Genus Alcaligenes

Warning: In the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, an arrow () only indicates the sequence of valid publication of names and does not mean that the last name in the sequence must be used (see: Introduction).

Number of species cited in this file: 15
Number of subspecies cited in this file: 8

Classification (Warning: see also the file "Classification of prokaryotes: Introduction").

 

Alcaligenes Castellani and Chalmers 1919, genus. (Type genus of the family ¤ Alcaligenaceae De Ley et al. 1986).
Type species: ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980).
Etymology: N.L. n. alcali (from Arabic article al, the; Arabic n. qaliy, ashes of saltwort), alcali; N.L. suff. -genes (from Gr. v. gennaô, to produce), producing; N.L. masc. n. Alcaligenes, alkali-producing (bacteria).
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [CASTELLANI (A.) and CHALMERS (A.J.) (editors): Manual of Tropical Medicine, 3rd ed., Williams Wood and Co., New York, 1919.]

Note: According to Kersters and De Ley 1984, Alcaligenes Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980) is an earlier heterotypic synonym of ¤ Achromobacter Yabuuchi and Yano 1981.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357. [KERSTERS (K.) and DE LEY (J.): Genus Alcaligenes. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 361-373.]
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes aestus Baumann et al. 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 134 = ATCC 27128 = DSM 4739 = IAM 12551 = LMG 3449 = NCIMB 1980.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: L. n. aestus -us, the periodical flux and reflux or ebb and flow of the sea, the tide; L. gen. n. aestus, of the tide.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [BAUMANN (L.), BAUMANN (P.), MANDEL (M.) and ALLEN (R.D.): Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 110, 402-429.]

¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, comb. nov.

¤ Deleya aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Akagawa and Yamasato 1989, comb. nov.

Note: ¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Hendrie et al. 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) and ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari Austin et al. 1981 are members of a single species of the genus ¤ Deleya Baumann et al. 1983. Akagawa and Yamasato 1989 invoked Rules 23a and 51b of the Bacteriological Code (1976 Revision) and came to the conclusion that the oldest synonym within these three species was ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus, and, therefore, proposed that the combination ¤ Deleya aquamarina be created, and that ¤ Deleya aesta be a synonym of ¤ Deleya aquamarina.
Reference: AKAGAWA (M.) and YAMASATO (K.): Synonymy of Alcaligenes aquamarinus, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari, and Deleya aesta: Deleya aquamarina comb. nov. as the type species of the genus Deleya. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 462-466.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Deleya, ¤ Deleya aesta, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus and ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. Despite the fact that ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus is the earlier synonym, ¤ Deleya aesta Baumann et al. 1983 has priority as nomenclatural type of the genus ¤ Deleya.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Halomonas, ¤ Deleya aesta, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus and ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. The earlier synonym does have priority [Rule 41a(2)] and the correct combination is ¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes aquamarinus (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Hendrie et al. 1974, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ZoBell and Upham 558 = ATCC 14400 = CCUG 16157 = CIP 105454 = DSM 30161 = IAM 12550 = LMG 2853 = NCIMB (formerly NCMB) 557.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ306888.
Synonyms: "Achromobacter aquamarinus" ZoBell and Upham 1944, "Bacterium aquamarinum" (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Krasil'nikov 1949.
Etymology: L. n. aqua, water; L. adj. marinus -a -um, of the sea, marine; L. masc. adj. aquamarinus, pertaining to seawater.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 ZOBELL (C.E.) and UPHAM (H.C.): A list of marine bacteria including descriptions of sixty new species. Bulletin Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California (Technical Series), 1944, 5, 239-292. 2 HENDRIE (M.S.), HOLDING (A.J.) and SHEWAN (J.M.): Emended descriptions of the genus Alcaligenes and of Alcaligenes faecalis and proposal that the generic name Achromobacter be rejected. Status of the named species of Alcaligenes and Achromobacter. Request for an opinion. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1974, 24, 534-550.]

¤ Deleya aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Akagawa and Yamasato 1989, comb. nov.

