Title


Sign up here for LPSN updates!


Genus Micrococcus

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 17
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Micrococcus Cohn 1872, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Micrococcales Prévot 1940 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the suborder ¤ Micrococcineae Stackebrandt et al. 1997; type genus of the family ¤ Micrococcaceae Pribram 1929 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the tribe ¤ Micrococceae Prévot 1961 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. adj. mikros, small, little; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. masc. n. Micrococcus, small coccus.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: COHN (F.): Untersuchungen über Bakterien. Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 1872, 1, 127-224.

Micrococcus Cohn 1872 emend. Stackebrandt et al. 1995.
Type species: ¤ Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. adj. mikros, small, little; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. masc. n. Micrococcus, small coccus.
Reference: STACKEBRANDT (E.), KOCH (C.), GVOZDIAK (O.) and SCHUMANN (P.): Taxonomic dissection of the genus Micrococcus: Kocuria gen. nov., Nesterenkonia gen. nov., Kytococcus gen. nov., Dermacoccus gen. nov., and Micrococcus Cohn 1872 gen. emend. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 682-692.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Micrococcus Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wieser et al. 2002.
Type species: ¤ Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wieser et al. 2002.
Etymology: Gr. adj. mikros, small, little; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. masc. n. Micrococcus, small coccus.
Reference: WIESER (M.), DENNER (E.B.M.), KÄMPFER (P.), SCHUMANN (P.), TINDALL (B.), STEINER (U.), VYBIRAL (D.), LUBITZ (W.), MASZENAN (A.M.), PATEL (B.K.C.), SEVIOUR (R.J.), RADAX (C.) and BUSSE (H.J.): Emended descriptions of the genus Micrococcus, Micrococcus luteus (Cohn 1872) and Micrococcus lylae (Kloos et al. 1974). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 629-637.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus agilis Ali-Cohen 1889, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 966= DSM 20550 = CCM 2390 = CIP 81.67 = IFO (now NBRC) 15319 = JCM 2584 = LMG 17244 = VKM B-1973.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80748.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. agilis, agile.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ALI-COHEN (C.H.): Eigenbewegung bei Mikrokokken. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung I, 1889, 6, 33-36.

¤ Arthrobacter agilis (Ali-Cohen 1889) Koch et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus aloeverae Prakash et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) AE-6=MCC 2184=DSM 27472.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: KF524364.
Etymology: N.L. n. Aloe vera, a taxonomic name of a plant; N.L.aloeverae, of Aloe vera, the plant from which the bacterium was isolated.
Source: Plant.
Valid publication: PRAKASH, O., NIMONKAR, Y., MUNOT, H., SHARMA, A., VEMULURI, V. R., CHAVADAR, M. S. and SHOUCHE, Y. S. 2014. Description of Micrococcus aloeverae sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from Aloe vera. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 3427-3433.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus antarcticus Liu et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) T2 = AS 1.2372 = JCM 11467.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ005932.
Etymology: L. masc. adj.antarcticus, southern, referring to the Antarctic habitat of the bacterium.
Valid publication: LIU (H.), XU (Y.), MA (Y.) and ZHOU (P.): Characterization of Micrococcus antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium from Antarctica. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 715-719.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus cohnii Rieser et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) WS4601 = DSM 23974 = LMG 26183.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR832424.
Etymology: N.L. masc. gen. n. cohnii, of Cohn; named after the German botanist and bacteriologist Ferdinand Cohn, who described the genus Micrococcus in 1872.
Valid publication: RIESER (G.), SCHERER (S.) and WENNING (M.): Micrococcus cohnii sp. nov., isolated from the air in a medical practice. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 80-85.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus endophyticus Chen et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) YIM 56238 = DSM 17945 = JCM 16951 = KCTC 19156.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU005372.
Etymology: Gr. pref. endo-, within; Gr. neutr. n. phyton, plant; L. masc. suff. -icus, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. masc. adj. endophyticus, within plant, pertaining to the original isolation from plant tissues.
Valid publication: CHEN (H.H.), ZHAO (G.Z.), PARK (D.J.), ZHANG (Y.Q.), XU (L.H.), LEE (J.C.), KIM (C.J.) and LI (W.J.): Micrococcus endophyticus sp. nov., isolated from surface-sterilized Aquilaria sinensis roots. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1070-1075.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus flavus Liu et al. 2007, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) LW4 = CGMCC 1.5361 = JCM 14000.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ491453.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. flavus, yellow, pertaining to the yellow colour of the colonies.
Valid publication: LIU (X.Y.), WANG (B.J.), JIANG (C.Y.) and LIU (S.J.): Micrococcus flavus sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge in a bioreactor. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 66-69.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus halobius Onishi and Kamekura 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 21727= CCM 2591 = CCUG 38889 = CIP 81.68 = DSM 20541 = IFO (now NBRC) 15353 = JCM 11483 = VKM B-1317.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80747.
Etymology: Gr. n. hals halos, salt; Gr. n. bios, life; N.L. masc. adj. halobius, living on salt.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ONISHI (H.) and KAMEKURA (M.): Micrococcus halobius sp. n. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1972, 22, 233-236.

