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Genus Spirochaeta

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 24
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 2

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the family ¤ Spirochaetaceae Swellengrebel 1907 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg 1835 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: "Spirochoeta" Dujardin 1841 (orthographic variant of Spirochaeta), "Spirochaete" Cohn 1872 (orthographic variant of Spirochaeta), "Ehrenbergia" Gieszczykiewiez 1939.
Etymology: Gr. n. speira (Latin transliteration spira), a coil; Gr. fem. n. chaitê (Latin transliteration chaeta), hair; N.L. fem. n. Spirochaeta, coiled hair.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: EHRENBERG (C.G.): Dritter Beitrag zur Erkenntniss grosser Organisation in der Richtung des kleinsten Raumes. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) aus den Jahre 1833-1835, pp. 143-336.

Note: Canale-Parola requested that ¤ Spirochaeta stenostrepta replace ¤ Spirochaeta plicatilis as the type species of the genus Spirochaeta, because no culture of Spirochaeta plicatilis exists. Rule 18a of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) does permit a description to serve in place of a type culture. Therefore the Judicial Commission voted to deny the action proposed.
References:
1 CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Proposal that Spirochaeta stenostrepta Zuelzer replace Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg as the type spcies of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 105-106.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between July 1979 and April 1981. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 464-465.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the meeting, 6 August 1982, Boston, Massachusetts. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 577-578.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the Meeting, 5 September 1986, Manchester, United Kingdom. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 85-87.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Pikuta et al. 2009.
Reference: PIKUTA (E.V.), HOOVER (R.B.), BEJ (A.K.), MARSIC (D.), WHITMAN (W.B.) and KRADER (P.): Spirochaeta dissipatitropha sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1798-1804.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Pikuta et al. 2009 emend. Miyazaki et al. 2014.
Reference: MIYAZAKI, M., SAKAI, S., YAMANAKA, Y., SAITO, Y., TAKAI, K. and IMACHI, H. 2014. Spirochaeta psychrophila sp. nov., a psychrophilic spirochaete isolated from subseafloor sediment, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 2798-2804.
Original article.

Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Pikuta et al. 2009 emend. Miyazaki et al. 2014 emend. Shivani et al. 2015.
Reference: Shivani, Y., Subhash, Y., Tushar, L., Sasikala, Ch. and Ramana, Ch.V 2015. Spirochaeta lutea sp. nov., isolated from marine habitats and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta . Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 38, 110-114..
Original article.

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Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Z-7692 = ATCC 700263= DSM 8902.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X93928.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. africana, of Africa, found in African alkaline Lake Magadi.
Valid publication: ZHILINA (T.N.), ZAVARZIN (G.A.), RAINEY (F.), KEVBRIN (V.V.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the continental soda lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 305-312.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta alkalica Zhilina et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Z-7491 = ATCC 700262= DSM 8900.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X93927.
Etymology: N.L. n. alkali (from Arabic al-qalyi, the ashes of saltwort), soda ash; L. fem. suff. -ica, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. fem. adj. alkalica, intended to mean alkaline, developing in the alkaline medium.
Valid publication: ZHILINA (T.N.), ZAVARZIN (G.A.), RAINEY (F.), KEVBRIN (V.V.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the continental soda lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 305-312.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alkalispirochaeta alkalica (Zhilina et al. 1996) Sravanthi et al. 2016, comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta americana Hoover et al. 2003, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ASpG1 = ATCC BAA-392 = DSM 14872.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF373921.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. americana, of American continent, isolated from soda Mono Lake, California, USA.
Valid publication: HOOVER (R.B.), PIKUTA (E.V.), BEJ (A.K.), MARSIC (D.), WHITMAN (W.B.), TANG (J.) and KRADER (P.): Spirochaeta americana sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda Mono Lake in California. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 815-821.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alkalispirochaeta americana (Hoover et al. 2003) Sravanthi et al. 2016, sp. nov.