Note: Alcaligenes aquamarinus (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Hendrie et al. 1974 (Approved Lists 1980), ¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, and ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari Austin et al. 1981 are members of a single species of the genus ¤ Deleya Baumann et al. 1983. Akagawa and Yamasato 1989 invoked Rules 23a and 51b of the Bacteriological Code (1976 Revision) and came to the conclusion that the oldest synonym within these three species was Alcaligenes aquamarinus, and, therefore, proposed that the combination ¤ Deleya aquamarina be created, and that ¤ Deleya aesta be a synonym of ¤ Deleya aquamarina.
Reference: AKAGAWA (M.) and YAMASATO (K.): Synonymy of Alcaligenes aquamarinus, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari, and Deleya aesta: Deleya aquamarina comb. nov. as the type species of the genus Deleya. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 462-466.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Deleya, Alcaligenes aquamarinus, ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari and ¤ Deleya aesta are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. Despite the fact that Alcaligenes aquamarinus is the earlier synonym, ¤ Deleya aesta Baumann et al. 1983 has priority as nomenclatural type of the genus ¤ Deleya.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online.

¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Halomonas, Alcaligenes aquamarinus, ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari and ¤ Deleya aesta are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. The earlier synonym does have priority [Rule 41a(2)] and the correct combination is ¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes aquatilis Van Trappen et al. 2005, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain CCUG 50924 = LMG 22996.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ937889.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. aquatilis, living, growing or found in, or near, water, aquatic.
Reference: VAN TRAPPEN (S.), TAN (T.L.), SAMYN (E.) and VANDAMME (P.): Alcaligenes aquatilis sp. nov., a novel bacterium from sediments of the Weser Estuary, Germany, and a salt marsh on Shem Creek in Charleston Harbor, USA. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 2571-2575.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes cupidus Baumann et al. 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 79 = ATCC 27124 = CCUG 16075 = CIP 103199 = DSM 4740 = JCM 20632 = LMG 3448.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L42615.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. cupidus, desiring.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [BAUMANN (L.), BAUMANN (P.), MANDEL (M.) and ALLEN (R.D.): Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 110, 402-429.]

¤ Deleya cupida (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, comb. nov.

¤ Halomonas cupida (Baumann et al. 1972) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes defragrans Foss et al. 1998, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 54Pin = CCUG 39790 = CIP 105602 = DSM 12141 = LMG 18538.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ005447.
Etymology: L. prep. de, away; L. part. adj. fragrans, emitting a smell, sweet-smelling, fragrant; N.L. part. adj. defragrans, annihilating fragrance, referring to the capicity to degrade monoterpenes.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 67. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1083-1084. [FOSS (S.), HEYEN (U.) and HARDER (J.): Alcaligenes defragrans sp. nov., description of four strains isolated on alkenoic monoterpenes (+)-menthene, a-pinene, 2-carene, and α-phellandrene) and nitrate. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 1998, 21, 237-244.]
Validation List no. 67 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

¤ Castellaniella defragrans (Foss et al. 1998) Kämpfer et al. 2006, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, sp. nov., nom. rev.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 15173 = CCUG 407 = CIP 77.15 = DSM 30026 = IFO (now NBRC) 15125 = JCM 5490 = JCM 9657 = LMG 1231 = NCTC 8582.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ278451.
Synonym: "Alcaligenes denitrificans" Leifson and Hugh 1954.
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying.
Reference: RÜGER (H.J.) and TAN (T.L.): Separation of Alcaligenes denitrificans sp. nov., nom. rev. from Alcaligenes faecalis on the basis of DNA base composition, DNA homology, and nitrate reduction. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 85-89.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

¤ Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.

¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983.

Note: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 are distinct species. Formal nomenclatural modifications are not required as both Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 were validly published.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Yabuuchi et al. 1998, comb. nov.

