSEM Online
11 MORI (K.), YAMAGUCHI (K.), SAKIYAMA (Y.), URABE (T.) and SUZUKI (K.): Caldisericum exile gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic, filamentous bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Caldiserica phyl. nov., originally called the candidate phylum OP5, and description of Caldisericaceae fam. nov., Caldisericales ord. nov. and Caldisericia classis nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2894-2898.
Original article in IJSEM Online
12 List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published - Validation List no. 132. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 469-472.
Validation List no. 132 in IJSEM Online
13 IINO (T.), MORI (K.), UCHINO (Y.), NAKAGAWA (T.), HARAYAMA (S.) and SUZUKI (K.I.): Ignavibacterium album gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from microbial mats at a terrestrial hot spring and proposal of Ignavibacteria classis nov., for a novel lineage at the periphery of green sulfur bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1376-1382.
Original article in IJSEM Online
14 TAMAKI (H.), TANAKA (Y.), MATSUZAWA (H.), MURAMATSU (M.), MENG (X.Y.), HANADA (S.), MORI (K.) and KAMAGATA (Y.): Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally called the candidate phylum OP10. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1442-1447.
Original article in IJSEM Online
15 Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

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Acidobacteria Thrash and Coates 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Acidobacteriales Cavalier-Smith 2002.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Acidobacteriales, type order of the phylum; N.L. neut. n. Acidobacteria, the phylum of Acidobacteriales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: THRASH (J.C.) and COATES (J.D.): Phylum XVII. Acidobacteria phyl. nov. In N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY, D.R. BROWN, B.P. HEDLUND, B.J. PASTER, N.L. WARD, W. LUDWIG and W.B. WHITMAN (editors), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 4 (The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes), Springer, New York, 2011, p. 725.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 In the effective publication, the type order of the phylum is cited as Acidobacteriales ord. nov.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 143 (footnote §). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online
2 In Validation List No. 143, the year of publication of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 4 was erroneously cited as 2010. The correct year of publication should be 2011.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1016.
Erratum in IJSEM Online

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Actinobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Actinomycetales Buchanan 1917 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Actinobacteria was previously validly described as class, ¤ Actinobacteria Stackebrandt et al. 1997.

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Aquificae Reysenbach 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Aquificales Reysenbach 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: REYSENBACH (A.L.): Phylum BI. Aquificae phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 359-367.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Archaebacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Methanococcales Balch and Wolfe 1981.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The name "Archaebacteria" was previously given to a kingdom (kingdom "Archaebacteria" Woese and Fox 1977). In 1988, this taxon was validly published as a new classis, ¤ Archaeobacteria Murray 1988, class. nov., nom. rev.

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Armatimonadetes Tamaki et al. 2011, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Armatimonadales Tamaki et al. 2011.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Armatimonadales, type order of the phylum; N.L. fem. pl. n. Armatimonadetes, phylum of the order Armatimonadales.
Valid publication: TAMAKI (H.), TANAKA (Y.), MATSUZAWA (H.), MURAMATSU (M.), MENG (X.Y.), HANADA (S.), MORI (K.) and KAMAGATA (Y.): Armatimonas rosea gen. nov., sp. nov., of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally called the candidate phylum OP10. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1442-1447.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The phylum Armatimonadetes Tamaki et al. 2011 was previously known as candidate division OP10.

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Bacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, regnum nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Bacteroidetes Krieg et al. 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Bacteroidales Krieg 2012.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Bacteroidales, type order of the phylum; N.L. fem. pl. n. Bacteroidetes, the phylum of Bacteroidales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: KRIEG (N.R.), LUDWIG (W.), EUZÉBY (J.) and WHITMAN (W.B.): Phylum XIV. Bacteroidetes phyl. nov. In N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY, D.R. BROWN, B.P. HEDLUND, B.J. PASTER, N.L. WARD, W. LUDWIG and W.B. WHITMAN (editors), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 4 (The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes), Springer, New York, 2011, p. 25.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

Note: In Validation List No. 143, the year of publication of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 4 was erroneously cited as 2010. The correct year of publication should be 2011.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1016.
Erratum in IJSEM Online

