Genus Geobacillus

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 19
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 4

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Geobacillus Nazina et al. 2001, gen. nov.
Type species: ¤ Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001.
Etymology: Gr. n. , the Earth; L. masc. n. bacillus, small rod; N.L. masc. n. Geobacillus, earth or soil small rod.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type species: ¤ Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001.
Etymology: Gr. n. , the Earth; L. masc. n. bacillus, small rod; N.L. masc. n. Geobacillus, earth or soil small rod.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus (Ahmad et al. 2000) Fortina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain S1812 = ATCC 700356 = DSM 12041.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF067651.
Basonym: ¤ Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus Ahmad et al. 2000.
Etymology: L. adj. caldus, hot; N.L. neut. n. xylosum, xylose; N.L. adj. lyticus -a -um (from Gr. adj. lutikos -ê -on), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. masc. adj. caldoxylosilyticus, hot and xylose-degrading.
Reference: FORTINA (M.G.), MORA (D.), SCHUMANN (P.), PARINI (C.), MANACHINI (P.L.) and STACKEBRANDT (E.): Reclassification of Saccharococcus caldoxylosilyticus as Geobacillus caldoxylosilyticus (Ahmad et al. 2000) comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 2063-2071.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus debilis Banat et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Tf = R-35653 = DSM 16016 = LMG 23386 = NCIMB 13995.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428699.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. debilis, feeble, weak, referring to the restricted substrate range for this species.
Reference: BANAT (I.M.), MARCHANT (R.) and RAHMAN (T.J.): Geobacillus debilis sp. nov., a novel obligately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a cool soil environment, and reassignment of Bacillus pallidus to Geobacillus pallidus comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2197-2201.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Caldibacillus debilis (Banat et al. 2004) Coorevits et al. 2012, comb. nov.

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Geobacillus galactosidasius Poli et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CF1B = ATCC BAA-1450 = DSM 18751.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AM408559.
Etymology: N.L. n. galactosidasum, galactosidase; L. masc. suff. -ius, suffix with various meanings, but signifying in general made of or belonging to; N.L. masc. adj. galactosidasius, pertaining to galactosidase because this microorganism has good galactosidase activity.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 144. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 473-475. [POLI (A.), LAEZZA (G.), GUL-GUVEN (R.), ORLANDO (P.) and NICOLAUS (B.): Geobacillus galactosidasius sp. nov., a new thermophilic galactosidase-producing bacterium isolated from compost. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 34, 419-423.]
Validation List no. 144 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Geobacillus gargensis Nazina et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Ga = DSM 15378 = VKM B-2300.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY193888 (type strain Ga), FR749979 (type strain DSM 15378, clone 1).
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. gargensis, of Garga, pertaining to the Garga hot spring located in Eastern Siberia (Russia), from which the type strain was isolated.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), LEBEDEVA (E.V.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), TOUROVA (T.P.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), SOKOLOVA (D.Sh.), LYSENKO (A.M.) and OSIPOV (G.A.): Geobacillus gargensis sp. nov., a novel thermophile from a hot spring, and the reclassification of Bacillus vulcani as Geobacillus vulcani comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2019-2024.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (Golovacheva et al. 1991) Nazina et al. 2001.

Note: According to Dinsdale et al. 2011, Geobacillus gargensis Nazina et al. 2004 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (Golovacheva et al. 1991) Nazina et al. 2001.
Reference: DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), COOREVITS (A.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.), BUSSE (H.J.), DE VOS (P.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Emended descriptions of Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1802-1810.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus jurassicus Nazina et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DS1 = R-35651 = CCM 7224 = DSM 15726 = LMG 23069 = VKM B-2301.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428697.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. jurassicus, of Jurassic, referring to the geological period of oil-bearing formation, from where the strains were isolated.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 103. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 983-985. [NAZINA (T.N.), SOKOLOVA (D.S.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), SHESTAKOVA (N.M.), MIKHAILOVA (E.M.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), TOUROVA (T.P.), LYSENKO (A.M.), OSIPOV (G.A.) and BELYAEV (S.S.): Geobacillus jurassicus sp. nov., a new thermophilic bacterium isolated from a high-temperature petroleum reservoir, and the validation of the Geobacillus species. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2005, 28, 43-53.]
