Title

Genus Chlorobium

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 8
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 0

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Chlorobium Nadson 1906, genus. (Type genus of the order ¤ Chlorobiales Gibbons and Murray 1978 [Approved Lists 1980]; type genus of the family ¤ Chlorobiaceae Copeland 1956 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Chlorobium limicola Nadson 1906 (Approved Lists 1980).
Recommended three-letter abbreviation: Chl. (see the file ¤ "Three-letter code for abbreviations of generic names").
Etymology: Gr. adj. chlôros, greenish-yellow, pale green; Gr. n. bios, life; N.L. neut. n. Chlorobium, green life.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: NADSON (G.A.): The morphology of inferior Algae. III. Chlorobium limicola Nads., the green chlorophyll bearing microbe (in Russian). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique, St. Petersbourg 1906, 6, 190.

Chlorobium Nadson 1906 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff 2003.
Type species: ¤ Chlorobium limicola Nadson 1906 (Approved Lists 1980).
Recommended three-letter abbreviation: Chl. (see the file ¤ "Three-letter code for abbreviations of generic names").
Etymology: Gr. adj. chlôros, greenish-yellow, pale green; Gr. n. bios, life; N.L. neut. n. Chlorobium, green life.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 According to Imhoff 2003, Chlorobium Nadson 1906 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Pelodictyon Lauterborn 1913 (Approved Lists 1980).
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 Imhof 2003 [1] also proposes an emendation of the species "Chlorobium ferrooxidans" effectively published in 1999 by Heising et al. [2]. However, "Chlorobium ferrooxidans" Heising et al. is not validly published and the emendation of this species is not cited in this file.
References:
1 IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article by Imhof 2003 in IJSEM Online
2 HEISING (S.), RICHTER (L.), LUDWIG (W.) and SCHINK (B.): Chlorobium ferrooxidans sp. nov., a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium that oxidizes ferrous iron in coculture with a Geospirillum sp. strain. Arch. Microbiol., 1999, 172, 116-124.
Original article Online

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Chlorobium chlorovibrioides Gorlenko et al. 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 1377.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y10649.
Etymology: Gr. adj. chlôros, greenish-yellow, pale green; L. v. vibro, to set in tremulous motion, move to and fro, vibrate; N.L. masc. n. vibrio, that which vibrates, and also a bacterial genus name of bacteria possessing a curved rod shape (Vibrio); L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. chlorovibrioides, green vibrio-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: GORLENKO (V.M.), CHEBOTAREV (E.N.) and KACHALKIN (V.I.): Participation of microorganisms in sulfur turnover in Pomiaretzkoe Lake. Mikrobiologiya, 1974, 43, 908-914.

Note: The type strain DSM 1377 is unavailable.
Reference: ICSB, SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE TAXONOMY OF THE PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA: Minutes of the meetings, 10 September 1997, Vienna, Austria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, 49, 925-926.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ "Chlorobaculum chlorovibrioides" (Gorlenko et al. 1974) Imhoff 2003, comb. nov.

Note: Warning, see the note for ¤ "Chlorobaculum chlorovibrioides".

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Chlorobium clathratiforme (Szafer 1911) Imhoff 2003, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) BU1 = DSM 5477.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y08108.
Basonym: ¤ Pelodictyon clathratiforme (Szafer 1911) Lauterborn 1913 (Approved Lists 1980).
Other synonyms: "Aphanothece clathratiformis" Szafer 1911, "Pelodictyon lauterbornii" Geitler in Geitler and Pascher 1925.
Etymology: L. part. adj. clathratus (from L. v. clathro, to furnish with a grate or lattice);  L. adj. suffix -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. clathratiforme, lattice-like.
Valid publication: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note 1: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, Chlorobium clathratiforme (Szafer 1911) Imhoff 2003 is not validly published because, at the time of publication, the type strain was not deposited in two publicly accessible service collections in different countries. According to the Judicial Opinion 81, authors or this name, or other scientists who wish to have this name validly published, should submit evidence of the deposit of the type strain in additional collections to the List Editor (either directly or via the IJSEM Editorial Office) before the next meeting of the Judicial Commission in Sapporo, Japan, in 2011. After that time, the name will be ruled not to have been validly published. If, after that deadline, the authors or other scientists wish to have this name validly published, this may be done by confirming that the name is in accordance with the requirements of the Code and either by requesting valid publication via the Validation Lists or by inclusion of the proposal in an original article in the IJSEM. The details of valid publication will then make reference to those publications. If authors or other scientists feel that an exception should be granted to Rule 30, requiring deposit of the type in two different collections in two different countries, they should contact the Editorial Office of the IJSEM.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

