Title

Genus Proteus

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 8
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Proteus Hauser 1885, genus. (Type genus of the tribe ¤ Proteeae Castellani and Chalmers 1919 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Proteus vulgaris Hauser 1885 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonym: "Liquidobacterium" Orla-Jensen 1908.
Etymology: L. masc. n. Proteus, an ocean god able to change himself into different shapes.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: HAUSER (G.): Über Fäulnissbakterien und deren Beziehungen zur Septicämie. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Spaltpilze. Vogel, Leipzig, 1885.

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Proteus hauseri O'Hara et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 700826= CCUG 35386 = CDC 1732-80 = CIP 106868.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR733709.
Synonym: not "Proteus hauseri" Kauffmann 1954.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. hauseri, of Hauser, named to honour Gustav Hauser, the German microbiologist, who proposed the genus Proteus in 1885.
Valid publication: O'HARA (C.M.), BRENNER (F.W.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), HILL (B.C.), HOLMES (B.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.), HAWKEY (P.M.), PENNER (J.L.), MILLER (J.M.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Classification of Proteus vulgaris biogroup 3 with recognition of Proteus hauseri sp. nov., nom. rev. and unnamed Proteus genomospecies 4, 5 and 6. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 1869-1875.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: O'Hara et al. (2000) propose Proteus hauseri as a nomen revictum [Proteus hauseri (ex Kauffmann 1954) O'Hara et al. 2000, sp. nov., nom. rev.]. However, "Proteus hauseri" Kauffmann 1954, included Proteus mirabilis Hauser 1885 (Approved Lists 1980) and Proteus vulgaris Hauser 1885 (Approved Lists 1980). So, Proteus hauseri O'Hara et al. 2000 and "Proteus hauseri" Kauffmann 1954 are different taxa, and according to Rules 28a and 33c, Proteus hauseri O'Hara et al. 2000 is not a revived name.

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Proteus inconstans (Ornstein 1920) Shaw and Clarke 1955, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 9886= CCUG 6325 = CIP 82.90 = DSM 30120 = JCM 1673 = NCTC 10286.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ301684.
Synonyms: "Bacillus inconstans" Ornstein 1920, "Anaerogenic paracolon type 29911" Stuart et al. 1943, "Proteus stuartii Buttiaux et al. 1954, "Providencia inconstans" (Ornstein 1920) Ewing 1958, "Providencia inconstans" (Ornstein 1920) Ewing 1958.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. inconstans, changeable, inconstant, capricious.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 ORNSTEIN (M.): Zur Bakteriologie des Schmitz-bacillus. Zeitschrift fur Hygiene, 1920, 91, 152-178. 2 SHAW (C.) and CLARKE (P.H.): Biochemical classification of Proteus and Providence cultures. Journal of General Microbiology, 1955, 13, 155-161.

Note: On the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Amended Edition) this nomenclatural name is incorrectly cited as Proteus inconstans (Orstein (sic) 1920) Shaw and Clarke 1955.

= ¤ Providencia alcalifaciens (de Salles Gomes 1944) Ewing 1962 (Approved Lists 1980).

Notes:
1 Proteus inconstans (Ornstein 1920) Shaw and Clarke 1955 (Approved Lists 1980) and ¤ Providencia alcalifaciens (de Salles Gomes 1944) Ewing 1962 (Approved Lists 1980) have the same type strain and therefore are homotypic synonyms [Rules 24a and 24b (1)].
2 The name Proteus inconstans is not in current usage. According to Brenner et al. [1] and to Hickman-Brenner et al. [2], (i) the strains gas -, inositol + of Proteus inconstans should be regarded as synonym of ¤ Providencia stuartii (Buttiaux et al. 1954) Ewing 1962; (ii) the strains gas +, inositol -, adonitol + should be regarded as synonym of ¤ Providencia alcalifaciens (de Salles Gomes 1944) Ewing 1962; and (iii) the strains glucose +, inositol -, adonitol - should be regarded as synonym of ¤ Providencia rustigianii Hickman-Brenner et al. 1983.
References:
1 BRENNER (D.J.), FARMER III (J.J.), FANNING (G.R.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), KLYKKEN (P.), WATHEN (H.G.), HICKMAN (F.W.) and EWING (W.H.): Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness of Proteus and Providencia species. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1978, 28, 269-282.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 HICKMAN-BRENNER (F.W.), FARMER III (J.J.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Providencia rustigianii: a new species in the family Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as Providencia alcalifaciens biogroup 3. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1983, 17, 1057-1060.
Original article Online

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Proteus mirabilis Hauser 1885, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 29906= CCUG 26767 = CIP 103181 = DSM 4479 = JCM 1669 = LMG 3257 = NCTC 11938.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ885256.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. mirabilis, wonderful, surprising.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: HAUSER (G.): Über Fäulnisbakterien und deren Beziehungen zur Septicämie. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Spaltpilze. Vogel, Leipzig, 1885, p. 34.

