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Genus Flexibacter

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 17
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Flexibacter Soriano 1945, genus.
Type species: ¤ Flexibacter flexilis Soriano 1945 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: L. part. adj. flexus (from. L. v. flecto), bent, winding; N.L. masc. n. bacter, rod; N.L. masc. n. Flexibacter, intended to mean flexible rod.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SORIANO (S.): Un nuevo orden de bacterias: Flexibacteriales. Ciencia e Investigacion (Buenos Aires), 1945, 1, 92-93.

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Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23162= CIP 104803 = IFO (now NBRC) 15976 = JCM 21384 = LMG 8376.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078040.
Synonym: "Microscilla aggregans" Lewin 1969.
Etymology: L. part. adj. aggregans (from L. v. aggrego), adding to, aggregating, forming clumps.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206. 2 LEADBETTER (E.R.): Genus II. Flexibacter Soriano 1945, 92, Lewin 1969, 192 emend. mut. char. In: R.E. BUCHANAN and N.E GIBBONS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1974, pp. 105-107.

¤ Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970 (Approved Lists 1980).

Note: According to Hosoya and Yokota 2007, Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later heterotypic synonym of ¤ Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970 (Approved Lists 1980). Although the epithet aggregans in Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) is the older epithet, ¤ Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970 (Approved Lists 1980) has priority over Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 (Approved Lists 1980), because ¤ Flexithrix dorotheae is the type of the genus Flexithrix (Rules 15 and 17).
Reference: HOSOYA (S.) and YOKOTA (A.): Reclassification of Flexibacter aggregans (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974 as a later heterotypic synonym of Flexithrix dorotheae Lewin 1970. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 1086-1088.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Flexibacter aurantiacus Lewin 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23107= DSM 6792 = LMG 3987 = NBRC 15970 = NCIMB 1382 = VKM B-1426.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M62792.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. aurantiacus, orange-coloured.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206. 

Note: According to Bernardet et al. 1996, the strains NCIMB 1382 and NCIMB 1455, previously known as Flexibacter aurantiacus Lewin 1969 (Approved Lists 1980), are included in the taxon ¤ Flavobacterium johnsoniae corrig. (Stanier 1947) Bernardet et al. 1996. Strain NCIMB 1382 is the type strain of Flexibacter aurantiacus. So, according to Bernardet et al. 1996, Flexibacter aurantiacus Lewin 1969 (Approved Lists 1980) is a later homotypic synonym of ¤ Flavobacterium johnsoniae corrig. (Stanier 1947) Bernardet et al. 1996.
Reference: BERNARDET (J.F.), SEGERS (P.), VANCANNEYT (M.), BERTHE (F.), KERSTERS (K.) and VANDAMME (P.): Cutting a Gordian knot: emended classification and description of the genus Flavobacterium, emended description of the family Flavobacteriaceae, and proposal of Flavobacterium hydatis nom. nov. (basonym, Cytophaga aquatilis Strohl and Tait 1978). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 128-148.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Flexibacter canadensis Christensen 1980, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) UASM 9D = ATCC 29591= CIP 104802 = DSM 3403 = IFO (now NBRC) 15130 = JCM 21819 = KACC 13276 = LMG 8368.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078046.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. canadensis, of or belonging to Canada, from where the organism was isolated.
Valid publication: CHRISTENSEN (P.): Flexibacter canadensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 429-432.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Solitalea canadensis (Christensen 1980) Weon et al. 2009, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter columnaris (ex Davis 1922) Bernardet and Grimont 1989, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 1-S-2cl (Anacker 1956) = ATCC 23463= CIP 103531 = JCM 21141 = LMG 13035 = LMG 10406 = NBRC 100251 = NCIMB 2248.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078047.
Synonyms: "Bacillus columnaris" Davis 1922, "Chondrococcus columnaris" (Davis 1922) Ordal and Rucker 1944, "Cytophaga columnaris" (Davis 1922) Garnjobst 1945, "Flexibacter columnaris (Davis 1922) Leadbetter 1974.
Etymology:   L. masc. adj. columnaris, rising in the form of a pillar, referring to the shape of the aggregates formed by the bacteria on external lesions of infected fish.
Valid publication: BERNARDET (J.F.) and GRIMONT (P.A.D.): Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and phenotypic characterization of Flexibacter columnaris sp. nov., nom. rev., Flexibacter psychrophilus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi, Hikida, and Masumura 1986. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 346-354.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Flexibacter columnaris (ex Davis 1922) Bernardet and Grimont 1989 is an earlier homotypic synonym of ¤ Cytophaga columnaris (ex Davis 1922) Reichenbach 1989.