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Spirochaeta asiatica Zhilina et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Z-7591 = ATCC 700261= DSM 8901.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X93926.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. asiatica, Asiatic, of or belonging to the Asian continent, in the central part of which the organism was found.
Valid publication: ZHILINA (T.N.), ZAVARZIN (G.A.), RAINEY (F.), KEVBRIN (V.V.), KOSTRIKINA (N.A.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): Spirochaeta alkalica sp. nov., Spirochaeta africana sp. nov., and Spirochaeta asiatica sp. nov., alkaliphilic anaerobes from the continental soda lakes in Central Asia and the East African Rift. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 305-312.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta aurantia (ex Vinzent 1926) Canale-Parola 1980, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) J1 = ATCC 25082= DSM 1902.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M57740 (type strain ATCC 25082, FR749896 (type strain DSM 1902).
Synonym: "Spirochaeta aurantia" Vinzent 1926.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. aurantia, orange colored.
Valid publication: CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Revival of the names Spirochaeta litoralis, Spirochaeta zuelzerae, and Spirochaeta aurantia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 594.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Spirochaeta aurantia subsp. aurantia (Canale-Parola 1980) Canale-Parola 1984, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) J1 = ATCC 25082= DSM 1902.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M57740 (type strain ATCC 25082, FR749896 (type strain DSM 1902).
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. aurantia, orange colored.
Valid publication: MOORE (W.E.C.), CATO (E.P.) and MOORE (L.V.H.): Index of the bacterial and yeast nomenclatural changes published in the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology since the 1980 Approved Lists of bacterial names (1 January 1980 to 1 January 1985). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 382-407.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, (ex Vinzent 1926) Canale-Parola 1980, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Spirochaeta aurantia subsp. aurantia (Canale-Parola 1980) Canale-Parola 1984 is automatically created by the valid publication of Spirochaeta aurantia subsp. stricta Canale-Parola 1984 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Spirochaeta aurantia subsp. stricta Canale-Parola 1984, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) J4T.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: L. fem. part. adj. stricta (from L. v. stringo), drawn tight.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357.
Effective publication: CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Genus Spirochaeta. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 39-46.
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain is currently not available from a recognized culture collection.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis Fracek and Stolz 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) BA-2 = ATCC 35968= DSM 16054.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ698859.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. bajacaliforniensis, of or pertaining to Baja California; named for the geographical location from where the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 97. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 631-632.
Effective publication: FRACEK Jr. (S.P.) and STOLZ (J.F.): Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis sp. n. from a microbial mat community at Laguna Figueroa, Baja California Norte, Mexico. Arch. Microbiol., 1985, 142, 317-325.
Validation List no. 97 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The designation of the type strain and culture collection accession numbers were provided on request for validation.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 97 (footnote ||). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 631-632.
Validation List no. 97 in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta caldarium corrig. Pohlschröder et al. 1995, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) H1 = ATCC 51460= DSM 7334.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU580141, CP002868 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. fem. adj. caldaria, pertaining to warm water; intended to mean inhabiting warm water.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 55. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 879-880.
Effective publication: POHLSCHROEDER (M.), LESCHINE (S.B.) and CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Spirochaeta caldaria sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium that enhances cellulose degradation by Clostridium thermocellum. Arch. Microbiol., 1994, 161, 17-24.
Validation List no. 55 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Treponema caldaria (Pohlschroeder et al. 1995) Abt, Göker and Klenk 2013, comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta cellobiosiphila Breznak and Warnecke 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SIP1 = ATCC BAA-1285 = DSM 17781.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU448140.
Etymology: N.L. neut. n. cellobiosum, cellobiose; N.L. fem. adj. phila (from Gr. fem. adj. philê), friendly to, loving; N.L. fem. adj. cellobiosiphila, loving cellobiose (isolated from a microbial mat, Little Sippewissett salt marsh, Woods Hole, MA, USA).
Valid publication: BREZNAK (J.A.) and WARNECKE (F.): Spirochaeta cellobiosiphila sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, marine spirochaete. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 2762-2768.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SPN1 = DSM 17374 = ATCC BAA-1237.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ698092, CP002659 (complete genome).
Etymology: Gr. n. kokkos, a berry; L. fem. suff. -oides [from Gr. suff. -eides (from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure)], ressembling, similar; N.L. fem. adj. coccoides, berry-shaped.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 110. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1459-1460.
Effective publication: DRÖGE (S.), FRÖHLICH (J.), RADEK (R.) and KÖNIG (H.): Spirochaeta coccoides sp. nov., a novel coccoid spirochete from the hindgut of the termite Neotermes castaneus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72, 392-397.
Validation List no. 110 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Sphaerochaeta coccoides (Dröge et al. 2006) Abt et al. 2012 (authorship reads Abt, Göker, Kyrpides and Klenk), comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta dissipatitropha Pikuta et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ASpC2 = ATCC BAA-1083 = JCM 12856.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY995150.
Etymology: L. part. adj. dissipatus, dissipated, dispersed; N.L. fem. adj. tropha (from Gr. adj. trophikos) nursing, tending; N.L. fem. adj. dissipatitropha, tending to dissipated products, pertaining to the ability to utilize dissipated products after primary anaerobes.
Valid publication: PIKUTA (E.V.), HOOVER (R.B.), BEJ (A.K.), MARSIC (D.), WHITMAN (W.B.) and KRADER (P.): Spirochaeta dissipatitropha sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1798-1804.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta halophila Greenberg and Canale-Parola 1977, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) RS1 = ATCC 29478= DSM 10522.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M88722.
Etymology: Gr. n. hals halos, salt; N.L. fem. adj. phila (from Gr. fem. adj. philê), friend, loving; N.L. fem. adj. halophila, salt-loving.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 GREENBERG (E.P.) and CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Spirochaeta halophila sp. n., a facultative anaerobe from a high-salinity pond. Archives of Microbiology, 1976, 110, 185-194. 2 Announcement of the valid publication of new names and new combinations previously effectively published outside the IJSB. List no. 1. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1977, 27, 306.

