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Genus Azotobacter

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 8
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 2

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").


For a detailed description of this taxon see Bergey’s Manual of Systematics of Archaea and Bacteria (BMSAB).


 

Azotobacter Beijerinck 1901, genus. (Type genus of the family ¤ Azotobacteraceae Pribram 1933 [Approved Lists 1980]).
Type species: ¤ Azotobacter chroococcum Beijerinck 1901 (Approved Lists 1980).
Synonyms: "Parachromatium" Beijerinck 1903, "Azotomonas" Orla-Jensen 1909.
Etymology: N.L. n. azotum [from Fr. n. azote (from Gr. prep. a, not; Gr. n. zôê, life; N.Gr. n. azôê, not sustaining life)], nitrogen; N.L. masc. n. bacter, a rod; N.L. masc. n. Azotobacter, a nitrogen rod.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: BEIJERINCK (M.W.): Über oligonitrophile Mikroben. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1901, 7, 561-582.

Note: A consideration of the phenotypic determinative characteristics of the genera ¤ Azomonas Winogradsky 1938 (Approved Lists 1980) and Azotobacter Beijerinck 1901 (Approved Lists 1980) supports the synonymy of these genera as indicated by the sequence data. An investigation of these two genera, with a wider selection of strains, including the type species of ¤ Azomonas (¤ Azomonas agilis), and perhaps based on other genes, might support their synonymy. If they are established as a single genus, Azotobacter would take priority over Azomonas.
At the molecular level, the similarity of Azotobacter species housekeeping gene and 16S rRNA gene sequences with those of ¤ Pseudomonas, especially ¤ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (the type species of the genus), point to an intimate relationship between these taxa.
Reference: YOUNG (J.M.) and PARK (D.C.): Probable synonymy of the nitrogen-fixing genus Azotobacter and the genus Pseudomonas. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2007, 57, 2894-2901.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azotobacter armeniacus Thompson and Skerman 1981, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) N28 of Kirakosyan = WR-136 = DSM 2284 = JCM 21509.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175655.
Etymology: N.L. masc. adj. armeniacus, pertaining to Armenia, where the species was isolated.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 6. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 215-218.
Effective publication: THOMPSON (J.P.) and SKERMAN (V.B.D.): Azotobacteraceae: the taxonomy and ecology of the aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Academic Press, London, 1980, 405 pp.
Validation List no. 6 in IJSEM Online

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Azotobacter beijerinckii Lipman 1904, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 19360= CIP 106282 = DSM 378 = JCM 20742 = LMG 1265 = NCAIM B.01800 = NRRL B-14367 = NRRL B-14640 = VKM B-1615.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ308319.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. beijerinckii, of Beijerinck; named after M.W. Beijerinck of Delft, the Dutch microbiologist.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LIPMAN (J.G.): Soil bacteriological studies. Report of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 1904, 25, 237-289.

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Azotobacter chroococcum Beijerinck 1901, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 9043= DSM 2286 = JCM 20725 = JCM 21503 = LMG 8756 = NBRC 102613 = NCAIM B.01391 = NRRL B-14346 = NRRL B-14637 = VKM B-1616.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175653.
Synonyms: "Bacillus azotobacter" Löhnis and Hanzawa 1914, "Bacillus chroococcus" Buchanan 1925.
Etymology: Gr. n. chroa, color; N.L. masc. n. coccus (from Gr. masc. n. kokkos, grain, seed), coccus; N.L. neut. n. chroococcum, colored coccus.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: BEIJERINCK (M.W.): Über oligonitrophile Mikroben. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II, 1901, 7, 561-582.

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Azotobacter macrocytogenes Jensen 1955, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) O of Jensen = WR 111 = ATCC 12335= CIP 103928 = DSM 721 = LMG 1266 = NCAIM B.01790 = NCIB (now NCIMB) 8700.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175654.
Synonyms: "Beijerinckia macrocytogenes" (Jensen 1955) Rubenchik 1959, "Azomonas macrocytogenes" (Jensen 1955) Baillie et al. 1962.
Etymology: Gr. adj. makros, length, large; Gr. n. kutos, hollow, vessel, jar and, in biology, a cell; N.L. suff. -genes (from Gr. v. gennaô, to produce), producing; N.L. part. adj. macrocytogenes, large cell producing.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: JENSEN (H.L.): Azotobacter macrocytogenes n. sp., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium resistant to acid reaction. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 1955, 5, 280-294.

¤ Azomonotrichon macrocytogenes (Jensen 1955) Thompson and Skerman 1981, comb. nov.