Validation List no. 103 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The culture collection accession number CCM 7224 has been provided on request for validation.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 103 (footnote ||). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 983-985.
Validation List no. 103 in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus jurassicus Nazina et al. 2005 emend. Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain DS1 = R-35651 = CCM 7224 = DSM 15726 = LMG 23069 = VKM B-2301.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY312404.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. jurassicus, of Jurassic, referring to the geological period of oil-bearing formation, from where the strains were isolated.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus kaustophilus (Priest et al. 1989) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8005 = BGSC 90A1 = CCUG 28890 = CIP 106929 = DSM 7263 = JCM 20319 = LMG 9819 = NBRC 102445 = NCCB 30003 = NRRL NRS-81.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: X60618.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus kaustophilus (ex Prickett 1928) Priest et al. 1989.
Other synonym: "Bacillus kaustophilus" Prickett 1928.
Etymology: Gr. adj. kaustos, burnt, red-hot; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. masc. adj. kaustophilus, loving intense heat.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Geobacillus kaustophilus (Priest et al. 1989) Nazina et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus lituanicus Kuisiene et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain N-3 = DSM 15325 = VKM B-2294.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY044055.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. lituanicus, of Lithuania, referring to the Lithuanian oilfield from where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: KUISIENE (N.), RAUGALAS (J.) and CHITAVICHIUS (D.): Geobacillus lituanicus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 1991-1995.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus pallidus (Scholz et al. 1988) Banat et al. 2004, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain H12 = ATCC 51176 = DSM 3670 = LMG 19006.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z26930.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus pallidus Scholz et al. 1988.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. pallidus, pale, pallid.
Reference: BANAT (I.M.), MARCHANT (R.) and RAHMAN (T.J.): Geobacillus debilis sp. nov., a novel obligately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a cool soil environment, and reassignment of Bacillus pallidus to Geobacillus pallidus comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2197-2201.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Aeribacillus pallidus (Scholz et al. 1988) Miñana-Galbis et al. 2010, comb. nov.

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Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35646 = ATCC 12980 = BGSC 9A20 = CCM 2062 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11092 = CCUG 26241 = CIP 66.23 = DSM 22 = IAM 11062 = IFO (now NBRC) 12550 = JCM 2501 = KCTC 1665 = KCTC 1752 = LMG 6939 = NCCB 75019 = NCIMB 8923 (formerly NCDO 1768) = NCTC 10339 = NRRL B-1172 = VKM B-510.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428694.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus stearothermophilus Donk 1920 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. stear, fat; Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. masc. adj. stearothermophilus, (presumably intended to mean) heat- and fat-loving.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Donk 1920) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35646 = ATCC 12980 = BGSC 9A20 = CCM 2062 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 11092 = CCUG 26241 = CIP 66.23 = DSM 22 = IAM 11062 = JCM 2501 = KCTC 1665 = KCTC 1752 = LMG 6939 = NBRC 12550 = NCCB 75019 = NCIMB 8923 (formerly NCDO 1768) = NCTC 10339 = NRRL B-1172 = VKM B-510.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428694.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus stearothermophilus Donk 1920 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: Gr. n. stear, fat; Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. masc. adj. stearothermophilus, (presumably intended to mean) heat- and fat-loving.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus subterraneus Nazina et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 34 = AS 12673 (China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) = DSM 13552 = VKM B-2226.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF276306.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. subterraneus, subterranean, below the Earth's surface.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Geobacillus subterraneus subsp. aromaticivorans Poli et al. 2013, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Ge1 = CIP 110341 = DSM 23066.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: HE613733.