¤ Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet and Grimont 1989) Bernardet et al. 1996, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter elegans (ex Lewin 1969, non Soriano 1945) Reichenbach 1989, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) NZ-1 Lewin = ATCC 23112= CIP 104801 = DSM 3317 = IFO (now NBRC) 15055 = JCM 21159 = LMG 10750.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078048.
Synonym: "Flexibacter elegans" Lewin 1969, non Soriano 1945.
Etymology:   L. masc. adj. elegans, nice, elegant.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 31. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 495-497.
Effective publication: REICHENBACH (H.): Genus Flexibacter Soriano 1945, 92AL emend. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore., 1989, pp. 2061-2071.
Validation List no. 31 in IJSEM Online

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Flexibacter filiformis (ex Solntseva 1940) Reichenbach 1989, nom. rev., comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Fx e1 Reichenbach = ATCC 29495= CCUG 12809 = CIP 106401 = DSM 527 = HAMBI 1966 = IFO (now NBRC) 15056.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078049.
Synonyms: "Myxococcus filiformis" Solntseva 1940, "Flexibacter elegans" Soriano 1945, non Lewin 1969.
Etymology: L. n. filum, a thread; L. suff. -formis (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. masc. adj. filiformis, thread-shaped.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 31. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 495-497.
Effective publication: REICHENBACH (H.): Genus Flexibacter Soriano 1945, 92AL emend. In: J.T. STALEY, M.P. BRYANT, N. PFENNIG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 3, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore., 1989, pp. 2061-2071.
Validation List no. 31 in IJSEM Online

¤ Chitinophaga filiformis (Reichenbach 1989) Kämpfer et al. 2006, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter flexilis Soriano 1945, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23079= CIP 103988 = DSM 6793 = IFO (now NBRC) 15060 = LMG 3989.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M62794.
Etymology:   L. masc. adj. flexilis, pliable, flexible.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: SORIANO (S.): Un nuevo orden de bacterias: Flexibacteriales. Ciencia e Investigacion (Buenos Aires), 1945, 1, 92-93.

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Flexibacter japonensis Fujita et al. 1997, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 758 = CIP 105790 = DSM 13484 = IFO (now NBRC) 16041 = JCM 9735.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078055.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. japonensis, pertaining to Japan.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 61. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 601-602.
Effective publication: FUJITA (T.), OKAMOTO (M.), KOSAKO (Y.) and OKUHARA (M.): Flexibacter japonensis sp. nov., a new species that produces a novel inhibitor of human leukocyte elastase isolated from soil. Curr. Microbiol., 1996, 33, 89-93.
Validation List no. 61 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Chitinophaga japonensis (Fujita et al. 1997) Kämpfer et al. 2006, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter litoralis Lewin 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23117= CIP 106402 = DSM 6794 = IFO (now NBRC) 15988.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078056.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. litoralis, of or belonging to the sea-shore.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206.

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Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi et al. 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R2 = ATCC 43398= CIP 103528 = CCUG 35198 = IFO (now NBRC) 15946 = JCM 21157 = LMG 11612 = NCIMB 2154.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078057.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. maritimus, of the sea, maritime.
Valid publication: WAKABAYASHI (H.), HIKIDA (M.) and MASUMURA (K.): Flexibacter maritimus sp. nov., a pathogen of marine fishes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 396-398.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: In the paper by Wakabayashi et al. 1986 the type strain NCMB (now NCIMB) 2154 is incorrectly cited as NCMB (now NCIMB) 2514.
Reference: Erratum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1987, 37, 92.
Erratum in IJSEM Online

Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi et al. 1986 emend. Bernardet and Grimont 1989.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078057.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. maritimus, of the sea, maritime.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) R2 = ATCC 43398= CIP 103528 = CCUG 35198 = IFO (now NBRC) 15946 = JCM 21157 = LMG 11612 = NCIMB 2154.
Reference: BERNARDET (J.F.) and GRIMONT (P.A.D.): Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and phenotypic characterization of Flexibacter columnaris sp. nov., nom. rev., Flexibacter psychrophilus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi, Hikida, and Masumura 1986. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 346-354.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi et al. 1986 emend. Bernardet and Grimont 1989 is an earlier homotypic heterotypic synonym of ¤ Cytophaga marina (ex Hikida et al. 1979) Reichenbach 1989.
Reference: HOLMES (B.): Synonymy of Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi, Hikida, and Masumura 1986 and Cytophaga marina Reichenbach 1989. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 185.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Tenacibaculum maritimum (Wakabayashi et al. 1986) Suzuki et al. 2001, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter ovolyticus Hansen et al. 1992, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) EKD002 = ATCC 51887= CCUG 35199 = CIP 106403 = IFO (now NBRC) 15947 = JCM 21158 = LMG 13026 = NCIMB 13127.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078058.
Etymology: L. n. ovum, egg; N.L. adj. lyticus -a -um (from Gr. adj. lutikos -ê -on), able to loosen, able to dissolve; N.L. masc. adj. ovolyticus, egg dissolving, egg damaging.
Valid publication: HANSEN (G.H.), BERGH (Ø.), MICHAELSEN (J.) and KNAPPSKOG (D.): Flexibacter ovolyticus sp. nov., a pathogen of eggs and larvae of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1992, 42, 451-458.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Tenacibaculum ovolyticum (Hansen et al. 1992) Suzuki et al. 2001, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter polymorphus Lewin 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 27820= DSM 9678 = IFO (now NBRC) 16703 = LMG 13859.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078059.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. polymorphus (from Gr. adj. polumorphos -on), multiform, variable in form, of irregular shape.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): Flexibacter polymorphus, a new marine species. Journal of General Microbiology, 1974, 82, 393-403.

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Flexibacter psychrophilus (ex Borg 1960) Bernardet and Grimont 1989, nom. rev., comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 49418= CCUG 35200 = CIP 103534 = DSM 3660 = JCM 8519 = LMG 13179 = NBRC 100250 = NCIMB 1947.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078060.
Synonym: "Cytophaga psychrophila" Borg 1960.
Etymology: Gr. adj. psuchros, cold; N.L. masc. adj. philus (from Gr. fem. adj. philos), friend, loving; N.L. masc. adj. psychrophilus, cold-loving.
Valid publication: BERNARDET (J.F.) and GRIMONT (P.A.D.): Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and phenotypic characterization of Flexibacter columnaris sp. nov., nom. rev., Flexibacter psychrophilus sp. nov., nom. rev., and Flexibacter maritimus Wakabayashi, Hikida, and Masumura 1986. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 346-354.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Flexibacter psychrophilus (ex Borg 1960) Bernardet and Grimont 1989 is an earlier homotypic synonym of ¤ Cytophaga psychrophila (ex Borg 1960) Reichenbach 1989.

¤ Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Bernardet and Grimont 1989) Bernardet et al. 1996, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter roseolus Lewin 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23088= CIP 106406 = DSM 9546 = IFO (now NBRC) 16707 = LMG 13856.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078063.
Etymology: L. adj. roseus, rose-colored; L. masc. suff. -olus, diminutive ending; N.L. masc. dim. adj. roseolus, intended to mean with a rosy tinge.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206.

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Flexibacter ruber Lewin 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23103= DSM 9560 = IFO (now NBRC) 16677 = LMG 13857.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078065.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. ruber, red.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206.

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Flexibacter sancti Lewin 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23092= DSM 784 = HAMBI 1988 = IFO (now NBRC) 15057 = LMG 8377 = VKM B-1428.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB078066.
Etymology: L. gen. n. sancti, of a saint; named perhaps in honor of Dr. Santos Soriano, from whose laboratory the type strain was supplied (etymology is not clear!).
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206.

¤ Chitinophaga sancti (Lewin 1969) Kämpfer et al. 2006, comb. nov.

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Flexibacter tractuosus (Lewin 1969) Leadbetter 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 23168= CIP 106410 = DSM 4126 = KCTC 2958 = LMG 8378 = NBRC 15989 = NCIMB 1408 = VKM B-1430.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP002349 (complete genome).
Synonym: "Microscilla tractuosa" Lewin 1969.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. tractuosus, that draws to itself; intended to mean drawn or clumped together.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: 1 LEWIN (R.A.): A classification of flexibacteria. Journal of General Microbiology, 1969, 58, 189-206. 2 LEADBETTER (E.R.): Genus II. Flexibacter Soriano 1945, 92, Lewin 1969, 192 emend. mut. char. In: R.E. BUCHANAN and N.E GIBBONS (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1974, pp. 105-107.

¤ Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010, comb. nov.

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