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Caldiserica Mori et al. 2009, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Caldisericales Mori et al. 2009.
Reference: MORI (K.), YAMAGUCHI (K.), SAKIYAMA (Y.), URABE (T.) and SUZUKI (K.): Caldisericum exile gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic, filamentous bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Caldiserica phyl. nov., originally called the candidate phylum OP5, and description of Caldisericaceae fam. nov., Caldisericales ord. nov. and Caldisericia classis nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2894-2898.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlamydiae Garrity and Holt 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Chlamydiales Storz and Page 1971.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Chlamydiales, type order of the phylum; N.L. fem. pl. n. Chlamydiae, the phylum of the order Chlamydiales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): The Road Map to the Manual. In D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria), Springer, New York, 2001, pp. 119-166.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobi Iino et al. 2010, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Chlorobiales Gibbons and Murray 1978 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. Chlorobium, genus of the phylum; N.L. masc. pl. n. Chlorobi, phylum of the genus Chlorobium.
Valid publication: IINO (T.), MORI (K.), UCHINO (Y.), NAKAGAWA (T.), HARAYAMA (S.) and SUZUKI (K.I.): Ignavibacterium album gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacterium isolated from microbial mats at a terrestrial hot spring and proposal of Ignavibacteria classis nov., for a novel lineage at the periphery of green sulfur bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1376-1382.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The neo-Latin noun "Chlorobi" cannot be a neo-Latin feminine plural noun as cited in the paper by Iino et al. 2010.

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Chloroflexi Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: "Chloroflexales".
Etymology: N.L. pl. n. Chloroflexi, the phylum of the genus Chloroflexus.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum BVI. Chloroflexi phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, p. 427-446.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

Note: The type order "Chloroflexales" has no standing in bacterial nomenclature.

Chloroflexi Garrity and Holt 2002 emend. Hugenholtz and Stackebrandt 2004.
Type order: "Chloroflexales".
Etymology: N.L. pl. n. Chloroflexi, the phylum of the genus Chloroflexus.
Reference: HUGENHOLTZ (P.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Reclassification of Sphaerobacter thermophilus from the subclass Sphaerobacteridae in the phylum Actinobacteria to the class Thermomicrobia (emended description) in the phylum Chloroflexi (emended description). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2049-2051.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chrysiogenetes Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Chrysiogenales Garrity and Holt 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum BV. Chrysiogenetes phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 421-425.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Crenarchaeota Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermoproteales Zillig and Stetter 1982.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum AI. Crenarchaeota phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 169-210.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Crenarchaeota Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermoproteales Zillig and Stetter 1982.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Crenarchaeota was previously known as "Crenarchaeota" Woese et al. 1990.

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Cyanobacteria (ex Stanier 1974) Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov., nom. rev.
Type order: ¤ Chroococcales Cavalier-Smith 2002.
Synonym: "Cyanobacteria" Stanier 1974.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the "Notification List" published in the March 2002 issue of the IJSEM, the Associate Editor (IJSEM) writes: "As a division not underlying the Rules of the Bacteriological Code and proposed under the same rank (ex Stanier 1974), nom. rev. is not appropriate".
Reference: LIST EDITOR, IJSEM: Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 52, part 1, of the IJSEM (footnote ‡). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 293-295.
Notification List in IJSEM Online

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Deferribacteres Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Deferribacterales Huber and Stetter 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum BIX. Defferibacteres phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, p. 465-471.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

Deferribacteres Garrity and Holt 2001 emend. Jumas-Bilak et al. 2009.
Type order: ¤ Deferribacterales Huber and Stetter 2002.
Reference: JUMAS-BILAK (E.), ROUDIÈRE (L.) and MARCHANDIN (H.): Description of ‘Synergistetes’ phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum ‘Deferribacteres’ and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum ‘Firmicutes’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1028-1035.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Dictyoglomi Patel 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Dictyoglomales Patel 2012.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Dictyoglomales, type order of the phylum; N.L. masc. pl. n. Dictyoglomi, the phylum of the order Dictyoglomales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: PATEL (B.K.C.): Phylum XX. Dictyoglomi phyl. nov. In N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY, D.R. BROWN, B.P. HEDLUND, B.J. PASTER, N.L. WARD, W. LUDWIG and W.B. WHITMAN (editors), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 4 (The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes), Springer, New York, 2011, p. 775.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

