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Genus Spiroplasma

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 38
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Spiroplasma Saglio et al. 1973, genus. (Type genus of the family ¤ Spiroplasmataceae (ex Skripal' 1974) Skripal' 1983).
Type species: ¤ Spiroplasma citri Saglio et al. 1973 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. speira (Latin transliteration spira), a coil, spiral; Gr. neut. n. plasma, something formed or molded, a form, figure; N.L. neut. n. Spiroplasma, spiral form.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SAGLIO (P.), LHOSPITAL (M.), LAFLECHE (D.), DUPONT (G.), BOVÉ (J.M.), TULLY (J.G.) and FREUNDT (E.A.): Spiroplasma citri gen. and sp. n.: a mycoplasma-like organism associated with stubborn disease of citrus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 191-204.

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Spiroplasma alleghenense Adams et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) PLHS-1 = ATCC 51752.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189125.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. alleghenense, of or pertaining to the Allegheny Mountains, referring to the geographic origin of the type strain, the range of the Appalachian Mountains from which it was derived.
Valid publication: ADAMS (J.R.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), CLARK (E.A.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), KONAI (M.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma alleghenense sp. nov., a new species from the scorpion fly Panorpa helena (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 759-762.
Original article in IJSB Online

Note: On page 762, the type strain is erroneously cited as ATCC 51742.
References:
1 BOVÉ (J.M.). Personal communication.
2 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

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Spiroplasma apis Mouches et al. 1984, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B31 = ATCC 33834.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU993267.
Etymology: L. n. apis -is, a bee, and also the genus name of the honey bee, Apis mellifera; L. gen. n. apis, of a bee, of Apis mellifera, the insect host for this species.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 13. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 91-92.
Effective publication: MOUCHES (C.), BOVÉ (J.M.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), McCOY (R.E.), CARLE-JUNCA (P.), GARNIER (M.) and SAILLARD (C.): Spiroplasma apis, a new species from the honey-bee Apis mellifera. Ann. Microbiol., 1983, 134A, 383-397.
Validation List no. 13 in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma atrichopogonis Koerber et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) GNAT3597 = ATCC BAA-520 = NBRC 100390.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. atrichopogonis, of Atrichopogon, systematic genus name of a biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).
Valid publication: KOERBER (R.T.), GASPARICH (G.E.), FRANA (M.F.) and GROGAN Jr (W.L.): Spiroplasma atrichopogonis sp. nov., from a ceratopogonid biting midge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 289-292.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to R.F. Whitcomb [1], the description of Spiroplasma atrichopogonis Koerber et al. 2005, is not in accordance with the minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the class Mollicutes [2, 3, 4].
References:
1 WHITCOMB (R.F.): Evolution and devolution of minimal standards for descriptions of species of the class Mollicutes: analysis of two Spiroplasma descriptions. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 201-206.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MYCOPLASMATALES: Proposal for minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the order Mycoplasmatales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1972, 22, 184-188.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MOLLICUTES: Proposal of minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the class Mollicutes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1979, 29, 172-180.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MOLLICUTES: Revised minimum standards for description of new species of the class Mollicutes (Division Tenericutes). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 605-612.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma cantharicola Whitcomb et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CC-1 = ATCC 43207.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ861914.
Etymology: Gr. kantharos, scarab beetle; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. cantharicola, an inhabitant of a family of beetles.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), CHASTEL (C.), ABALAIN-COLLOC (M.), STEVENS (C.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), HACKETT (K.J.), CLARK (T.B.), KONAI (M.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma cantharicola sp. nov., from cantharid beetles (Coleoptera: Cantharidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 421-424.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma chinense Guo et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CCH = ATCC 43960.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189126.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. chinense, of or belonging to China, the location where the organism was first isolated.
Valid publication: GUO (Y.H.), CHEN (T.A.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), ROSE (D.L.), TULLY (J.G.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.), YE (X.D.) and CHEN (Y.X.): Spiroplasma chinense sp. nov. from flowers of Calystegia hederacea in China. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 421-425.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma chrysopicola Whitcomb et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DF-1 = ATCC 43209.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189127.