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Proteus morganii (Winslow et al. 1919) Yale 1939, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25830= ATCC 8076H = CCUG 6328 = CIP 103763 = CIP A231 = DSM 30164 = JCM 1672 = LMG 7874 = NBRC 3848 = NCCB 73065 = NCTC 235.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ301681.
Synonyms: "Organism No. 1" Morgan 1906, "Bacillus morgani" (sic) Winslow et al. 1919, "Salmonella morgani" (sic) (Winslow et al. 1919) Castellani and Chalmers 1919.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. morganii, of Morgan; named after H. de R. Morgan, a British bacteriologist who first studied the organism.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 WINSLOW (C.E.A.), KLIGLER (I.J.) and ROTHBERG (W.): Studies on the classification of the colon-typhoid group of bacteria with special reference to their fermentative reactions. Journal of Bacteriology, 1919, 4, 429-503. 2 YALE (M.W.): Genus VI. Proteus Hauser. In: D.H. BERGEY, R.S. BREED, E.G.D. MURRAY and A.P. HITCHENS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 5th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1939, pp. 430-436.

= ¤ Morganella morganii (Winslow et al. 1919) Fulton 1943 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: Proteus morganii (Winslow et al. 1919) Yale 1939 (Approved Lists 1980) and Morganella morganii (Winslow et al. 1919) Fulton 1943 (Approved Lists 1980) have the same type strain and therefore are homotypic synonyms [Rules 24a and 24b (1)].

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Proteus myxofaciens Cosenza and Podgwaite 1966, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 19692= BCRC 12222 = CCRC 12222 = CCUG 18769 = CIP 106872 = DSM 4482 = JCM 1670 = LMG 7876 = NCIMB 13273.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ885259.
Etymology: Gr. n. muxa, mucus slime; L. part. adj. faciens, producing; N.L. part. adj. mycofaciens, slime-producing (bacteria).
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: COSENZA (B.J.) and PODGWAITE (J.D.): A new species of Proteus isolated from larvae of the gypsy moth Porthetria dispar (L.). Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology, 1966, 32, 187-191.

¤ Cosenzaea myxofaciens (Cosenza and Podgwaite 1966) Giammanco et al. 2011, comb. nov.

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Proteus penneri Hickman et al. 1983, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 33519= CCUG 15722 = CDC 1808-73 = CIP 103030 = DSM 4544 = JCM 3948 = NCTC 12737.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ885258.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. penneri, of Penner, named to honor John L. Penner, a Canadian microbiologist who has made many contributions to studies of the three genera in the tribe Proteeae.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 10. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 438-440.
Effective publication: HICKMAN (F.W.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), FARMER III (J.J.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Identification of Proteus penneri sp. nov., formerly known as Proteus vulgaris indole negative or as Proteus vulgaris biogroup 1. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1982, 15, 1097-1102.
Validation List no. 10 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The name Proteus penneri was inadvertently omitted from Validation List no. 10. This name is to be regarded as having been validly published in List no. 10 (April 1983).
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 673.

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Proteus rettgeri (Hadley et al. 1918) Rustigian and Stuart 1943, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 29944= CCUG 14804 = CIP 103182 = DSM 4542 = JCM 1675 = LMG 3259 = NCTC 11801.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM040492.
Synonyms: "Bacterium rettgeri" Hadley et al. 1918, "Shigella rettgeri" (Hadley et al. 1918) Weldin 1927.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. rettgeri, of Rettger, named after L.F. Rettger, the American bacteriologist who first isolated the organism in 1904.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 HADLEY (P.), ELKINS (M.W.) and CALDWELL (D.W.): The colon-typhoid intermediates as causative agents of disease in birds: 1. The paratyphoid bacteria. Bulletin of the Rhode Island Agricultural Experimental Station, 1918, 174, 1-216. 2 RUSTIGIAN (R.) and STUART (C.A.): Taxonomic relationships in the genus Proteus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1943, 53, 241-243.

= ¤ Providencia rettgeri (Hadley et al. 1918) Brenner et al. 1978 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: Proteus rettgeri (Hadley et al. 1918) Rustigian and Stuart 1943 (Approved Lists 1980) and Providencia rettgeri (Hadley et al. 1918) Brenner et al. 1978 (Approved Lists 1980) have the same type strain and therefore are homotypic synonyms [Rules 24a and 24b (1)].

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Proteus vulgaris Hauser 1885, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 13315= HAMBI 91 = IFO (now NBRC) 3851 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 4175 = NCTC 4175 = NRRL B-3405.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ885262.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. vulgaris, usual, common.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: HAUSER (G.): Über Fäulnisbakterien und deren Beziehungen zur Septicämie. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie der Spaltpilze. Vogel, Leipzig, 1885, p. 12.

Proteus vulgaris Hauser 1885 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Judicial Commission 1999.
New type strain: strain PR 1 = ATCC 29905= CCUG 35382 = CCUG 39507 = CDC PR1 = CIP 104989 = LMG 16708 = NCTC 13145.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ885257 (sequenced directly from ATCC 29905.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. vulgaris, usual, common.
References:
1 BRENNER (D.J.), HICKMAN-BRENNER (F.W.), HOLMES (B.), HAWKEY (P.M.), PENNER (J.L.), GRIMONT (P.A.D.) and O'HARA (C.M.): Replacement of NCTC 4175, the current type strain of Proteus vulgaris, with ATCC 29905 Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 870-871.
Original article in IJSEM Online
Original article by Brenner et al. 1995 in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL OPINION 70: Replacement of strain NCTC 4175, since 1963 the neotype strain of Proteus vulgaris, with strain ATCC 29905- Opinion 70. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 1949.
Opinion 70 in IJSEM Online

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