Note: In Validation List No. 143, the year of publication of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 4 was erroneously cited as 2010. The correct year of publication should be 2011.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1016.
Erratum in IJSEM Online

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Elusimicrobia Geissinger et al. 2010, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Elusimicrobiales Geissinger et al. 2010.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 132. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 469-472.
Effective publication: GEISSINGER (O.), HERLEMANN (D.P.R.), MÖRSCHEL (E.), MAIER (U.G.) and BRUNE (A.): The ultramicrobacterium "Elusimicrobium minutum" gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Termite Group 1 phylum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2009, 75, 2831-2840.
Validation List no. 132 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Endobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Bacillales Prévot 1953 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Endobacteria was previously known as "Endobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1998.

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Eobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: "Chloroflexales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Eobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, infraregnum nov.
Type order: "Chloroflexales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Euryarchaeota Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Methanobacteriales Balch and Wolfe 1981.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum AII. Euryarchaeota phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 211-355.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Euryarchaeota Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Methanococcales Balch and Wolfe 1981.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Euryarchaeota was previously known as "Euryarchaeota" Woese et al. 1990.

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Eurythermea Cavalier-Smith 2002, superclassis nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermococcales Zillig et al. 1988.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Exoflagellata Cavalier-Smith 2002, superdivisio nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type order "Enterobacteriales" has no standing in bacterial nomenclature.

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Fibrobacteres Garrity and Holt 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Fibrobacterales Spain et al. 2012.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Fibrobacterales, type order of the phylum; N.L. fem. pl. n. Fibrobacteres, the phylum of Fibrobacterales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): The Road Map to the Manual. In D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria), Springer, New York, 2001, pp. 119-166.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

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Firmicutes corrig. Gibbons and Murray 1978, divisio.
Type order: ¤ Bacillales Prévot 1953 (Approved Lists 1980).
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420.
Original publication: GIBBONS (N.E.) and MURRAY (R.G.E.): Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1978, 28, 1-6.

Note: The original spelling, Firmacutes (sic), has been corrected by Murray 1984.
Reference: MURRAY (R.G.E.): The higher taxa, or, a place for everything...? In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (ed.) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1984, p. 31-34.

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Fusobacteria Garrity and Holt 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Fusobacteriales Staley and Whitman 2012.
Etymology: N L. fem. pl. n. Fusobacteriales, type order of the phylum; N.L. neut. pl. n. Fusobacteria, the phylum of the order Fusobacteriales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): The Road Map to the Manual. In D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria), Springer, New York, 2001, pp. 119-166.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

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Gemmatimonadetes Zhang et al. 2003, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Gemmatimonadales Zhang et al. 2003.
Reference: ZHANG (H.), SEKIGUCHI (Y.), HANADA (S.), HUGENHOLTZ (P.), KIM (H.), KAMAGATA (Y.) and NAKAMURA (K.): Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1155-1163.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Geovibriales Cavalier-Smith 2002.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Gloeobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Gloeobacterales Cavalier-Smith 2002.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Glycobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, infraregnum nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Gracilicutes Gibbons and Murray 1978, divisio.
Nomenclatural type: not given.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420.
Original publication: GIBBONS (N.E.) and MURRAY (R.G.E.): Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1978, 28, 1-6.

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Lentisphaerae Cho et al. 2004, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Lentisphaerales Cho et al. 2004.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Lentisphaerae, phylum of the genus Lentisphaera.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 98. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1005-1006.
Effective publication: CHO (J.C.), VERGIN (K.L.), MORRIS (R.M.) and GIOVANNONI (S.J.): Lentisphaera araneosa gen. nov., sp. nov, a transparent exopolymer producing marine bacterium, and the description of a novel bacterial phylum, Lentisphaerae. Environ. Microbiol., 2004, 6, 611-621.
Validation List no. 98 in IJSEM Online

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Mendosicutes Murray 1984, divisio nov.
Type class: ¤ Archaeobacteria (ex Woese and Fox 1977) Murray 1988.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357.
Effective publication: MURRAY (R.G.E.): The higher taxa, or, a place for everything...? In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (ed.) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1984, p. 31-34.
Validation List no. 15 in IJSB Online

Note: The class Archaeobacteria has been validly published in 1988.
Reference: Validation List no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222.

