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Genus Francisella

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 9
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 8

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Francisella Dorofe'ev 1947, genus. (Type genus of the family ¤ Francisellaceae Sjöstedt 2005).
Type species: ¤ Francisella tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. fem. dim. n. Francisella, named after Edward Francis, American bacteriologist, who extensively studied the etiologic agent and pathogenesis of tularemia and is credited with naming the disease.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: DOROFEEV (K.A.): Classification of the causative agent of tularemia. Symposium Research Works Institute Epidemiology and Microbiology Chita, 1947, 1, 170-180.

Francisella Dorofe'ev 1947 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Huber et al. 2010.
Type species: ¤ Francisella tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. fem. dim. n. Francisella, named after Edward Francis, American bacteriologist, who extensively studied the etiologic agent and pathogenesis of tularemia and is credited with naming the disease.
Reference: HUBER (B.), ESCUDERO (R.), BUSSE (H.J.), SEIBOLD (E.), SCHOLZ (H.C.), ANDA (P.), KÄMPFER (P.) and SPLETTSTOESSER (W.D.): Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1887-1896.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Francisella guangzhouensis Qu et al. 2013, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 08HL01032=CCUG 60119=NCTC 13503.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA) for the type strain: FJ591095.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. guangzhouensis, of or pertaining to Guangzhou, the city in Guangdong province, China, where the first strains were isolated.
Source: Environmental.
Valid publication: QU, P.-H., CHEN, S.-Y., SCHOLZ, H. C., BUSSE, H.-J., GU, Q., KÄMPFER, P., FOSTER, J. T., GLAESER, S. P., CHEN, C. and YANG, Z.-C. 2013. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 63, 3628-3635.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Allofrancisella guangzhouensis (Qu et al. 2013) Qu et al. 2016, comb. nov.

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Francisella halioticida Brevik et al. 2012, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Shimane-1 = DSM 23729 = LMG 26062.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: JF290376.
Etymology: N.L. n. Haliotis scientific name of a genus of abalone; L. suff. -cida (from L. v. caedo, to cut or kill) murderer, killer; N.L. n. (nominative in apposition) halioticida abalone killer, i.e. causing abalone mortality.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 144. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 473-475.
Effective publication: BREVIK (Ø.J.), OTTEM (K.F.), KAMAISHI (T.), WATANABE (K.) and NYLUND (A.): Francisella halioticida sp. nov., a pathogen of farmed giant abalone (Haliotis gigantea) in Japan. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2011, 111, 1044-1056.
Validation List no. 144 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: In the effective publication the strains LMG 26062 and DSM 23729 are cited as LMG26062 and DSM23729, respectively.
Reference: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 144 (footnote **). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2012, 62, 473-475.
Validation List no. 144 in IJSEM Online

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Francisella hispaniensis Huber et al. 2010, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) FhSp1 = FnSp1 = FSC454 = F62 = CCUG 58020 = DSM 22475.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: FN252413.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. hispaniensis, of or belonging to Hispania, the Latin name for Spain, the country where the type strain was isolated.
Valid publication: HUBER (B.), ESCUDERO (R.), BUSSE (H.J.), SEIBOLD (E.), SCHOLZ (H.C.), ANDA (P.), KÄMPFER (P.) and SPLETTSTOESSER (W.D.): Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1887-1896.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Francisella noatunensis (Mikalsen et al. 2007) Ottem et al. 2009, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 2005/50/F292-6C = LMG 23800 = NCIMB 14265.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ295795.
Basonym: ¤ Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007.
Etymology: N.L. n. noatun, enclosure of ships, the coastal abode of the Norse god of fisheries and seamanship; L. fem. suffix -ensis, suffix meaning belonging to; N.L. fem. adj. noatunensis, belonging to the coast/sea.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 128. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1555-1556.
Effective publication: OTTEM (K.F.), NYLUND (A.), KARLSBAKK (E.), FRIIS-MØLLER (A.) and KAMAISHI (T.): Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov. and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 106, 1231-1243.]
Validation List no. 128 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis (Mikalsen et al. 2007) Ottem et al. 2009, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 2005/50/F292-6C = LMG 23800 = NCIMB 14265.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ295795.
Etymology: N.L. n. noatun, enclosure of ships, the coastal abode of the Norse god of fisheries and seamanship; L. fem. suffix -ensis, suffix meaning belonging to; N.L. fem. adj. noatunensis, belonging to the coast/sea.
References: ASSOCIATE EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 128 (footnote ‡). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1555-1556.