Etymology: N.L. n. Chrysops, a genus of deer flies in the Tabanidae; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. chrysopicola, inhabiting Chrysops spp.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma chrysopicola sp. nov., Spiroplasma gladiatoris sp. nov., Spiroplasma helicoides sp. nov., and Spiroplasma tabanidicola sp. nov., from Tabanid (Diptera: Tabanidae) flies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 713-719.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma citri Saglio et al. 1973, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27556= NCPPB 2647.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X63781.
Etymology: L. masc. n. citrus, the citrus; N.L. masc. n. Citrus, generic name; N.L. gen. n. citri, of Citrus, to denote the plant host.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SAGLIO (P.), LHOSPITAL (M.), LAFLECHE (D.), DUPONT (G.), BOVÉ (J.M.), TULLY (J.G.) and FREUNDT (E.A.): Spiroplasma citri gen. and sp. n.: a mycoplasma-like organism associated with stubborn disease of citrus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1973, 23, 191-204.

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Spiroplasma clarkii Whitcomb et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CN-5 = ATCC 33827= DSM 19994.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733690.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. clarkii, of Clark, in honor of T.B. Clark, a pioneer spiroplasma ecologist.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), VIGNAULT (J.C.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HACKETT (K.J.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma clarkii sp. nov. from the green june beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 261-265.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma corruscae Hackett et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) EC-1 = ATCC 43212.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189128.
Etymology: N.L. fem. gen. n. corruscae, of corrusca, referring to the species of firefly beetle (Ellychnia corrusca) from which the organism was first isolated.
Valid publication: HACKETT (K.J.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), CLARK (T.B.), KONAI (M.), CLARK (E.A.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma corruscae sp. nov., from a firefly beetle (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 947-950.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma culicicola Hung et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AES-1 = ATCC 35112.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189129.
Etymology: L. n. culex -icis, a gnat, midge, and also a genus of mosquitoes (Culex, family Culicidae); L. suffix -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. culicicola, intended to mean an inhabitant of the Culicidae.
Valid publication: HUNG (S.H.Y.), CHEN (T.A.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.) and CHEN (Y.X.): Spiroplasma culicicola sp. nov. from the salt marsh mosquito Aedes sollicitans. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 365-370.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma diabroticae Carle et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DU-1 = ATCC 43210= DSM 19995.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733691.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. diabroticae, of Diabrotica, referring to Diabrotica undecimpunctata, the chrysomelid beetle from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: CARLE (P.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), HACKETT (K.J.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma diabroticae sp. nov., from the southern corn rootworm beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 78-80.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma diminutum Williamson et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CUAS-1 = ATCC 49235.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189130.
Etymology: L. v. deminuere, to break into small pieces, make smaller; L. neut. part. adj. diminutum, made smaller, reflecting a smaller size.
Valid publication: WILLIAMSON (D.L.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSEN (L.), ROSE (D.L.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), ABALAIN-COLLOC (M.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and SMYTH (J.): Spiroplasma diminutum sp. nov., from Culex annulus mosquitoes collected in Taiwan. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 229-233.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma eriocheiris Wang et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TDA-040725-5 = CRAB = CCTCC M 207170 = DSM 21848.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ917753.
Etymology: N.L. n. Eriocheir, a genus of crab; N.L. gen. n. eriocheiris, of Eriocheir sinensis, the species of crab from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: WANG (W.), GU (W.), GASPARICH (G.E.), BI (K.), OU (J.), MENG (Q.), LIANG (T.), FENG (Q.), ZHANG (J.) and ZHANG (Y.): Spiroplasma eriocheiris sp. nov., associated with mortality in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 703-708.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma floricola Davis et al. 1981, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 23-6 = ATCC 29989.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189131.
Etymology:   L. n. flos -oris, a flower; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. floricola, flower dweller.
Valid publication: DAVIS (R.E.), LEE (I.M.) and WORLEY (J.F.): Spiroplasma floricola, a new species isolated from surfaces of flowers of the tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera L. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 456-464.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma gladiatoris Whitcomb et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TG-1 = ATCC 43525.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M24475.
