Genus Methanobacterium

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 33
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Methanobacterium Kluyver and van Niel 1936, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Methanobacteriales Balch and Wolfe 1981; type genus of the family ¤ Methanobacteriaceae Barker 1956 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. n. methanum [from French n. méth(yle) and chemical suffix -ane], methane; N.L. pref. methano-, pertaining to methane; L. neut. n. bacterium, a rod; N.L. neut. n. Methanobacterium, methane (-producing) rod.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [KLUYVER (A.J.) and Van NIEL (C.B.): Prospects for a natural system of classification of bacteria. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1936, 94, 369-403.]

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Methanobacterium aarhusense Shlimon et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain H2-LR = ATCC BAA-828 = DSM 15219.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY386124.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. aarhusense, from Aarhus, a city on the east coast of Jutland, Denmark, where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: SHLIMON (A.G.), FRIEDRICH (M.W.), NIEMANN (H.), RAMSING (N.B.) and FINSTER (K.): Methanobacterium aarhusense sp. nov., a novel methanogen isolated from a marine sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 759-763.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium alcaliphilum Worakit et al. 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain WeN4 = ATCC 43379 = DSM 3387 = NBRC 105226 = OCM 11.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB496639.
Etymology: N.L. n. alcali (from Arabic article al, the; Arabic n. qaliy, ashes of saltwort), alcali; N.L. neut. adj. philum (from Gr. neut. adj. philon), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. alcaliphilum, liking alkaline environments.
Reference: WORAKIT (S.), BOONE (D.R.), MAH (R.A.), ABDEL-SAMIE (M.E.) and EL-HALWAGI (M.M.): Methanobacterium alcaliphilum sp. nov., an H2-utilizing methanogen that grows at high pH values. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 380-382.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium arbophilicum Zeikus and Henning 1975, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DH1 = ATCC 33747 = DSM 1125 = OCM 147.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY196665.
Etymology: L. n. arbor -oris, tree; N.L. neut. adj. philum (from Gr. neut. adj. philon), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. arboriphilicum (sic), tree-loving.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [ZEIKUS (J.G.) and HENNING (D.L.): Methanobacterium arbophilicum sp. nov. an obligate anaerobe isolated from wetwood of living trees. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology, 1975, 41, 543-552.]

¤ Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus corrig. (Zeikus and Henning 1975) Balch et al. 1981, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium arcticum Shcherbakova et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M2 = DSM 19844 = VKM B-2371.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ517520.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. arcticum, northern, arctic, from the Arctic, referring to the isolation of the type strain from Arctic permafrost.
Reference: SHCHERBAKOVA (V.), RIVKINA (E.), PECHERITSYNA (S.), LAURINAVICHIUS (K.), SUZINA (N.) and GILICHINSKY (D.): Methanobacterium arcticum sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon from Holocene Arctic permafrost. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 144-147.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium beijingense Ma et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 8-2 = CGMCC 1.5011 = DSM 15999.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY350742.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. beijingense, pertaining to Beijing, where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: MA (K.), LIU (X.) and DONG (X.): Methanobacterium beijingense sp. nov., a novel methanogen isolated from anaerobic digesters. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 325-329.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium bryantii Balch and Wolfe 1981, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M.o.H. = ATCC 33272 = DSM 863 = OCM 110 = VKM B-1629.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59124.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. bryantii, of Bryant; named for M.P. Bryant for his pioneering work on methanogens and for the separation and characterization of this organism from the “Methanobacillus omelianskii” syntrophic coculture.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 6. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 215-218. [BALCH (W.E.), FOX (G.E.), MAGRUM (L.J.), WOESE (C.R.) and WOLFE (R.S.): Methanogens: reevaluation of a unique biological group. Microbiol. Rev., 1979, 43, 260-296.]
Validation List no. 6 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Methanobacterium bryantii Balch and Wolfe 1981 emend. Judicial Commission 1992.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M.o.H. = ATCC 33272 = DSM 863 = OCM 110 = VKM B-1629.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59124.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. bryantii, of Bryant; named for M.P. Bryant for his pioneering work on methanogens and for the separation and characterization of this organism from the “Methanobacillus omelianskii” syntrophic coculture.
References:
1 BOONE (D.R.): Replacement of the type strain of Methanobacterium formicicum and reinstatement of Methanobacterium bryantii sp. nov. nom. rev. (ex Balch and Wolfe, 1981) with M.o.H. (DSM 863) as the type strain. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 172-173.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL OPINION 64: Designation of strain MF (DSM 1535) in place of strain M. o. H. (DSM 863) as the type strain of Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947, and designation of strain M. o. H. (DSM 863) as the type strain of Methanobacterium bryantii (Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese, and Wolfe 1979, 284) Boone 1987, 173. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 654.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between January 1985 and July 1993. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 177-178.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Methanobacterium bryantii Balch and Wolfe 1981 and Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947 (Approved Lists 1980) were inadvertently assigned the same type strain (M.o.H. = DSM 863) and Methanobacterium formicicum has priority. Methanobacterium bryantii is therefore a later homotypic synonym of Methanobacterium formicicum. Boone requests an opinion rejecting the type strain Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 863, replacing it with a neotype strain MF = DSM 1535 (see: ¤ Methanobacterium formicicum), and reinstatement of Methanobacterium bryantii with strain M.o.H. = DSM 863 as the holotype strain.