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Negibacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subregnum nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Neobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, superclassis nov.
Type order: ¤ Methanococcales Balch and Wolfe 1981.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Phycobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Chroococcales Cavalier-Smith 2002.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Phycobacteria was previously known as "Phycobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1998.

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Planctobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Planctomycetales Schlesner and Stackebrandt 1987.
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Planctobacteria was previously known as "Planctobacteria " Cavalier-Smith 1987.

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Posibacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Bacillales Prévot 1953 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Posibacteria was previously known as "Posibacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1987.

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Proteobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Proteobacteria Garrity et al. 2005, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Pseudomonadales Orla-Jensen 1921 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. or L. n. Proteus, Greek god of the sea, capable of assuming many different shapes; N.L. n. bacter, a rod; suff. -ia, ending to denote a phylum; N.L. fem. pl. n. Proteobacteria, protean phylum of bacteria of diverse properties despite a common ancestry, and having 16S rRNA gene sequences related to those of the members of the order Pseudomonadales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 106. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2235-2238.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.), BELL (J.A.) and LILBURN (T.): Phylum XIV. Proteobacteria phyl. nov. In: D.J. BRENNER, N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY and G. M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 2 (The Proteobacteria), part B (The Gammaproteobacteria), Springer, New York, 2005, p. 1.
Validation List no. 106 in IJSEM Online

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Rhodobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: "Enterobacteriales".
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:

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Sphingobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Cytophagales Leadbetter 1974 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Sphingobacteria was previously known as "Sphingobacteria " Cavalier-Smith 1987.

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Spirochaetae Cavalier-Smith 2002, divisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Synergistetes Jumas-Bilak et al. 2009, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Synergistales Jumas-Bilak et al. 2009.
Reference: JUMAS-BILAK (E.), ROUDIÈRE (L.) and MARCHANDIN (H.): Description of ‘Synergistetes’ phyl. nov. and emended description of the phylum ‘Deferribacteres’ and of the family Syntrophomonadaceae, phylum ‘Firmicutes’. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1028-1035.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Tenericutes Murray 1984, divisio nov.
Type class: ¤ Mollicutes Edward and Freundt 1967 (Approved Lists 1980).
Valid publication: Validation List no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357.
Effective publication: MURRAY (R.G.E.): The higher taxa, or, a place for everything...? In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (ed.) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1984, p. 31-34.
Validation List no. 15 in IJSB Online

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Thermodesulfobacteria Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermodesulfobacteriales Hatchikian et al. 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum BIII. Thermodesulfobacteria phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 389-393.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Thermomicrobia Garrity and Holt 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermomicrobiales Garrity and Holt 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: GARRITY (G.M.) and HOLT (J.G.): Phylum BVII. Thermomicrobia phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 447-450.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Thermotogae Reysenbach 2001, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Thermotogales Huber and Stetter 2002.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Effective publication: REYSENBACH (A.L.): Phylum BII. Thermotogae phy. nov. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, p. 369-387.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online

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Thiobacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subdivisio nov.
Type order: ¤ Myxococcales Tchan et al. 1948 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Thiobacteria was previously known as "Thiobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1998.

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Unibacteria Cavalier-Smith 2002, subregnum nov.
Type order: ¤ Bacillales Prévot 1953 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: CAVALIER-SMITH (T.): The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 7-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Unibacteria was previously known as "Unibacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1998.

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Verrucomicrobia Hedlund 2012, phyl. nov.
Type order: ¤ Verrucomicrobiales Ward-Rainey et al. 1996.
Etymology: N.L. fem. pl. n. Verrucomicobiales, type order of the phylum; N.L. neut. pl. n. Verrucomicrobia, the phylum of the order Verrucomicrobiales.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 143. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1-4.
Effective publication: HEDLUND (B.P.): Phylum XXIII. Verrucomicrobia phyl. nov. In N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY, D.R. BROWN, B.P. HEDLUND, B.J. PASTER, N.L. WARD, W. LUDWIG and W.B. WHITMAN (editors), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 4 (The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes), Springer, New York, 2011, p. 795.
Validation List no. 143 in IJSEM Online

Note: In Validation List No. 143, the year of publication of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, vol. 4 was erroneously cited as 2010. The correct year of publication should be 2011.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1016.
Erratum in IJSEM Online

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