Etymology: L. gen. n. gladiatoris, of a gladiator, reflecting the initial isolation of the organism from the horsefly Tabanus gladiator.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma chrysopicola sp. nov., Spiroplasma gladiatoris sp. nov., Spiroplasma helicoides sp. nov., and Spiroplasma tabanidicola sp. nov., from Tabanid (Diptera: Tabanidae) flies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 713-719.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma helicoides Whitcomb et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TABS-2 = ATCC 51746.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189132.
Etymology: Gr. n. helix, spiral; Gr. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. helicoides, spiral-like.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma chrysopicola sp. nov., Spiroplasma gladiatoris sp. nov., Spiroplasma helicoides sp. nov., and Spiroplasma tabanidicola sp. nov., from Tabanid (Diptera: Tabanidae) flies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 713-719.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma insolitum Hackett et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) M55 = ATCC 33502.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189133.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. insolitum, unusual or uncommon, to denote unusual base composition.
Valid publication: HACKETT (K.J.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), CLARK (T.B.), CLARK (E.A.), KONAI (M.), ADAMS (J.R.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma insolitum sp. nov., a new species of group I spiroplasma with an unusual DNA base composition. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 272-277.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma ixodetis Tully et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Y32 = ATCC 33835.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU585671.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. ixodetis, of Ixodes, the genus name of Ixodes pacificus ticks, from which the organism was first isolated.
Valid publication: TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), YUNKER (C.E.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.) and WHITCOMB (R.F.): Spiroplasma ixodetis sp. nov., a new species from Ixodes pacificus ticks collected in Oregon. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 23-28.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain shows an unexpected affiliation with a deep branch in ¤ Entomoplasmatales (86% similarity against ¤ Spiroplasma citri).
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online   

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Spiroplasma kunkelii Whitcomb et al. 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) E275 = ATCC 29320.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU562447.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. kunkelii, of Kunkel, named after L.O. Kunkel, to honor his major and fundamental contributions to the study of plant mollicutes.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), CHEN (T.A.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.), LIAO (C.), TULLY (J.G.), BOVÉ (J.M.), MOUCHES (C.), ROSE (D.L.), COAN (M.E.) and CLARK (T.B.): Spiroplasma kunkelii sp. nov.: characterization of the etiological agent of corn stunt disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 170-178.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma lampyridicola Stevens et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) PUP-1 = ATCC 43206.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189134.
Etymology: N.L. n. Lampyridae, the firefly beetle family; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. lampyridicola, an inhabitant of members of the Lampyridae.
Valid publication: STEVENS (C.), TANG (A.Y.), JENKINS (E.), GOINS (R.L.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), KONAI (M.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HACKETT (K.J.), FRENCH (F.E.), WEDINCAMP (J.), HENEGAR (R.B.) and WHITCOMB (R.F.): Spiroplasma lampyridicola sp. nov., from the firefly beetle Photuris pennsylvanicus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 709-712.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma leptinotarsae Hackett et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LD-1 = ATCC 43213.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189305.
Etymology:   N.L. gen. n. leptinotarsae, of Leptinotarsa, referring to Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the Colorado potato beetle.
Valid publication: HACKETT (K.J.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), CLARK (T.B.), HENEGAR (R.B.), LYNN (D.E.), WAGNER (A.G.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.) BOVÉ (J.M.), KONAI (M.), CLARK (E.A.), ADAMS (J.R.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma leptinotarsae sp. nov., a mollicute uniquely adapted to its host, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 906-911.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma leucomae Oduori et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SMA = ATCC BAA-521 = NBRC 100392.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ101278.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. leucomae, of Leucoma, systematic genus name of the white satin moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the source of the type strain.
Valid publication: ODUORI (M.A.), LIPA (J.J.) and GASPARICH (G.E.): Spiroplasma leucomae sp. nov. isolated in Poland from white satin moth (Leucoma salicis L.) larvae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2447-2450.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to R.F. Whitcomb [1], the description of Spiroplasma leucomae Oduori et al. 2005, is not in accordance with the minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the class Mollicutes [2, 3, 4].