Etymology: L. adj. aromaticus, aromatic, fragrant; L. part. adj. vorans, devouring; N.L. part. adj. aromaticivorans, devouring aromatic (compounds); i.e. able to degrade xylene and phenanthroline.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 151. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 1577-1580. [POLI (A.), GUVEN (K.), ROMANO (I.), PIRINCCIOGLU (H.), GUVEN (R.G.), EUZEBY (J.P.), MATPAN (F.), ACER (O.), ORLANDO (P.) and NICOLAUS (B.): Geobacillus subterraneus subsp. aromaticivorans subsp. nov., a novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Sırnak, Turkey. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 58, 437-446.]
Validation List no. 151 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Geobacillus subterraneus subsp. subterraneus (Nazina et al. 2001) Poli et al. 2013, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 34 = AS 12673 (China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) = DSM 13552 = VKM B-2226.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF276306.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. subterraneus, subterranean, below the Earth's surface.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 151. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2013, 63, 1577-1580. [POLI (A.), GUVEN (K.), ROMANO (I.), PIRINCCIOGLU (H.), GUVEN (R.G.), EUZEBY (J.P.), MATPAN (F.), ACER (O.), ORLANDO (P.) and NICOLAUS (B.): Geobacillus subterraneus subsp. aromaticivorans subsp. nov., a novel thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Sırnak, Turkey. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2012, 58, 437-446.]
Validation List no. 151 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Geobacillus tepidamans Schäffer et al. 2004, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain GS5-97 = R-35643 = ATCC BAA-942 = DSM 16325.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428691.
Etymology: L. adj. tepidus, moderately warm, lukewarm; L. part. adj. amans, loving; N.L. part. adj. tepidamans, lowing warm (conditions).
Reference: SCHÄFFER (C.), FRANCK (W.L.), SCHEBERL (A.), KOSMA (P.), McDERMOTT (T.R.) and MESSNER (P.): Classification of isolates from locations in Austria and Yellowstone National Park as Geobacillus tepidamans sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2361-2368.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Anoxybacillus tepidamans (Schäffer et al. 2004) Coorevits et al. 2012, comb. nov.

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Geobacillus thermantarcticus (Nicolaus et al. 2002) Coorevits et al. 2012, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain M1 = R-35644 = BGSC 20A1 = DSM 9572 = LMG 23032.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FR749957 (type strain DSM 9572, clone 1), FR749958 (type strain DSM 9572, clone 2), FR749959 (type strain DSM 9572, clone 3).
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermantarcticus corrig. Nicolaus et al. 2002.
Etymology: Gr. adj. thermos, hot; L. masc. adj. antarcticus, southern, belonging to the Antarctica; N.L. masc. adj. thermantarcticus, a hot (bacterium) from Antarctica, isolated from Antarctic geothermal soil.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (Golovacheva et al. 1991) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 178 = BGSC 93 = BGSC 93A1 = DSM 730 = LMG 19007 = VKM B-1259.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY608935.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermocatenulatus Golovacheva et al. 1991.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. catenulatus, chain-like; N.L. masc. adj. thermocatenulatus, thermophilic, chain-like, referring to two of the organism's features.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (Golovacheva et al. 1991) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Dinsdale et al. 2011.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 178 = BGSC 93 = BGSC 93A1 = DSM 730 = LMG 19007 = VKM B-1259.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY608935.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. catenulatus, chain-like; N.L. masc. adj. thermocatenulatus, thermophilic, chain-like, referring to two of the organism's features.
Reference: DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), COOREVITS (A.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.), BUSSE (H.J.), DE VOS (P.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Emended descriptions of Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1802-1810.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Dinsdale et al. 2011, Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (Golovacheva et al. 1991) Nazina et al. 2001 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Geobacillus gargensis Nazina et al. 2004.