¤ Nesterenkonia halobia (Onishi and Kamekura 1972) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus kristinae Kloos et al. 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27570= CCM 2690 = CCUG 33026 = CIP 81.69 = DSM 20032 = IEGM 390 = IFO (now NBRC) 15354 = JCM 7237 = LMG 14215 = NCTC 11038 = NRRL B-14835 = VKM B-1811.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80749.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. kristinae, of Kristin; named for Kristin Holding, from whom this organism was originally isolated.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: KLOOS (W.E.), TORNABENE (T.G.) and SCHLEIFER (K.H.): Isolation and characterization of micrococci from human skin, including two new species: Micrococcus lylae and Micrococcus kristinae. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 79-101.

¤ Kocuria kristinae (Kloos et al. 1974) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus lactis Chittpurna et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DW152 = DSM 23694 = MTCC10523.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN673681.
Etymology: L. gen. n. lactis, of/from milk, pertaining to the isolation source ‘dairy waste’.
Valid publication: GHITTPURNA, SINGH (P.K.), VERMA (D.), PINNAKA (A.K.), MAYILRAJ (S.) and KORPOLE (S.): Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2832-2836.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Neomicrococcus lactis (Chittpurna et al. 2011) Prakash et al. 2015, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 4698= CCM 169 = CCUG 5858 = CIP A270 = DSM 20030 = HAMBI 26 = HAMBI 1399 = IEGM 391 = IFO (now NBRC) 3333 = JCM 1464 = LMG 4050 = NCCB 78001 = NCTC 2665 = NRRL B-287 = VKM B-1314.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ536198, CP001628 (complete genome).
Synonyms: "Bacteridium luteum" Schroeter 1872, "Sarcina lutea" (Schroeter 1872) Schroeter 1886, "Micrococcus lysodeikticus" Fleming 1933, not "Micrococcus luteus" Lehmann and Neumann 1896.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. luteus, golden yellow.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SCHROETER (J.): Über einige durch Bacterien gebildete Pigmente, 1872. In: F. COHN (ed.), Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, J.U. Kern's Verlag, Breslau, 1875, pp. 109-126.

Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wieser et al. 2002.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 4698= CCM 169 = CCUG 5858 = CIP A270 = DSM 20030 = HAMBI 26 = HAMBI 1399 = IEGM 391 = IFO (now NBRC) 3333 = JCM 1464 = LMG 4050 = NCCB 78001 = NCTC 2665 = NRRL B-287 = VKM B-1314.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ536198, CP001628 (complete genome).
Synonyms: "Bacteridium luteum" Schroeter 1872, "Sarcina lutea" (Schroeter 1872) Schroeter 1886, "Micrococcus lysodeikticus" Fleming 1933, not "Micrococcus luteus" Lehmann and Neumann 1896.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. luteus, golden yellow.
Valid publication: WIESER (M.), DENNER (E.B.M.), KÄMPFER (P.), SCHUMANN (P.), TINDALL (B.), STEINER (U.), VYBIRAL (D.), LUBITZ (W.), MASZENAN (A.M.), PATEL (B.K.C.), SEVIOUR (R.J.), RADAX (C.) and BUSSE (H.J.): Emended descriptions of the genus Micrococcus, Micrococcus luteus (Cohn 1872) and Micrococcus lylae (Kloos et al. 1974). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 629-637.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The species Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter 1872) Cohn 1872 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wieser et al. 2002 can be divided into three biovars that are distinguished by several chemotaxonomic and biochemical traits: biovar I represented by the type strain of Micrococcus luteus; biovar II represented by strain D7 = DSM 14234 = CCM 4959; and biovar III represented by strain Ballarat = DSM 14235 = CCM 4960.
2 Strain ATCC 9341[= DSM 348 = FDA strain PCI 1001 = NCIMB 8553 (formerly NCIB 8553; formerly NCDO 758)], previously known as Micrococcus luteus, has been designated as a quality-control strain in a number of applications. It is also cited as the standard culture in several official methods and manuals, as well as the Code of Federal Regulations. A polyphasic study was performed in which molecular data were combined with cytochemical properties and physiological characteristics. The results clearly indicate that ATCC 9341is a member of the genus ¤ Kocuria. Thus, J.S. Tang and P.M. Gillevet, propose to reclassify ATCC 9341as ¤ Kocuria rhizophila. Since this culture is cited in many applications as an official standard strain, the authors hope to alert users by publishing the name change in the IJSEM. Manuals, procedures and documents need to be updated to reflect this change.
Reference: TANG (J.S.) and GILLEVET (P.M.): Reclassification of ATCC 9341from Micrococcus luteus to Kocuria rhizophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 995-997.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus lylae Kloos et al. 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27566= CCUG 33027 = CIP 81.70 = DSM 20315 = IEGM 392 = IFO (now NBRC) 15355 = JCM 11572 = LMG 14218 = NCTC 11037 = VKM B-1815.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80750.
Etymology: N. al; L. gen. fem. n. lylae, of Lyla, named for Lyla Kloos, by whom this organism was originally isolated.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: KLOOS (W.E.), TORNABENE (T.G.) and SCHLEIFER (K.H.): Isolation and characterization of micrococci from human skin, including two new species: Micrococcus lylae and Micrococcus kristinae. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 79-101.