Note: Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis (Mikalsen et al. 2007) Ottem et al. 2009 is automatically created by the valid publication of ¤ Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Ottem et al. 2009 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Ottem et al. 2009, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ehime-1 = DSM 21254 = LMG 24544.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: EU683030.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. orientalis, of or belonging to the East, referring to where the type strain was first isolated.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 128. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1555-1556.
Effective publication: OTTEM (K.F.), NYLUND (A.), KARLSBAKK (E.), FRIIS-MØLLER (A.) and KAMAISHI (T.): Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov. and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 106, 1231-1243.]
Validation List no. 128 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 15482= CCUG 33449 = CIP 56.12.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY928396.
Synonym: "Pasteurella novicida" Larson et al. 1955.
Etymology: L. adj. novus, new; L. suff. -cida (from L. v. caedo, to cut, kill), killer; N.L. n. novicida, new killer.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 LARSON (C.L.), WICHT (W.) and JELLISON (W.L.): An organism resembling P. tularensis from water. Public Health Report, 1955, 70, 253-258. 2 OLSUFIEV (N.G.), EMELYANOVA (O.S.) and DUNAEVA (T.N.): Comparative studies of strains of B. tularense in the Old and New World and their taxonomy. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology (Prague), 1959, 3, 138-149.

Note: In 2005, A.B. Sjöstedt [1] proposed to reclassify Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 (Approved Lists 1980) as "Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida" (Larson et al. 1955) Sjöstedt, comb. nov. This new combination is cited in several papers, however it is not validly published. In 2010, Huber et al. [2] will validate the publication of the name Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Huber et al. 2010, comb. nov.
References:
1 SJÖSTEDT (A.B.): Genus I. Francisella Dorofe'ev 1947, 176AL. In: D.J. BRENNER, N.R. KRIEG, J.T. STALEY and G.M. GARRITY (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, second edition, vol. 2 (The Proteobacteria), part B (The Gammaproteobacteria), Springer, New York, 2005, pp. 200-210.
2 HUBER (B.), ESCUDERO (R.), BUSSE (H.J.), SEIBOLD (E.), SCHOLZ (H.C.), ANDA (P.), KÄMPFER (P.) and SPLETTSTOESSER (W.D.): Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1887-1896.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Huber et al. 2010, comb. nov.

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Francisella persica Larson et al. 2016, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC VR-331=FSC845=DSM 101678.
Sequence accession no. (complete genome) for the type strain: CP012505.
Whole-genome sequence accession no. for the type strain: -.
Basonym: ¤ Wolbachia persica Hertig 1936.
Etymology: L. fem. adj. persica, Persian; here, named after Argas persicus, the reputed host tick.
Source: Animal.
Valid publication: LARSON, M. A., NALBANTOGLU, U., SAYOOD, K., ZENTZ, E. B., CER, R. Z., IWEN, P. C., FRANCESCONI, S. C., BISHOP-LILLY, K. A., MOKASHI, V. P., SJÖSTEDT, A. and HINRICHS, S. H. 2016. Reclassification of Wolbachia persica as Francisella persica comb. nov. and emended description of the family Francisellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 66, 1200-1205.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Francisella philomiragia (Jensen et al. 1969) Hollis et al. 1990, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25015= CCUG 4992 = CCUG 19700 = CIP 82.98 = DSM 7535.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY928394.
Basonym: ¤ Yersinia philomiragia Jensen et al. 1969 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. n. miragium (from L. v. miro or miror, to wonder or marvel at, to be astonished or amazed at a thing; to admire); mirage; N.L. n. philomiragia, a friend of mirages, loving mirages, because of the mirages observed in the area where the first isolations of this species were made.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 32. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 105-106.
Effective publication: HOLLIS (D.G.), WEAVER (R.E.), STEIGERWALT (A.G.), WENGER (J.D.), MOSS (C.W.) and BRENNER (D.J.): Francisella philomiragia comb. nov. (formerly Yersinia philomiragia) and Francisella tularensis biogroup novicida (formerly Francisella novicida) associated with human disease. J. Clin. Microbiol., 1989, 27, 1601-1608.
Validation List no. 32 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 2005/50/F292-6C = LMG 23800 = NCIMB 14265.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ295795.
Etymology: N.L. n. noatun, enclosure of ships, the coastal abode of the Norse god of fisheries and seamanship; L. fem. suffix -ensis, suffix meaning belonging to; N.L. fem. adj. noatunensis, belonging to the coast/sea.
Valid publication: MIKALSEN (J.), OLSEN (A.B.), TENGS (T.) and COLQUHOUN (D.J.): Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1960-1965.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Ottem et al. 2009, Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. 2008.
References: List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 10. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1559-1560. [OTTEM (K.F.), NYLUND (A.), KARLSBAKK (E.), FRIIS-MØLLER (A.) and KAMAISHI (T.): Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov.] and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 106, 1231-1243.]
List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 10 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Francisella noatunensis (Mikalsen et al. 2007) Ottem et al. 2009, comb. nov.