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Spirochaeta isovalerica Harwood and Canale-Parola 1983, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MA-2 = ATCC 33939= DSM 2461.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M88720 (type strain MA-2), FR749930 (type strain DSM 2461, clone 1), FR749931 (type strain DSM 2461, clone 2).
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum isovalericum, isovaleric acid; N.L. fem. adj. isovalerica, intended to mean pertaining to isovaleric acid, the major acid formed as a fermentation product from branched-chain amino acids.
Valid publication: HARWOOD (C.S.) and CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Spirochaeta isovalerica sp. nov., a marine anaerobe that forms branched-chain fatty acids as fermentation products. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 573-579.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta litoralis (ex Hespell and Canale-Parola 1970) Canale-Parola 1980, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R1 = ATCC 27000= DSM 2029.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733665.
Synonym: "Spirochaeta litoralis" Hespell and Canale-Parola 1970.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. litoralis, of or belonging to the sea-shore.
Valid publication: CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Revival of the names Spirochaeta litoralis, Spirochaeta zuelzerae, and Spirochaeta aurantia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 594.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta lutea Shivani et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) JC230=DSM 29074=KCTC 15387.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: HG965770.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. lutea, orange-coloured.
Source: Environmental - marine.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 164. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65 (2015), 2017-2025.
Validation List Online
Effective publication: Shivani, Y., Subhash, Y., Tushar, L., Sasikala, Ch. and Ramana, Ch.V 2015. Spirochaeta lutea sp. nov., isolated from marine habitats and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta . Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 38, 110-114.
Effective publication Online

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Spirochaeta odontotermitis Sravanthi et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) JC202=KCTC 15324=NBRC 110104.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: HF968430.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: JRAS00000000.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. odontotermitis, of the termite Odontotermes.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: SRAVANTHI, T., TUSHAR, L., SASIKALA, C. and RAMANA CH, V. 2015. Spirochaeta odontotermitis sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic, halotolerant, alkaliphilic spirochaete isolated from the termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) gut. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 4589-4594.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alkalispirochaeta odontotermitis (Sravanthi et al. 2015) Sravanthi et al. 2016, comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta perfilievii Dubinina et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) P = DSM 19205 = VKM B-2514.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY337318.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. perfilievii, of Perfil’ev, named after Professor B. V. Perfil’ev (1893–1974), the Russian microbiologist who discovered and described the ‘Thiodendron’ microbial mat.
Valid publication: DUBININA (G.), GRABOVICH (M.), LESHCHEVA (N.), RAINEY (F.A.) and GAVRISH (E.): Spirochaeta perfilievii sp. nov., an oxygen-tolerant, sulfide-oxidizing, sulfur- and thiosulfate-reducing spirochaete isolated from a saline spring. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 110-117.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg 1835, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) no culture available.
 Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not available.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. plicatilis, flexible, pliable.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: EHRENBERG (C.G.): Dritter Beitrag zur Erkenntniss grosser Organisation in der Richtung des kleinsten Raumes. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Berlin) aus den Jahre 1833-1835, 1835, pp. 143-336.