References:
1 WHITCOMB (R.F.): Evolution and devolution of minimal standards for descriptions of species of the class Mollicutes: analysis of two Spiroplasma descriptions. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 201-206.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MYCOPLASMATALES: Proposal for minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the order Mycoplasmatales. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1972, 22, 184-188.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MOLLICUTES: Proposal of minimal standards for descriptions of new species of the class Mollicutes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1979, 29, 172-180.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF MOLLICUTES: Revised minimum standards for description of new species of the class Mollicutes (Division Tenericutes). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 605-612.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma lineolae French et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TALS-2 = ATCC 51749.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ860100.
Etymology: N.L. n. lineola, a species of tabanid fly; N.L. gen. n. lineolae, of/from Tabanus lineola, from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: FRENCH (F.E.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), ADAMS (J.R.), GASPARICH (G.E.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma lineolae sp. nov., from the horsefly Tabanus lineola (Diptera: Tabanidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 1078-1081.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma litorale Konai et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TN-1 = ATCC 43211.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189306.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. litorale, of or belonging to the sea-shore.
Valid publication: KONAI (M.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HACKETT (K.J.), HENEGAR (R.B.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma litorale sp. nov., from tabanid flies (Tabanidae: Diptera) in the Southeastern United States. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 359-362.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma melliferum Clark et al. 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) BC-3 = ATCC 33219.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY325304.
Etymology: L. adj. mellifer -fera -ferum, honey-bearing, honey-producing; L. neut. adj. melliferum, intended to mean isolated from the honey bee (Apis mellifera).
Valid publication: CLARK (T.B.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), MOUCHES (C.), SAILLARD (C.), BOVÉ (J.M.), WRÓBLEWSKI (H.), CARLE (P.), ROSE (D.L.), HENEGAR (R.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma melliferum, a new species from the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 296-308.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma mirum Tully et al. 1982, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SMCA (suckling mouse cataract agent) = ATCC 29335= CIP 103925.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M24662.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. mirum, astonishing, extraordinary.
Valid publication: TULLY (J.G.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), ROSE (D.L.) and BOVÉ (J.M.): Spiroplasma mirum, a new species from the rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis leporipalustris). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 92-100.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma monobiae Whitcomb et al. 1993, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MQ-1 = ATCC 33825.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU585673.
Etymology:   N.L. n. Monobia, a genus of vespid wasps; N.L. gen. n. monobiae, of the genus Monobia, from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), HACKETT (K.J.), CLARK (T.B.), KONAI (M.), ADAMS (J.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma monobiae sp. nov. from the vespid wasp Monobia quadridens (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 256-260.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma montanense Whitcomb et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) HYOS-1 = ATCC 51745.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189307.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. montanense, of or belonging to Montana, where the species was first isolated.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.M.), BOVÉ (J.M.), CLARK (E.A.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma montanense sp. nov., from Hybomitra horseflies at northern latitudes in North America. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 720-723.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma penaei Nunan et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SHRIMP = ATCC BAA-1082 = CAIM 1252.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY771927.
Etymology: N.L. n. Penaeus, a genus of penaeid shrimp; N.L. gen. n. penaei, of Penaeus, referring to  Penaeus vannamei, from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: NUNAN (L.M.), LIGHTNER (D.V.), ODUORI (M.A.) and GASPARICH (G.E.): Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2317-2322.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma phoeniceum Saillard et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) P40 = ATCC 43115.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY772395.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. phoeniceum (from L. neut. adj. phonicium), of or belonging to Phoenice, an ancient country that was located on today’s Syrian coast, referring to the geographical origin of the isolates.
Valid publication: SAILLARD (C.), VIGNAULT (J.C.), BOVÉ (J.M.), RAIE (A.), TULLY (J.G.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.), FOS (A.), GARNIER (M.), GADEAU (A.), CARLE (P.) and WHITCOMB (R.F.): Spiroplasma phoeniceum sp. nov., a new plant-pathogenic species from Syria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 106-115.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma platyhelix Williamson et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) PALS-1 = ATCC 51748.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: GU993266.
Etymology: Gr. adj. platus, flat, broad; Gr. n. helix, a coil or spiral; N.L. n. platyhelix, flat coil, referring to the flattened nature of the helical filament.