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Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia (Jensen et al. 1969) Mikalsen et al. 2007, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 25015= CCUG 4992 = CCUG 19700 = CIP 82.98 = DSM 7535.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY928394.
Etymology: N.L. adj. philus -a -um (from Gr. adj. philos -ê -on), friend, loving; N.L. n. miragium (from L. v. miro or miror, to wonder or marvel at, to be astonished or amazed at a thing; to admire); mirage; N.L. n. philomiragia, a friend of mirages, loving mirages, because of the mirages observed in the area where the first isolations of this species were made.
References: MIKALSEN (J.), OLSEN (A.B.), TENGS (T.) and COLQUHOUN (D.J.): Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1960-1965.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, (Jensen et al. 1969) Hollis et al. 1990, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia (Jensen et al. 1969) Mikalsen et al. 2007 is automatically created by the valid publication of ¤ Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].
3 If an author accepts the elevation of ¤ Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis  to full species status, then Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia (Jensen et al. 1969) (Jensen et al. 1969) Mikalsen et al. 2007 should thereafter be designated simply as ¤ Francisella philomiragia (Jensen et al. 1969) Hollis et al. 1990.

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Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. 2008, sp. nov.
Type strain: strain GM2212 = CNCM I-3511 = DSM 18777 = LMG 24256.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: DQ309246.
Etymology: L. n. piscis, fish; L. suff. -cida (from L. v. caedere, to kill), killer; N.L. n. piscicida, fish-killer, causing fish mortality.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 119. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1-2.
Effective publication: OTTEM (K.F.), NYLUND (A.), KARLSBAKK (E.), FRIIS-MØLLER (A.), KROSSØY (B.) and KNAPPSKOG (D.): New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua). Arch. Microbiol., 2007, 188, 547-550.
Validation List no. 119 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

Notes:
. The 16S rDNA sequences of the type strain of Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. 2008 and of the type strain of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007 show 100% similarity. The DNA-DNA hybridization data against the type of Francisella philomiragia suggest that Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis and Francisella piscicida may constitute heterotypic synonyms. If this were to be the case then the rule of priority would apply and the epithet noatunensis in Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007 would have priority over the epithet piscicida in Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. 2008. Whether the epithet noatunensis would be used at the rank of subspecies or species will depend on further research.
Reference: LISTS EDITOR, IJSEM: Validation List no. 119 (footnote ¶). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1-2.
Validation List no. 119 in IJSEM Online
. In the effective publication, the etymology is erroneously cited as follows: piscicida L. f.; from L. pisces m. fish, suff. -cida from L. f. caedere, to kill, 'fish-killer' i.e. causing fish mortality.

¤ Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007.

Note: According to Ottem et al. 2009, Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. 2008 is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. 2007.
References: List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 10. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2009, 59, 1559-1560. [OTTEM (K.F.), NYLUND (A.), KARLSBAKK (E.), FRIIS-MØLLER (A.) and KAMAISHI (T.): Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov.] and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. nov., two important fish pathogens. J. Appl. Microbiol., 2009, 106, 1231-1243.]
List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 10 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Francisella tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B-38 = ATCC 6223= GIEM Schu.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z21931.
Synonyms: "Bacterium tularense" McCoy and Chapin 1912, "Pasteurella tularensis" (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Bergey et al. 1923, "Brucella tularensis" (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Topley and Wilson 1929, "Francisella tularense" (sic) (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. tularensis, pertaining to Tulare County, California, where the disease was first described in rodents.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 McCOY (G.W.) and CHAPIN (C.W.): Further observations on a plague-like disease of rodents with a preliminary note on the causative agent, Bacterium tularense. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1912, 10, 61-72. 2 DOROFEEV (K.A.): Classification of the causative agent of tularemia. Symposium Research Works Institute Epidemiology and Microbiology Chita, 1947, 1, 170-180.