Note 2: J.F. Imhoff wrote "The 16S rDNA sequences of Pelodictyon clathratiforme PG and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme DSM 5477T are almost identical, and closely related to those of 'Chlorobium ferrooxidans' and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides. As already proposed (Imhoff, 1999), both species are transferred to the genus Chlorobium. Because Pelodictyon clathratiforme is the type species of the genus Pelodictyon, all members of the genus must be transferred to another genus. Because the different pigmentation, which was the main distinguishing feature between Pelodictyon clathratiforme and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme, has been disregarded as a species-determinative property, and due to 16S rDNA sequence identity and lack of a type culture of Pelodictyon clathratiforme, it is proposed to combine both species to consider strain DSM 5477T as the type strain of Chlorobium clathratiforme comb. nov."
Pelodictyon clathratiforme has the older epithet but it is not represented by a type - so if it is not represented by a type one should use Rule 18f to designate a type strain. If strain PG is taken to be "representative" then this may become the type strain (if it is deposited in two culture collections in different countries) and it remains the type if Pelodictyon clathratiforme and Pelodictyon phaeoclathratiforme are combined. Consequently, the Imhoff's proposal is illegitimate.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobium limicola Nadson 1906, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 245 = NBRC 103803.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP001097 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. n. limus, mud; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), dweller; N.L. n. limicola, the mud-dweller.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: NADSON (G.A.): The morphology of inferior Algae. III. Chlorobium limicola Nads., the green chlorophyll bearing microbe (in Russian). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique, St. Petersbourg 1906, 6, 190.

Chlorobium limicola Nadson 1906 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff 2003.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 245 = NBRC 103803.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP001097 (complete genome).
Etymology: L. n. limus, mud; L. suff. -cola (from L. n. incola), dweller; N.L. n. limicola, the mud-dweller.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobium luteolum (Schmidle 1901) Imhoff 2003, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 273.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000096.
Basonym: ¤ Pelodictyon luteolum (Schmidle 1901) Pfennig and Trüper 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).
Other synonyms: "Aphanothece luteola" Schmidle 1901, "Schmidlea luteola" (Schmidle) Lauterborn 1913, "Pelodictyon aggregatum" Perfil'ev 1914.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. luteolum, yellowish.
Valid publication: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: According to Rules 27(3) and 30, Chlorobium luteolum (Schmidle 1901) Imhoff 2003 is not validly published because, at the time of publication, the type strain was not deposited in two publicly accessible service collections in different countries. According to the Judicial Opinion 81, authors or this name, or other scientists who wish to have this name validly published, should submit evidence of the deposit of the type strain in additional collections to the List Editor (either directly or via the IJSEM Editorial Office) before the next meeting of the Judicial Commission in Sapporo, Japan, in 2011. After that time, the name will be ruled not to have been validly published. If, after that deadline, the authors or other scientists wish to have this name validly published, this may be done by confirming that the name is in accordance with the requirements of the Code and either by requesting valid publication via the Validation Lists or by inclusion of the proposal in an original article in the IJSEM. The details of valid publication will then make reference to those publications. If authors or other scientists feel that an exception should be granted to Rule 30, requiring deposit of the type in two different collections in two different countries, they should contact the Editorial Office of the IJSEM.
References:
1 EUZÉBY (J.P.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Status of strains that contravene Rules 27(3) and 30 of the Bacteriological Code. Request for an Opinion. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 293-301.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 JUDICIAL COMMISSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON SYSTEMATICS OF PROKARYOTES: Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1755-1763.
Opinion 81 in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobium phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 266.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000492.
Etymology: Gr. adj. phaeos, dark, brown; Gr. n. bakterion, rod; L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. phaeobacteroides,brown rod-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: PFENNIG (N.): Chlorobium phaeobacteroides nov. spec. und C. phaeovibrioides nov. spec. Zwei neue Arten der grünen Schwefelbakterien. Archiv fur Mikrobiologie, 1968, 63, 224-226.