Valid publication: WILLIAMSON (D.L.), ADAMS (J.R.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), CARLE (P.), KONAI (M.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and HENEGAR (R.B.): Spiroplasma platyhelix sp. nov., a new mollicute with unusual morphology and genome size from the dragonfly Pachydiplax longipennis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 763-766.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain shows an unexpected affiliation with a deep branch in ¤ Entomoplasmatales (85.6% similarity against ¤ Spiroplasma citri).
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Spiroplasma poulsonii Williamson et al. 1999, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DW-1 = ATCC 43153= CIP 106072.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M24483.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. poulsonii, of Poulson, named in memory of Donald F. Poulson, Professor of Biology at Yale University, in whose laboratory this spiroplasma was discovered and studied intensively.
Valid publication: WILLIAMSON (D.L.), SAKAGUCHI (B.), HACKETT (K.J.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), ADAMS (J.R.), KONAI (M.) and HENEGAR (R.B.): Spiroplasma poulsonii sp. nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni, a neotropical species of fruit fly. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 611-618.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma sabaudiense Abalain-Colloc et al. 1987, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ar-1343 = ATCC 43303.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189308.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. sabaudiense, of Sabaudia (Sapaudia), an ancient country of Gaul, corresponding to present day Savoy, referring to the geographic origin of the isolate.
Valid publication: ABALAIN-COLLOC (M.L.), CHASTEL (C.), TULLY (J.G.), BOVÉ (J.M.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), GILOT (B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma sabaudiense sp. nov. from mosquitoes collected in France. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 260-265.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma syrphidicola Whitcomb et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) EA-1 = ATCC 33826.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189309.
Etymology: N.L. pl. n. Syrphidae, a family of flies; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola) inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. syrphidicola, inhabitant of syrphid flies, the insects from which the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), GASPARICH (G.E.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma syrphidicola sp. nov., from a syrphid fly (Diptera: Syrphidae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 797-801.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma tabanidicola Whitcomb et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TAUS-1 = ATCC 51747= DSM 22603.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733693.
Etymology: N.L. pl. n. Tabanidae, family name for horse flies; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), inhabitant, dweller; N.L. n. tabanidicola, an inhabitant of horse flies.
Valid publication: WHITCOMB (R.F.), FRENCH (F.E.), TULLY (J.G.), GASPARICH (G.E.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), KONAI (M.), HACKETT (K.J.), ADAMS (J.R.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma chrysopicola sp. nov., Spiroplasma gladiatoris sp. nov., Spiroplasma helicoides sp. nov., and Spiroplasma tabanidicola sp. nov., from Tabanid (Diptera: Tabanidae) flies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 713-719.
Original article in IJSB Online

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Spiroplasma taiwanense Abalain-Colloc et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) CT-1 = ATCC 43302.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HM037992.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. taiwanense, of or belonging to Taiwan, referring to the geographic origin of the isolate.
Valid publication: ABALAIN-COLLOC (M.L.), ROSEN (L.), TULLY (J.G.), BOVÉ (J.M.), CHASTEL (C.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma taiwanense sp. nov. from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in Taiwan. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 103-107.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma turonicum Hélias et al. 1998, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Tab4c = ATCC 700271.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189310.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. turonicum, of or belonging to Touraine, the province in France from which the organism was first isolated.
Valid publication: HÉLIAS (C.), VAZEILLE-FALCOZ (M.), LE GOFF (F.), ABALAIN-COLLOC (M.L.), RODHAIN (F.), CARLE (P.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), WILLIAMSON (D.L.), TULLY (J.G.), BOVÉ (J.M.) and CHASTEL (C.): Spiroplasma turonicum sp. nov. from Haematopota horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in France. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 457-461.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spiroplasma velocicrescens Konai et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MQ-4 = ATCC 35262.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY189311.
Etymology: L. adj. velox -ocis, fast, quick, rapid; L. part. adj. crescens, growing; N.L. n. part. adj. velocicrescens, fast-growing.
Valid publication: KONAI (M.), WHITCOMB (R.F.), TULLY (J.G.), ROSE (D.L.), CARLE (P.), BOVÉ (J.M.), HENEGAR (R.B.), HACKETT (K.J.), CLARK (T.B.) and WILLIAMSON (D.L.): Spiroplasma velocicrescens sp. nov., from the vespid wasp Monobia quadridens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 203-206.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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