Reference: DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), COOREVITS (A.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.), BUSSE (H.J.), DE VOS (P.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Emended descriptions of Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1802-1810.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35647 = ATCC 29492 = BGSC 94A1 = DSM 465 = LMG 17532.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN538993.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermodenitrificans (ex Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970) Manachini et al. 2000.
Other synonym: "Bacillus thermodenitrificans" Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying; N.L. part. adj. thermodenitrificans, thermophilic denitrifying, referring to two of the organism's features.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online
2 Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Cihan et al. 2011.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35647 = ATCC 29492 = BGSC 94A1 = DSM 465 = LMG 17532.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN538993.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermodenitrificans (ex Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970) Manachini et al. 2000.
Other synonym: "Bacillus thermodenitrificans" Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying; N.L. part. adj. thermodenitrificans, thermophilic denitrifying, referring to two of the organism's features.
References: List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 7. [CIHAN (A.C.), OZCAN (B.), TEKIN (N.) and COKMUS (C.): Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and α-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 57, 83-92.]
List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 15 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35647 = ATCC 29492 = BGSC 94A1 = DSM 465 = LMG 17532.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN538993.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermodenitrificans (ex Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970) Manachini et al. 2000.
Other synonym: "Bacillus thermodenitrificans" Klaushofer and Hollaus 1970.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying; N.L. part. adj. thermodenitrificans, thermophilic denitrifying, referring to two of the organism's features.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus Cihan et al. 2011, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain F84b = DSM 22629 = NCIMB 14582.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU477773.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. calidus, hot, referring to hot habitats.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 142. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2563-2565. [CIHAN (A.C.), OZCAN (B.), TEKIN (N.) and COKMUS (C.): Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and α-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 57, 83-92.]
Validation List no. 142 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. thermodenitrificans (Manachini et al. 2000) Cihan et al. 2011, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain R-35647 = ATCC 29492 = BGSC 94A1 = DSM 465 = LMG 17532.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN538993.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying; N.L. part. adj. thermodenitrificans, thermophilic denitrifying, referring to two of the organism's features.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 142. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2563-2565. [CIHAN (A.C.), OZCAN (B.), TEKIN (N.) and COKMUS (C.): Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov., a thermophilic and α-glucosidase producing bacterium isolated from Kizilcahamam, Turkey. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 57, 83-92.]
Validation List no. 142 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: The original authorship, (Manachini et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2001, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (Suzuki et al. 1984) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain KP 1006 = R-35637 = ATCC 43742 = BGSC 95A1 = CCUG 28887 = CIP 106930 = DSM 2542 = LMG 7137 = NCIMB 11955 = NRRL B-14516.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428685.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermoglucosidasius Suzuki et al. 1984.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. glucosidasius, of glucosidase; N.L. masc. adj. thermoglucosidasius, indicating the production of heat-stable glucosidase.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (Suzuki et al. 1984) Nazina et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius (Suzuki et al. 1984) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain KP 1006 = R-35637 = ATCC 43742 = BGSC 95A1 = CCUG 28887 = CIP 106930 = DSM 2542 = LMG 7137 = NCIMB 11955 = NRRL B-14516.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY608981.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermoglucosidasius Suzuki et al. 1984.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; N.L. adj. glucosidasius, of glucosidase; N.L. masc. adj. thermoglucosidasius, indicating the production of heat-stable glucosidase.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Coorevits et al. 2012 corrected the epithet thermoglucosidasius to thermoglucosidans. According to Rule 61, this correction is illegitimate.

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Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Zarilla and Perry 1988) Nazina et al. 2001, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain LEH-1 = ATCC 43513 = BGSC 96A1 = DSM 5366 = LMG 9823.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z26923.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus thermoleovorans Zarilla and Perry 1988.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; L. n. oleum, oil; L. part. adj. vorans, devouring; N.L. part. adj. thermoleovorans, indicating heat-requiring bacteria capable of utilizing oil (hydrocarbons).