¤ Achromobacter denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Coenye et al. 2003, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kersters and De Ley 1984, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 15173 = CCUG 407 = CIP 77.15 = DSM 30026 = IFO (now NBRC) 15125 = JCM 5490 = JCM 9657 = LMG 1231 = NCTC 8582.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ278451.
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357. [KERSTERS (K.) and DE LEY (J.): Genus Alcaligenes. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 361-373.]
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kersters and De Ley 1984 is automatically created by the valid publication of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984 which appears on Validation List no. 15 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)]. However, Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kersters and De Ley 1984 is not cited in Validation List no. 15 and this name seems inadvertently to have been omitted from this list. This error has been corrected by Euzéby and Kudo. The date of valid publication of this subspecies is that of List no. 15 (16 July 1984).
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.) and KUDO (T.): Corrigenda to the Validation Lists. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1933-1938.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.

Note: Although the name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans has been validly published, it has not priority.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983.

Note: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 are distinct species. Formal nomenclatural modifications are not required as both Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 were validly published.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Yabuuchi et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Hugh 2838 = Yabuuchi KM 543 = ATCC 27061 = CCUG 12689 = CIP 71.32 = DSM 10346 = DSM 2402 = IFO (now NBRC) 15126 = JCM 9659 = KM543 = LMG 1863 = NCTC 10807 = NRRL B-4082.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y14908.
Basonym: ¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981.
Other synonym: "Achromobacter xylosoxidans" Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylosum (from Gr. n. xulon, wood), xylose, wood sugar; N.L. v. oxydo (from Gr. adj. oxus, sour, acid), to oxidize; N.L. part. adj. xylosoxydans, oxidizing xylose.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 15. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 355-357. [KERSTERS (K.) and DE LEY (J.): Genus Alcaligenes. In: N.R. KRIEG and J.G. HOLT (editors), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, first edition, vol. 1, The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1984, pp. 361-373.]
Validation List no. 15 in IJSEM Online

Note: The spelling is xylosoxidans in the nomenclatural name Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981. However, the spelling is xylosoxydans in the nomenclatural name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984. In Latin, "y" is a letter borrowed from the Greek in order to represent the Greek upsilon (υ). The root of the word is the Greek adjective οςυζ (Latin transliteration oxys) and the spelling xylosoxydans seems better than xylosoxidans.

¤ Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.

Note: Although the name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans has been validly published, it has not priority.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.

Note: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986 are distinct species. Formal nomenclatural modifications are not required as both Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 were validly published. The name Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, however, should be used only for strains previously classified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981 or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes eutrophus Davis 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17697 = CCUG 1776 = CIP 104763 = DSM 531 = JCM 11282 = LMG 1199 = NBRC 102504 = NCCB 82041 = NRRL B-4383 = NRRL B-14690.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ416498.
Etymology: Gr. prep. eu, good; Gr. n. trophos, feeder; N.L. masc. adj. eutrophus, well nourished.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [DAVIS (D.H.). In: DAVIS (D.H.), DOUDOROFF (M.), STANIER (R.Y.) and MANDEL (M.): Proposal to reject the genus Hydrogenomonas. Taxonomic implications. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1969, 19, 375-390.]

¤ Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) Yabuuchi et al. 1996, comb. nov.

¤ Wautersia eutropha (Davis 1969) Vaneechoutte et al. 2004, comb. nov.

¤ Cupriavidus necator Makkar and Casida 1987.

Note: According to Vandamme and Coenye 2004, Alcaligenes eutrophus Davis 1969 [homotypic synonyms ¤ Ralstonia eutropha (Davis 1969) Yabuuchi et al. 1996, and ¤ Wautersia eutropha (Davis 1969) Vaneechoutte et al. 2004] is a heterotypic synonym of ¤ Cupriavidus necator Makkar and Casida 1987.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.) and COENYE (T.): Taxonomy of the genus Cupriavidus: a tale of lost and found. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2004, 54, 2285-2289.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes faecalis Castellani and Chalmers 1919, species. (Type species of the genus.)
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8750 = CCUG 1814 = CIP 55.84 = CIP 60.80 = DSM 30030 = HAMBI 1907 = IFO (now NBRC) 13111 = JCM 1474 = JCM 20522 = JCM 20663 = LMG 1229 = NCAIM B.01104 = NCIMB 8156 = NCTC 11953 = VKM B-1518.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D88008.
Etymology: L. n. faex faecis, dregs, faeces; L. masc. suff. -alis, suffix denoting pertaining to; N.L. masc. adj. faecalis, pertaining to faeces, fecal.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [CASTELLANI (A.) and CHALMERS (A.J.) (editors): Manual of Tropical Medicine, 3rd ed., Williams Wood and Co., New York, 1919.]