Note: Canale-Parola requested that ¤ Spirochaeta stenostrepta replace Spirochaeta plicatilis as the type species of the genus Spirochaeta, because no culture of Spirochaeta plicatilis exists. Rule 18a of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) does permit a description to serve in place of a type culture. Therefore the Judicial Commission voted to deny the action proposed.
References:
1 CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Proposal that Spirochaeta stenostrepta Zuelzer replace Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg as the type spcies of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 105-106.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between July 1979 and April 1981. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 464-465.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the meeting, 6 August 1982, Boston, Massachusetts. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 577-578.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the Meeting, 5 September 1986, Manchester, United Kingdom. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 85-87.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta psychrophila Miyazaki et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MO-SPC1=JCM 17280=DSM 23951.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: AB598279.
Etymology: Gr. adj. psychros, cold; Gr. adj. philos, loving; N.L. fem. adj. psychrophila, cold-loving.
Source: Environmental - marine.
Valid publication: MIYAZAKI, M., SAKAI, S., YAMANAKA, Y., SAITO, Y., TAKAI, K. and IMACHI, H. 2014. Spirochaeta psychrophila sp. nov., a psychrophilic spirochaete isolated from subseafloor sediment, and emended description of the genus Spirochaeta. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 2798-2804.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta sinaica Dubinina et al. 2015, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SL=DSM 14994=UNIQEM U 783.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KC261846.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. sinaica, pertaining to the Sinai shore, from where the type strain was isolated.
Source: Environmental - saline lake.
Valid publication: DUBININA, G., GRABOVICH, M., LESHCHEVA, N., GRONOW, S., GAVRISH, E. and AKIMOV, V. 2015. Spirochaeta sinaica sp. nov., a halophilic spirochaete isolated from a cyanobacterial mat. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 65, 3872-3877.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta smaragdinae Magot et al. 1998, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SEBR 4228 = DSM 11293 = JCM 15392.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP002116 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. masc. n. smaragdus, a green precious stone, emerald; L. adj. smaragdinus -a -um, of or belonging to the emerald; N.L. gen. n. smaragdinae, intended to mean from Emerald, the name of the oilfield in Congo, Central Africa.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 67. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1083-1084.
Effective publication: MAGOT (M.), FARDEAU (M.L.), ARNAULD (O.), LANAU (C.), OLLIVIER (B.), THOMAS (P.) and PATEL (B.K.C.): Spirochaeta smaragdinae sp. nov., a new mesophilic strictly anaerobic spirochete from an oil field. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1997, 155, 185-191.
Validation List no. 67 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens Vishnuvardhan Reddy et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) JC133 = KCTC 15220 = NBRC 109056.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HE806187.
Etymology: N.L. n. sphaeroplastum, spheroplast; L. part. adj. genens, producing; N.L. part. adj. sphaeroplastigenens, spheroplast-producing.
Valid publication: VISHNUVARDHAN REDDY (S.), ASPANA (S.), TUSHAR (D.L.), SASIKALA (C.) and RAMANA (V.): Spirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens sp. nov., a halo-alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic spirochaete isolated from soda lake Lonar. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 2223-2228.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alkalispirochaeta sphaeroplastigenens (Reddy et al. 2013) Sravanthi et al. 2016, comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta stenostreptum corrig. Zuelzer 1912, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25083= DSM 2028 = JCM 16534.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733664.
Etymology: Gr. adj. stenos -ê -on, narrow; Gr. adj. streptos, pliant, bent; N.L. fem. adj. stenostrepta, tightly coiled.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ZUELZER (M.): Über Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg und deren Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen. Archiv fur Protistenkunde, 1912, 24, 1-59.

Note: Canale-Parola requested that Spirochaeta stenostrepta replace ¤ Spirochaeta plicatilis as the type species of the genus Spirochaeta, because no culture of Spirochaeta plicatilis exists. Rule 18a of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) does permit a description to serve in place of a type culture. Therefore the Judicial Commission voted to deny the action proposed.
References:
1 CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Proposal that Spirochaeta stenostrepta Zuelzer replace Spirochaeta plicatilis Ehrenberg as the type spcies of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 105-106.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between July 1979 and April 1981. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1982, 32, 464-465.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the meeting, 6 August 1982, Boston, Massachusetts. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 577-578.
Original article in IJSEM Online
4 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY: Minutes of the Meeting, 5 September 1986, Manchester, United Kingdom. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 85-87.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Treponema stenostrepta (Zuelzer 1912) Abt, Göker and Klenk 2013, comb. nov.

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Spirochaeta thermophila Aksenova et al. 1992, sp. nov. 
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Z-1203 = ATCC 700085= DSM 6578.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR749903, CP002903 (complete genome).
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. fem. adj. phila (from Gr. fem. adj. philê) loving; N.L. fem. adj. thermophila, heat-loving.
Valid publication: AKSENOVA (H.Y.), RAINEY (F.A.), JANSSEN (P.H.), ZAVARZIN (G.A.) and MORGAN (H.W.): Spirochaeta thermophila sp. nov., an obligately anaerobic, polysaccharolytic, extremely thermophilic bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 175-177.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Spirochaeta zuelzerae (ex Veldkamp 1960) Canale-Parola 1980, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 19044= DSM 1903.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR749928 (type strain DSM 1903, clone 1), FR749929 (type strain DSM 1903, clone 2).
Synonyms: "Treponema zuelzerae" Veldkamp 1960, "Spirochaeta zuelzerae" (Veldkamp 1960) Canale-Parola, Udris and Mandel 1968.
Etymology: N.L. fem. gen. n. zuelzerae, of Zuelzer; named after Margarete Zuelzer, who described the occurrence of morphologically diverse spirochetes in sulfide-containing environments.
Valid publication: CANALE-PAROLA (E.): Revival of the names Spirochaeta litoralis, Spirochaeta zuelzerae, and Spirochaeta aurantia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 594.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Treponema zuelzerae [(ex Veldkamp 1960) Canale-Parola 1980] Abt, Göker and Klenk 2013, comb. nov.

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