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Methanobacterium congolense Cuzin et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain C = DSM 7095 = OCM 786.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF233586.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. congolense, pertaining to Congo, where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: CUZIN (N.), OUATTARA (A.S.), LABAT (M.) and GARCIA (J.L.): Methanobacterium congolense sp. nov., from a methanogenic fermentation of cassava peel. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 489-493.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Cuzin et al. 2001, the type strain OCM 786 is cited OCM 779.

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Methanobacterium defluvii Kotelnikova et al. 1994, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ADZ = ATCC 51443 = DSM 7466 = OCM 570 = VKM B-1962.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X99046.
Etymology: L. gen. n. defluvii, of sewage.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 48. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 182-183. [KOTELNIKOVA (S.V.), OBRAZTSOVA (A.Y.), GONGADZE (G.M.) and LAURINAVICHIUS (K.S.): Methanobacterium thermoflexum sp. nov. and Methanobacterium defluvii sp. nov., thermophilic rodshaped methanogens isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1993, 16, 427-435.]
Validation List no. 48 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In the January 2000 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Wasserfallen et al. [1] proposed to transfer Methanobacterium defluvii Kotelnikova et al. 1994 into the new genus ¤ Methanothermobacter as "Methanothermobacter defluvii" (Kotelnikova et al. 1994) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov. However, this new combination was not described according to the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), and it was not cited in the Notification List published in the March 2000 issue of the IJSEM [2]. Later, Methanothermobacter defluvii was listed in the second edition of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [3] and it was validly published in Validation List no. 85 (Cf. infra) [4].
References:
1 WASSERFALLEN (A.), NÖLLING (J.), PFISTER (P.), REEVE (J.) and CONWAY de MACARIO (E.): Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov. and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 43-53.
Original article by Wasserfallen et al. in IJSEM Online
2 Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 50, part 1, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 425-426.
Notification List in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)
3 BOONE (D.R.): Genus IV. Methanothermobacter Wasserfallen, Nölling, Pfister, Reeve and Conway de Macario 2000, 51VP. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 230-233.
4 VALIDATION LIST no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)

¤ Methanothermobacter defluvii (Kotelnikova et al. 1994) Boone 2002, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium espanolae Patel et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain GP9 = DSM 5982 = NRC 5912 = OCM 178.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF095260.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. espanolae, of Espanola, Ontario, Canada.
Reference: PATEL (G.B.), SPROTT (G.D.) and FEIN (J.E.): Isolation and characterization of Methanobacterium espanolae sp. nov., a mesophilic, moderately acidiphilic methanogen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 12-18.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The epithet espanolae has been corrected to espanolense in the volume one of the second edition of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (published on 2001). However, since November 2000, such a correction is not allowed by Rule 61.
Reference: DE VOS (P.) and TRÜPER (H.G.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. IXth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 14, 15 and 18 August 1999, Sydney, Australia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2239-2244.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium ferruginis Mori and Harayama 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Mic6c05 = DSM 21974 = NBRC 105197.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB542743.
Etymology: L. n. ferrugo -inis, iron rust; L. gen. n. ferruginis, of iron rust.
Reference: MORI (K.) and HARAYAMA (S.): Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., mesophilic methanogens isolated from salty environments. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 138-143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium flexile Zhu et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain GH = AS 1.5092 = JCM 15416.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU333914.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. flexile, pliable, flexile.
Reference: ZHU (J.), LIU (X.) and DONG (X.): Methanobacterium movens sp. nov. and Methanobacterium flexile sp. nov., isolated from lake sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2974-2978.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M. o. H. = DSM 863.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59124.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum formicum, formic acid; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. formicicum, pertaining to formic acid.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SCHNELLEN (C.G.T.P.): Onderzoekingen over de methaangisting. Thesis, Delft, 1947, pp. 1-137.]

Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Judicial Commission 1992.
Neotype strain: strain MF = ATCC 33274 = DSM 1535 = JCM 10132 = NBRC 100475 = OCM 55 = VKM B-1957.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF169245.
Etymology: N.L. n. acidum formicum, formic acid; L. neut. suff. -icum, suffix used with the sense of pertaining to; N.L. neut. adj. formicicum, pertaining to formic acid.
References:
1 BOONE (D.R.): Replacement of the type strain of Methanobacterium formicicum and reinstatement of Methanobacterium bryantii sp. nov. nom. rev. (ex Balch and Wolfe, 1981) with M.o.H. (DSM 863) as the type strain. Request for an opinion. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 172-173.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL OPINION 64: Designation of strain MF (DSM 1535) in place of strain M. o. H. (DSM 863) as the type strain of Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947, and designation of strain M. o. H. (DSM 863) as the type strain of Methanobacterium bryantii (Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese, and Wolfe 1979, 284) Boone 1987, 173. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 654.
Original article in IJSEM Online
3 WAYNE (L.G.): Actions of the Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology on requests for opinions published between January 1985 and July 1993. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 177-178.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Methanobacterium formicicum Schnellen 1947 (Approved Lists 1980) and Methanobacterium bryantii Balch and Wolfe 1981 were inadvertently assigned the same type strain (M.o.H. = DSM 863) and Methanobacterium formicicum has priority. Methanobacterium formicicum is therefore an earlier homotypic synonym of ¤ Methanobacterium bryantii. Boone requests an opinion rejecting the type strain Methanobacterium formicicum DSM 863, replacing it with a neotype strain MF = DSM 1535, and reinstatement of Methanobacterium bryantii with strain M.o.H. = DSM 863 as the holotype strain (see: ¤ Methanobacterium bryantii).

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Methanobacterium ivanovii Jain et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Ivanov = DSM 2611 = OCM 140 = VKM B-1634.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF095261.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ivanovii, of Ivanov, after the Russian scientist M.V. Ivanov for his pioneering interest in environmental biogeochemistry and microbial methanogenesis in deep subsurface environments.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 24. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 136-137. [JAIN (M.K.), THOMPSON (T.E.), CONWAY DE MACARIO (E.) and ZEIKUS (J.G.): Speciation of Methanobacterium strain Ivanov as Methanobacterium ivanovii, sp. nov. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1987, 9, 77-82.]
Validation List no. 24 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Methanobacterium kanagiense Kitamura et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 169 = DSM 22026 = JCM 15797.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB368917.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. kanagiense, of or pertaining to Kanagi, Aomori, Japan, where the organism was isolated.
Reference: KITAMURA (K.), FUJITA (T.), AKADA (S.) and TONOUCHI (A.): Methanobacterium kanagiense sp. nov., a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, isolated from rice-field soil. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1246-1252.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium lacus Borrel et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 17A1 = DSM 24406 = JCM 17760.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HQ110085.
Etymology: L. gen. n. lacus, of a lake, indicating the site of isolation.
Reference: BORREL (G.), JOBLIN (K.), GUEDON (A.), COLOMBET (J.), TARDY (V.), LEHOURS (A.C.) and FONTY (G.): Methanobacterium lacus sp. nov., isolated from the profundal sediment of a freshwater meromictic lake. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1625-1629.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium mobile Paynter and Hungate 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain BP = ATCC 35094 = DSM 1539 = JCM 10551.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M59142.
Synonym: "Methanobacterium mobilis" (sic) Paynter and Hungate 1968.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. mobile, motile, movable.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PAYNTER (M.J.B.) and HUNGATE (R.E.): Characterization of Methanobacterium mobilis sp. n., isolated from the bovine rumen. Journal of Bacteriology, 1968, 95, 1943-1951.]