¤ Azomonas macrocytogenes (Jensen 1955) New and Tchan 1982, comb. nov.

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Azotobacter nigricans Krasil'nikov 1949, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 35009= DSM 2288 = LMG 2816 = UQM 1967.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175651.
Etymology: L. adj. nigricans, blackish.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: KRASIL'NIKOV (N.A.): Guide to the Bacteria and Actinomycetes. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1949, pp. 1-830.

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

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Azotobacter nigricans subsp. achromogenes Thompson and Skerman 1981, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) A-2 of Jensen = WR-41.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: Gr. pref. a-, not; Gr. n. chroma, color; N.L. suff. -genes (from Gr. v. gennaô, to produce), producing; N.L. adj. achromogenes, not producing color.
Valid publication: Validation List no. 6. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 215-218.
Effective publication: THOMPSON (J.P.) and SKERMAN (V.B.D.): Azotobacteraceae: the taxonomy and ecology of the aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Academic Press, London, 1980, 405 pp.
Validation List no. 6 in IJSEM Online

Note: The type strain is currently not available from a recognized culture collection.
Reference: YARZA (P.), SPRÖER (C.), SWIDERSKI (J.), MROTZEK (N.), SPRING (S.), TINDALL (B.J.), GRONOW (S.), PUKALL (R.), KLENK (H.P.), LANG (E.), VERBARG (S.), CROUCH (A.), LILBURN (T.), BECK (B.), UNOSSON (C.), CARDEW (S.), MOORE (E.R.B.), GOMILA (M.), NAKAGAWA (Y.), JANSSENS (D.), DE VOS (P.), PEIREN (J.), SUTTELS (T.), CLERMONT (D.), BIZET (C.), SAKAMOTO (M.), IIDA (T.), KUDO (T.), KOSAKO (Y.), OSHIDA (Y.), OHKUMA (M.), ARAHAL (D.R.), SPIECK (E.), POMMERENING ROESER (A.), FIGGE (M.), PARK (D.), BUCHANAN (P.), CIFUENTES (A.), MUNOZ (R.), EUZEBY (J.P.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.), LUDWIG (W.), AMANN (R.), GLÖCKNER (F.O.) and RÓSSELLO-MÓRA (R.): Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2013, 36, 69-73.
Publication online

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Azotobacter nigricans subsp. nigricans (Krasil'nikov 1949) Thompson and Skerman 1981, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 35009= DSM 2288 = LMG 2816 = UQM 1967.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175651.
Etymology: L. adj. nigricans, blackish.
Valid publication: HOWEY (R.T.), LOCK (C.M.) and MOORE (L.V.H.): Subspecies names automatically created by Rule 46. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 317-319.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Krasil'nikov 1949, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Azotobacter nigricans subsp. nigricans (Krasil'nikov 1949) Thompson and Skerman 1981 is automatically created by the valid publication of Azotobacter nigricans subsp. achromogenes Thompson and Skerman 1981 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Azotobacter paspali Döbereiner 1966, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) Ax-8 of Döbereiner = WR-129 = ATCC 23833= DSM 2283 = LMG 3864 = NBRC 102228 = NCAIM B.01794 = NRRL B-14628.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ308318.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. paspali, of Paspalum (the generic name of a grass).
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: DÖBEREINER (J.): Azotobacter paspali, sp. n. una bacteria fixadora de nitragenio na rizosfera de Paspalum. Pesquisas Agropecuar Brasil, 1966, 1, 357-365.

¤ Azorhizophilus paspali (Döbereiner 1966) Thompson and Skerman 1981, comb. nov.

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Azotobacter salinestris Page and Shivprasad 1991, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) 184 = ATCC 49674= DSM 11553 = JCM 21483 = NBRC 102611.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175656.
Etymology: L. adj. salinus, salted, saline; L. suff. -estris, suffix meaning belonging to, living in; N.L. masc. adj. salinestris, living in saline environments.
Valid publication: PAGE (W.J.) and SHIVPRASAD (S.): Azotobacter salinestris sp. nov., a sodium-dependent, microaerophilic, and aeroadaptive nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41, 369-376.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Azotobacter vinelandii Lipman 1903, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) ATCC 478= DSM 2289 = JCM 21475 = LMG 8758 = NBRC 102612 = NCCB 26007 = NRRL B-14641 = VKM B-1617.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB175657.
Etymology: N.L. gen. n. vinelandii, of Vineland; named after Vineland, New Jersey, where the species was first isolated.
Approved Lists reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition).
Original publication: LIPMAN (J.G.): Experiments on the transformation and fixation of nitrogen by bacteria. Report of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 1903, 24, 217-285.

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