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Zarilla and Perry 1988) Nazina et al. 2001 is to be considered to be validly published.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus thermoleovorans (Zarilla and Perry 1988) Nazina et al. 2001 emend. Dinsdale et al. 2011.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain LEH-1 = ATCC 43513 = BGSC 96A1 = DSM 5366 = LMG 9823.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z26923.
Etymology: Gr. n. thermê, heat; L. n. oleum, oil; L. part. adj. vorans, devouring; N.L. part. adj. thermoleovorans, indicating heat-requiring bacteria capable of utilizing oil (hydrocarbons).
Reference: DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), COOREVITS (A.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.), BUSSE (H.J.), DE VOS (P.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Emended descriptions of Geobacillus thermoleovorans and Geobacillus thermocatenulatus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 1802-1810.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus toebii Sung et al. 2002, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SK-1 = R-35642 = DSM 14590 = KCTC 0306BP = LMG 23037.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN428690.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. toebii, of toebi, a special farmland compost in Korea, from which the organism was isolated.
Reference: SUNG (M.H.), KIM (H.), BAE (J.W.), RHEE (S.K.), JEON (C.O.), KIM (K.), KIM (J.J.), HONG (S.P.), LEE (S.G.), YOON (J.H.), PARK (Y.H.) and BAEK (D.H.): Geobacillus toebii sp. nov., a novel thermophilic bacterium isolated from hay compost. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2002, 52, 2251-2255.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Geobacillus toebii Sung et al. 2002 emend.Coorevits et al. 2012.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain SK-1 = DSM 14590 = KCTC 0306BP = LMG 23037.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF326278.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. toebii, of toebi, a special farmland compost in Korea, from which the organism was isolated.
Reference: COOREVITS (A.), DINSDALE (A.E.), HALKET (G.), LEBBE (L.), DE VOS (P.), VAN LANDSCHOOT (A.) and LOGAN (N.A.): Taxonomic revision of the genus Geobacillus: emendation of Geobacillus, G. stearothermophilus, G. jurassicus, G. toebii, G. thermodenitrificans and G. thermoglucosidans (nom. corrig., formerly 'thermoglucosidasius'); transfer of Bacillus thermantarcticus to the genus as G. thermantarcticus comb. nov.; proposal of Caldibacillus debilis gen. nov., comb. nov.; transfer of G. tepidamans to Anoxybacillus as A. tepidamans comb. nov.; and proposal of Anoxybacillus caldiproteolyticus sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 1470-1485.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus uzenensis Nazina et al. 2001, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain U = AS 12674 (China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) = DSM 13551 = VKM B-2229.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AF276304.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. uzenensis, pertaining to Uzen, referring to the Uzen oilfield, Kazakhstan, from where the type strain was isolated.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), TOUROVA (T.P.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), NOVIKOVA (E.V.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), IVANOVA (A.E.), LYSENKO (A.M.), PETRUNYAKA (V.V.), OSIPOV (G.A.), BELYAEV (S.S.) and IVANOV (M.V.): Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2001, 51, 433-446.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Geobacillus vulcani (Caccamo et al. 2000) Nazina et al. 2004, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 3s-1 = CIP 106305 = DSM 13174 = JCM 12214.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ293805.
Basonym: ¤ Bacillus vulcani Caccamo et al. 2000.
Etymology: L. gen. n. vulcani, of Vulcan, the god of fire and, by extension, of the volcano. Pertaining to the Eolian Island Volcano where the organism was isolated from a shallow marine hydrothermal vent.
Reference: NAZINA (T.N.), LEBEDEVA (E.V.), POLTARAUS (A.B.), TOUROVA (T.P.), GRIGORYAN (A.A.), SOKOLOVA (D.SH.), LYSENKO (A.M.) and OSIPOV (G.A.): Geobacillus gargensis sp. nov., a novel thermophile from a hot spring, and the reclassification of Bacillus vulcani as Geobacillus vulcani comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2019-2024.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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