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (ex Olsufjev et al. 1959) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983, subsp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) GIEM 503.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Synonyms: "Francisella tularensis var. palaearctica" Olsufjev et al. 1959, "Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica" Olsufjev 1970.
Etymology: Gr. adj. holos, whole, entire; L. fem. adj. arctica, northern, arctic; N.L. fem. adj. holarctica, generally distributed in the arctic regions.
Valid publication: OLSUFJEV (N.G.) and MESHCHERYAKOVA (I.S.): Subspecific taxonomy of Francisella tularensis McCoy and Chapin 1912. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 872-874.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain is not available in any known culture collection.
References: YARZA (P.): Personal communication (March 04, 2012).

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Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica (ex Aikimbaev 1966) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983, subsp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) FSC147 = GIEM 543.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000915 (complete genome).
Synonyms: "Francisella tularensis var. mediasiatica" Aikimbaev 1966, Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica" (Aikimbaev 1966) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1982.
Etymology: L. adj. medius, middle; L. adj. asiaticus, pertaining to Asia, Asian; N.L. fem. adj. mediasiatica, pertaining to mid-Asia.
Valid publication: OLSUFJEV (N.G.) and MESHCHERYAKOVA (I.S.): Subspecific taxonomy of Francisella tularensis McCoy and Chapin 1912. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 872-874.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Huber et al. 2010, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 15482= CCUG 33449 = CIP 56.12.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY928396.
Basonym: ¤ Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 (Approved Lists 1980).
Another synonym: "Pasteurella novicida" Larson et al. 1955.
Etymology: L. adj. novus, new; L. suff. -cida (from L. v. caedo, to cut, kill), killer; N.L. n. novicida, new killer.
Valid publication: HUBER (B.), ESCUDERO (R.), BUSSE (H.-J.), SEIBOLD (E.), SCHOLZ (H.C.), ANDA (P.), KÄMPFER (P.) and SPLETTSTOESSER (W.D.): Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1887-1896.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: See also the two following papers:
1 JOHANSSON (A.), CELLI (J.), CONLAN (W.), ELKINS (K.L.), FORSMAN (M.), KEIM (P.S.), LARSSON (P.), MANOIL (C.), NANO (F.E.), PETERSEN (J.M.) and SJÖSTEDT (A.): Objections to the transfer of Francisella novicida to the subspecies rank of Francisella tularensis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1717-1718.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 BUSSE (H.J.), HUBER (B.), ANDA (P.), ESCUDERO (R.), SCHOLZ (H.C.), SEIBOLD (E.), SPLETTSTOESSER (W.D.) and KÄMPFER (P.): Objections to the transfer of Francisella novicida to the subspecies rank of Francisella tularensis - response to Johansson et al. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2010, 60, 1718-1720.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) B-38 = ATCC 6223= GIEM Schu.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Z21931.
Synonym: "Francisella tularensis subsp. nearctica" Olsufjev 1970.
Etymology: N.L. fem. adj. tularensis, pertaining to Tulare County, California, where the disease was first described in rodents.
Valid publication: OLSUFJEV (N.G.) and MESHCHERYAKOVA (I.S.): Subspecific taxonomy of Francisella tularensis McCoy and Chapin 1912. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 872-874.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983 is automatically created by the valid publication of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica (ex Olsufjev et al. 1959) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983, and the valid publication of Francisella tularensis subsp. mediasiatica (ex Aikimbaev 1966) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].
3 The type strain of Francisella tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Dorofe'ev 1947 is the strain ATCC 6223= B-38, but this strain is completely avirulent. Hence, strain ATCC 6223has lost one of the most important properties of the species, and so Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983 propose a neotype strain for the subspecies Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (McCoy and Chapin 1912) Olsufjev and Meshcheryakova 1983: the strain Schu, deposited in the live culture museum of the Tularemia Laboratory (GIEM). This proposal is in violation of Rule 18g. Only the Judicial Commission may decide to take action leading to replacement of the type strain ATCC 6223= B-38 (Rule 18g).

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