Note: On the Approved Lists, the type strain ATCC 27566is erroneously cited as ATCC 17566.

Micrococcus lylae Kloos et al. 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Wieser et al. 2002.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27566= CCUG 33027 = CIP 81.70 = DSM 20315 = IEGM 392 = IFO (now NBRC) 15355 = JCM 11572 = LMG 14218 = NCTC 11037 = VKM B-1815.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X80750.
Etymology: N.L. gen. fem. n. lylae, of Lyla, named for Lyla Kloos, by whom this organism was originally isolated.
Reference: WIESER (M.), DENNER (E.B.M.), KÄMPFER (P.), SCHUMANN (P.), TINDALL (B.), STEINER (U.), VYBIRAL (D.), LUBITZ (W.), MASZENAN (A.M.), PATEL (B.K.C.), SEVIOUR (R.J.), RADAX (C.) and BUSSE (H.J.): Emended descriptions of the genus Micrococcus, Micrococcus luteus (Cohn 1872) and Micrococcus lylae (Kloos et al. 1974). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 629-637.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus nishinomiyaensis Oda 1935, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 29093= CCM 2140 = CCUG 33028 = CIP 81.71 = DSM 20448 = IEGM 393 = IFO (now NBRC) 15356 = JCM 11613 = LMG 14222 = NCTC 11039 = VKM B-1818.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X87757.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. nishinomiyaensis, of or belonging to Nishinomiya, a city in Japan.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ODA (M.): Microbiological studies on flora in washing water of saké brewery (Report No. 6). I. Microbiological studies on Miyamizu (Holy Water) (8). (9). Micrococcus and Actinomyces isolated from Miyamizu (in Japanese). Journal of Fermentation and Technology, 1935, 13, 1202-1228.

¤ Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis (Oda 1935) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus roseus Flügge 1886, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 186= CCM 679 = CCUG 4312 = CIP 71.15 = DSM 20447 = IEGM 394 = IFO (now NBRC) 3768 = JCM 11614 = LMG 14224 = NCTC 7523 = NRRL B-2977 = VKM B-1823.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X87756.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. roseus, rose-colored, rosy.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: FLÜGGE (C.): Die Mikroorganismen. F.C.W. Vogel, Leipzig, 1886.

¤ Kocuria rosea (Flügge 1886) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus sedentarius ZoBell and Upham 1944, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 14392= CCM 314 = CCUG 33030 = CIP 81.72 = DSM 20547 = JCM 11482 = LMG 14228 = NCTC 11040 = VKM B-1316.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP001686 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. masc. adj. sedentarius, of or belonging to sitting, sitting, sedentary.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: ZOBELL (C.E.) and UPHAM (H.C.): A list of marine bacteria including descriptions of sixty new species. Bulletin Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California (Technical Series). 1944, 5, 239-292.

¤ Kytococcus sedentarius (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus terreus Zhang et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) V3M1 = CGMCC 1.7054 = JCM 17489 = NBRC 104258.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ423763.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. terreus, of earth.
Valid publication: ZHANG (J.Y.), LIU (X.Y.) and LIU (S.J.): Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. and Micrococcus terreus sp. nov., isolated from forest soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1897-1903.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image

Micrococcus varians Migula 1900, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 15306= CCM 884 = CCUG 35392 = CIP 81.73 = DSM 20033 = HAMBI 40 = HAMBI 1951 = IEGM 400 = IFO (now NBRC) 15358 = JCM 7238 = LMG 14231 = NCTC 7564 = VKM B-1827.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X87754.
Etymology: L. part. adj. varians, changing, varying.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: MIGULA (W.): System der Bakterien, Vol. 2, Gustav Fischer, Jena, 1900, pp. 1-1068.

¤ Kocuria varians (Migula 1900) Stackebrandt et al. 1995, comb. nov.

   image

Micrococcus yunnanensis Zhao et al. 2009, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) YIM 65004 = CCTCC AA 208060 = DSM 21948 = JCM 16547.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FJ214355.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. yunnanensis, of or belonging to Yunnan, a province of south-west China.
Valid publication: ZHAO (G.Z.), LI (J.), QIN (S.), ZHANG (Y.Q.), ZHU (W.Y.), JIANG (C.L.), XU (L.H.) and LI (W.J.): Micrococcus yunnanensis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from surface-sterilized Polyspora axillaris roots. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 2383-2387.
Original article in IJSEM Online

   image