Chlorobium phaeobacteroides Pfennig 1968 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff 2003.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 266.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: CP000492.
Etymology: Gr. adj. phaeos, dark, brown; Gr. n. bakterion, rod; L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. phaeobacteroides,brown rod-shaped.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobium phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 269.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y08105.
Etymology: Gr. adj. phaeos, dark, brown; L. v. vibro, to set in tremulous motion, move to and fro, vibrate; N.L. masc. n. vibrio, that which vibrates, and also a bacterial genus name of bacteria possessing a curved rod shape (Vibrio); L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. phaeovibrioides,brown vibrio-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: PFENNIG (N.): Chlorobium phaeobacteriodes nov. spec. und C. phaeovibrioides nov. spec. Zwei neue Arten der grünen Schwefelbakterien. Archiv fur Mikrobiologie, 1968, 63, 224-226.

Chlorobium phaeovibrioides Pfennig 1968 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff 2003.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 269.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y08105.
Etymology: Gr. adj. phaeos, dark, brown; L. v. vibro, to set in tremulous motion, move to and fro, vibrate; N.L. masc. n. vibrio, that which vibrates, and also a bacterial genus name of bacteria possessing a curved rod shape (Vibrio); L. suff. -oides (from Gr. suff. -eides, from Gr. n. eidos, that which is seen, form, shape, figure), ressembling, similar; N.L. neut. adj. phaeovibrioides,brown vibrio-shaped.
Reference: IMHOFF (J.F.): Phylogenetic taxonomy of the family Chlorobiaceae on the basis of 16S rRNA and fmo (Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) gene sequences. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 941-951.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Chlorobium tepidum Wahlund et al. 1996, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) TLS = ATCC 49652= CIP 105973 = DSM 12025 = NBRC 103806.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M58468.
Etymology: L. neut. adj. tepidum, moderately warm, lukewarm, tepid (optimum growth temperature: 47–48 °C; upper temperature limit for growth: about 52 °C).
References: Validation List no. 59. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 1189-1190. [WAHLUND (T.M.), WOESE (C.R.), CASTENHOLZ (R.W.) and MADIGAN (M.T.): A thermophilic green sulfur bacterium from New Zealand hot springs, Chlorobium tepidum sp. nov. Arch. Microbiol. 1991, 156, 81-90.]
Validation List no. 59 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Chlorobaculum tepidum (Wahlund et al. 1996) Imhoff 2003, comb. nov.

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Chlorobium vibrioforme Pelsh 1936, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) DSM 260.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: M62791.
Synonym: "Chlorobium vibrioformis" (sic) Pelsh 1936.
Etymology: L. v. vibro, to set in tremulous motion, move to and fro, vibrate; N.L. masc. n. vibrio, that which vibrates, and also a bacterial genus name of bacteria possessing a curved rod shape (Vibrio); L. adj. suffix -formis -is -e (from L. n. forma, figure, shape, appearance), -like, in the shape of; N.L. neut. adj. vibrioforme, vibrio-shaped.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: PELSH (A.D.): Hydrobiology of Karabugz Bay of the Kaspian Sea. Trudy Solyanoi Laboratorii, Vsesoyuznogo Instituta Metallurgi NISNKT. Izdatelstvo Akademya Nauk SSSR, Moscow, Leningrad, 1936, 5, 49-126.

¤ Prosthecochloris vibrioformis (Pelsh 1936) Imhoff 2003, comb. nov.

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