¤ Methanomicrobium mobile (Paynter and Hungate 1968) Balch and Wolfe 1981, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium movens Zhu et al. 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain TS-2 = AS 1.5093 = JCM 15415.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU366499.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. movens (from L. v. moveo), movable.
Reference: ZHU (J.), LIU (X.) and DONG (X.): Methanobacterium movens sp. nov. and Methanobacterium flexile sp. nov., isolated from lake sediment. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2974-2978.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium movilense Schirmack et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) MC-20=DSM 26032=JCM 18470.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: JF812256.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: N/A.
Etymology: N.L. neut. adj. movilense, of Movile, as a reference to Movile Cave, Romania, the source of the type strain.
Source: Environmental - freshwater.
Reference: SCHIRMACK, J., MANGELSDORF, K., GANZERT, L., SAND, W., HILLEBRAND-VOICULESCU, A. and WAGNER, D. 2014. Methanobacterium movilense sp. nov., a hydrogenotrophic, secondary-alcohol-utilizing methanogen from the anoxic sediment of a subsurface lake. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 522-527.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium oryzae Joulian et al. 2000, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain FPi = DSM 11106.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF028690.
Etymology: L. gen. n. oryzae, of rice.
Reference: JOULIAN (C.), PATEL (B.K.C.), OLLIVIER (B.), GARCIA (J.L.) and ROGER (P.A.): Methanobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a novel methanogenic rod isolated from a Philippines ricefield. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 525-528.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium paludis Cadillo-Quiroz et al. 2014, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) SWAN1=DSM 25820=JCM 18151.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: CP002772.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: N/A.
Etymology: L. gen. n. paludis, of a marsh.
Source: Environmental.
Valid publication: CADILLO-QUIROZ, H., BRÄUER, S. L., GOODSON, N., YAVITT, J. B. and ZINDER, S. H. 2014. Methanobacterium paludis sp. nov. and a novel strain of Methanobacterium lacus isolated from northern peatlands. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 64, 1473-1480.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium palustre Zellner et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain F = DSM 3108 = OCM 238.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF093061.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. palustre, marshy, swampy, indicating its occurrence in a muddy environment.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 35. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 470-471. [ZELLNER (G.), BLEICHER (K.), BRAUN (E.), KNEIFEL (H.), TINDALL (B.J.), CONWAY DE MACARIO (E.) and WINTER (J.): Characterization of a new mesophilic, secondary alcohol-utilizing methanogen, Methanobacterium palustre spec. nov. from a peat bog. Arch. Microbiol., 1989, 151, 1-9.]
Validation List no. 35 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Methanobacterium petrolearium Mori and Harayama 2011, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Mic5c12 = DSM 22353 = NBRC 105198.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB542742.
Etymology: L. n. petra, rock; L. adj. olearius -a -um, related to oil; N.L. neut. adj. petrolearium, related to mineral oil.
Reference: MORI (K.) and HARAYAMA (S.): Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., mesophilic methanogens isolated from salty environments. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 138-143.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium ruminantium Smith and Hungate 1958, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M1 = ATCC 35063 = DSM 1093 = OCM 146.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY196666, CP001719 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. part. adj. ruminans -antis, ruminating; N.L. pl. gen. n. ruminantium, of ruminants.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [SMITH (P.H.) and HUNGATE (R.E.): Isolation and characterization of Methanobacterium ruminantium n. sp. Journal of Bacteriology, 1958, 75, 713-718.]

¤ Methanobrevibacter ruminantium (Smith and Hungate 1958) Balch and Wolfe 1981, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium subterraneum Kotelnikova et al. 1998, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain A8p = ATCC 700657 = DSM 11074.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X99044.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. subterraneum, underground, below the earth/soil surface.
Reference: KOTELNIKOVA (S.), MACARIO (A.J.L.) and PEDERSEN (K.): Methanobacterium subterraneum sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic, eurythermic and halotolerant methanogen isolated from deep granitic groundwater. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 357-367.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: On the contents of the April 1998 issue of the Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., this nomenclatural name is erroneously cited as Methanobacterium subterranium (sic).

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Methanobacterium thermaggregans corrig. Blotevogel and Fischer 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 43168 = DSM 3266 = OCM 141 = VKM B-1959.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF095264.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; L. part. adj. aggregans, aggregating, clumping; N.L. part. adj. thermoaggregans, thermophilic and aggregate-forming.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222. [BLOTEVOGEL (K.) and FISCHER (U.): Isolation and characterization of a new thermophilic and autotrophic methane producing bacterium: Methanobacterium thermoaggregans spec. nov. Arch. Microbiol., 1985, 142, 218-222.]
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Notes:
1 The original spelling of the specific epithet, thermoaggregans (sic), has been corrected by Boone and Mah 1989.
Reference: BOONE (D.R.) and MAH (R.A.): Genus I. Methanobacterium Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 399AL, emend. Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese and Wolfe 1979, 284. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1989, pp. 2175-2177.
2 The type strain of Methanobacterium thermaggregans corrig. Blotevogel and Fischer 1988 is not a clone and the data from the reported test are difficult to interpret.
Reference: BOONE (D.R.) and MAH (R.A.): Genus I. Methanobacterium Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 399AL, emend. Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese and Wolfe 1979, 284. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1989, pp. 2175-2177.
3 The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain shows an unexpected affiliation with the genus ¤ Methanothermobacter (99.92% similarity against ¤ Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus).
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Methanobacterium thermalcaliphilum corrig. Blotevogel et al. 1988, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain AC60 = ATCC 43169 = DSM 3267.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. n. alcali (from Arabic article al, the; Arabic n. qaliy, ashes of saltwort), alcali; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermoalcaliphilum, heat and alkali loving.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 25. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38, 220-222. [BLOTEVOGEL (K.), FISCHER (U.), MOCHA (M.) and JANNSEN (S.): Methanobacterium thermoalcaliphilum spec. nov., a new moderately alkaliphilic and thermophilic autotrophic methanogen. Arch. Microbiol., 1985, 142, 211-217.]
Validation List no. 25 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, thermoalcaliphilum (sic), has been corrected by Boone and Mah 1989.
Reference: BOONE (D.R.) and MAH (R.A.): Genus I. Methanobacterium Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 399AL, emend. Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese and Wolfe 1979, 284. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1989, pp. 2175-2177.

¤ Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Kotelnikova et al. 1993, Methanobacterium thermalcaliphilum corrig. Blotevogel et al. 1988 is a later heterotypic synonym of Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: KOTELNIKOVA (S.V.), OBRAZTSOVA (A.Y.), BLOTEVOGEL (K.H.) and POPOV (I.N.): Taxonomic analysis of thermophilic strains of the genus Methanobacterium: reclassification of Methanobacterium thermoalcaliphilum as a synonym of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 591-596.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Zeikus and Wolfe 1972) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ΔH = ATCC 29096 = DSM 1053 = JCM 10044 = NBRC 100330 = OCM 143 = VKM B-1908.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY196660.
Synonym: "Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicus" (sic) Zeikus and Wolfe 1972.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. pref. auto, self; Gr. neut. adj. trophikon, nursing, tending; N.L. neut. adj. thermautotrophicum, thermophilic and autotrophic.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [ZEIKUS (J.G.) and WOLFE (R.S.): Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicus sp. n., an anaerobic, autotrophic, extreme thermophile. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 109, 707-713.]

Note: The original spelling of the specific epithet, thermoautotrophicum (sic), has been corrected by Boone and Mah 1989.
Reference: BOONE (D.R.) and MAH (R.A.): Genus I. Methanobacterium Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 399AL, emend. Balch and Wolfe in Balch, Fox, Magrum, Woese and Wolfe 1979, 284. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1989, pp. 2175-2177.

Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Touzel et al. 1992.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ΔH = ATCC 29096 = DSM 1053 = JCM 10044 = OCM 143 = VKM B-1908.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY196660.
Synonym: "Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicus" (sic) Zeikus and Wolfe 1972.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; Gr. pref. auto, self; Gr. neut. adj. trophikon, nursing, tending; N.L. neut. adj. thermautotrophicum, thermophilic and autotrophic.
Reference: TOUZEL (J.P.), CONWAY DE MACARIO (E.), NÖLLING (J.), DE VOS (W.M.), ZHILINA (T.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): DNA relatedness among some thermophilic members of the genus Methanobacterium: emendation of the species Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and rejection of Methanobacterium thermoformicicum as a synonym of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 408-411.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 According to Touzel et al. 1992, Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Touzel et al. 1992 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Methanobacterium thermoformicicum Zhilina and Ilarionov 1986.
Reference: TOUZEL (J.P.), CONWAY DE MACARIO (E.), NÖLLING (J.), DE VOS (W.M.), ZHILINA (T.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): DNA relatedness among some thermophilic members of the genus Methanobacterium: emendation of the species Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and rejection of Methanobacterium thermoformicicum as a synonym of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 408-411.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 According to Kotelnikova et al. 1993, Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Touzel et al. 1992 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Methanobacterium thermalcaliphilum corrig. Blotevogel et al. 1988.
Reference: KOTELNIKOVA (S.V.), OBRAZTSOVA (A.Y.), BLOTEVOGEL (K.H.) and POPOV (I.N.): Taxonomic analysis of thermophilic strains of the genus Methanobacterium: reclassification of Methanobacterium thermoalcaliphilum as a synonym of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1993, 43, 591-596.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Zeikus and Wolfe 1972) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium thermoflexum Kotelnikova et al. 1994, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain IDZ = ATCC 51444 = DSM 7268 = OCM 571 = VKM B-1963.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X99047.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; L. neut. adj. flexum, curved, bent, crooked; N.L. neut. adj. thermoflexum, heat-(loving) and bent or crooked.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 48. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1994, 44, 182-183. [KOTELNIKOVA (S.V.), OBRAZTSOVA (A.Y.), GONGADZE (G.M.) and LAURINAVICHIUS (K.S.): Methanobacterium thermoflexum sp. nov. and Methanobacterium defluvii sp. nov., thermophilic rodshaped methanogens isolated from anaerobic digester sludge. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1993, 16, 427-435.]
Validation List no. 48 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In the January 2000 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Wasserfallen et al. [1] proposed to transfer Methanobacterium thermoflexum Kotelnikova et al. 1994 into the new genus ¤ Methanothermobacter as "Methanothermobacter thermoflexus" (Kotelnikova et al. 1994) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov. However, this new combination was not described according to the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), and it was not cited in the Notification List published in the March 2000 issue of the IJSEM [2]. Later, Methanothermobacter thermoflexus was listed in the second edition of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [3] and it was validly published in Validation List no. 85 (Cf. infra) [4].
References:
1 WASSERFALLEN (A.), NÖLLING (J.), PFISTER (P.), REEVE (J.) and CONWAY de MACARIO (E.): Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov. and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 43-53.
Original article by Wasserfallen et al. in IJSEM Online
2 Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 50, part 1, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 425-426.
Notification List in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)
3 BOONE (D.R.): Genus IV. Methanothermobacter Wasserfallen, Nölling, Pfister, Reeve and Conway de Macario 2000, 51VP. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 230-233.
4 VALIDATION LIST no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)

¤ Methanothermobacter thermoflexus (Kotelnikova et al. 1994) Boone 2002, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium thermoformicicum Zhilina and Ilarionov 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Z-245 (deposited in INMI).
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: not found.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 21. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 489. [ZHILINA (T.N.) and ILARIONOV (S.A.): Isolation and comparative characteristics of methanogenic bacteria assimilating formate with the description of Methanobacterium thermoformicicum sp. nov. Mikrobiologiya, 1984, 53, 785-790.]
Validation List 21 in IJSEM Online

¤ Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Touzel et al. 1992.

Note: According to Touzel et al. 1992, Methanobacterium thermoformicicum Zhilina and Ilarionov 1986 is a later heterotypic synonym of Methanobacterium thermautotrophicum corrig. Zeikus and Wolfe 1972 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: TOUZEL (J.P.), CONWAY DE MACARIO (E.), NÖLLING (J.), DE VOS (W.M.), ZHILINA (T.) and LYSENKO (A.M.): DNA relatedness among some thermophilic members of the genus Methanobacterium: emendation of the species Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and rejection of Methanobacterium thermoformicicum as a synonym of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 408-411.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium thermophilum Laurinavichus et al. 1990, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M = DSM 6529 = OCM 231 = VKM B-1786.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X99048.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; N.L. neut. adj. philum (from Gr. neut. adj. philon), loving; N.L. neut. adj. thermophilum, thermophilic.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 34. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 320-321. [LAURINAVICHUS (K.S.), KOTELNIKOVA (S.V.) and OBRAZTSOVA (A.Y.): A new species of the thermophilic methane-forming bacterium Methanobacterium thermophilum. Mikrobiologiya, 1988, 57, 1035-1041.]
Validation List no. 34 in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 On the Validation List no. 34 the reference of the paper by Laurinavichus et al. is incorrectly cited as Mikrobiologiya, 1987 (sic), 57, 1035-1041.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 471.
Erratum in IJSEM Online
2 In the January 2000 issue of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Wasserfallen et al. [1] proposed to transfer Methanobacterium thermophilum Laurinavichus et al. 1990 into the new genus ¤ Methanothermobacter as "Methanothermobacter thermophilus" (Laurinavichus et al. 1990) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov. However, this new combination was not described according to the Rules of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), and it was not cited in the Notification List published in the March 2000 issue of the IJSEM [2]. Later, Methanothermobacter thermophilus was listed in the second edition of the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [3] and it was validly published in Validation List no. 85 (Cf. infra) [4].
References:
1 WASSERFALLEN (A.), NÖLLING (J.), PFISTER (P.), REEVE (J.) and CONWAY de MACARIO (E.): Phylogenetic analysis of 18 thermophilic Methanobacterium isolates supports the proposals to create a new genus, Methanothermobacter gen. nov., and to reclassify several isolates in three species, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus comb. nov., Methanothermobacter wolfeii comb. nov. and Methanothermobacter marburgensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 43-53.
Original article by Wasserfallen et al. in IJSEM Online
2 Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 50, part 1, of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2000, 50, 425-426.
Notification List in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)
3 BOONE (D.R.): Genus IV. Methanothermobacter Wasserfallen, Nölling, Pfister, Reeve and Conway de Macario 2000, 51VP. In: D.R. BOONE, R.W. CASTENHOLZ and G.M. GARRITY (editors): Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 1 (The Archaea and the deeply branching and phototrophic Bacteria), Springer-Verlag, New York, 2001, pp. 230-233.
4 VALIDATION LIST no. 85. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 685-690.
Validation List no. 85 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format)

¤ Methanothermobacter thermophilus (Laurinavichus et al. 1990) Boone 2002, comb. nov.

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Methanobacterium uliginosum König 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain P2St = ATCC 35997 = DSM 2956 = OCM 176.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. uliginosum, wet, moist, marshy, since it occurs in marshy soil.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 18. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 375-376. [KÖNIG (H.): Isolation and characterization of Methanobacterium uliginosum sp. nov. from a marshy soil. Can. J. Microbiol., 1984, 30, 1477-1481.]
Validation List no. 18 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Methanobacterium veterum Krivushin et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain MK4 = DSM 19849 = VKM B-2440.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EF016285.
Etymology: L. gen. pl. n. veterum, of the old, of old things, of antiquity, referring to the isolation of the type strain from ancient permafrost.
Reference: KRIVUSHIN (K.V.), SHCHERBAKOVA (V.A.), PETROVSKAYA (L.E.) and RIVKINA (E.M.): Methanobacterium veterum sp. nov., from ancient Siberian permafrost. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 455-459.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Methanobacterium wolfei Winter et al. 1985, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 43096 = DSM 2970 = ATCC 43096 = OCM 154 = VKM B-1829.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB104858.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. wolfeii, of Wolfe; named for R.S. Wolfe for his pioneering research on the biochemistry of methanogenesis.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 17. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1985, 35, 223-225. [WINTER (J.), LERP (C.), ZABEL (H.P.), WILDENAUER (F.X.), KÖNIG (H.) and SCHINDLER (F.): Methanobacterium wolfei, sp. nov., a new tungsten-requiring, thermophilic, autotrophic methanogen. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1984, 5, 457-466.]
Validation List no. 17 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In Validation List no. 17, the year of the effective publication is erroneously cited as 1985.

¤ Methanothermobacter wolfeii (Winter et al. 1985) Wasserfallen et al. 2000, comb. nov.

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