Note: Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies (see: below).

Alcaligenes faecalis Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Rehfuss and Urban 2005.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8750 = CCUG 1814 = CIP 55.84 = CIP 60.80 = DSM 30030 = HAMBI 1907 = IFO (now NBRC) 13111 = JCM 1474 = LMG 1229 = NCAIM B.01104 = NCIMB 8156 = NCTC 11953 = VKM B-1518.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D88008.
Etymology: L. n. faex faecis, dregs, faeces; L. masc. suff. -alis, suffix denoting pertaining to; N.L. masc. adj. faecalis, pertaining to faeces, fecal.
References: List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 3. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 11. [REHFUSS (M.) and URBAN (J.): Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2005, 28, 421-429.]
List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. 3 in IJSEM Online - Original article Online

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Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis (Castellani and Chalmers 1919) Austin et al. 1981, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 8750 = CCUG 1814 = CIP 55.84 = CIP 60.80 = DSM 30030 = HAMBI 1907 = IFO (now NBRC) 13111 = JCM 1474 = JCM 20522 = JCM 20663 = LMG 1229 = NCAIM B.01104 = NCIMB 8156 = NCTC 11953 = VKM B-1518.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: D88008.
Etymology: L. n. faex faecis, dregs, faeces; L. masc. suff. -alis, suffix denoting pertaining to; N.L. masc. adj. faecalis, pertaining to faeces, fecal.
Reference: EUZÉBY (J.P.): Subspecies names automatically created by Rule 46. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 830.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The original authorship, Castellani and Chalmers 1919, was corrected according to the new Rule 40d.
Reference: GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
2 The subspecies name (Castellani and Chalmers 1919) Austin et al. 1981 is automatically created by the valid publication of ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari Austin et al. 1981 or by the valid publication of ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis Schroll et al. 2001 [Rule 40d (formerly Rule 46)].

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Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari Austin et al. 1981, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain L1 = ATCC 33127 = LMG 3339 = NCIMB 2116.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: not found.
Etymology: N.L. n. Homarus, generic name of the lobster; N.L. gen. n. homari, of Homarus, of the lobster.
Reference: AUSTIN (B.), RODGERS (C.J.), FORNS (J.M.) and COLWELL (R.R.): Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari subsp. nov., a new group of bacteria isolated from moribund lobsters. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 72-76.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Deleya aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Akagawa and Yamasato 1989, comb. nov.

Note: Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari Austin et al. 1981, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Hendrie et al. 1974 (Approved Lists 1980) and ¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983 are members of a single species of the genus ¤ Deleya Baumann et al. 1983. Akagawa and Yamasato 1989 invoked Rules 23a and 51b of the Bacteriological Code (1976 Revision) and came to the conclusion that the oldest synonym within these three species was ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus, and, therefore, proposed that the combination ¤ Deleya aquamarina be created, and that ¤ Deleya aesta be a synonym of ¤ Deleya aquamarina.
Reference: AKAGAWA (M.) and YAMASATO (K.): Synonymy of Alcaligenes aquamarinus, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari, and Deleya aesta: Deleya aquamarina comb. nov. as the type species of the genus Deleya. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1989, 39, 462-466.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Deleya aesta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Deleya, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus, and ¤ Deleya aesta are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. Despite the fact that ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus is the earlier synonym, ¤ Deleya aesta Baumann et al. 1983 has priority as nomenclatural type of the genus ¤ Deleya.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

Note: When placed in the genus ¤ Halomonas, Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. homari, ¤ Alcaligenes aquamarinus, and ¤ Deleya aesta are considered to be heterotypic synonyms. The earlier synonym does have priority [Rule 41a(2)] and the correct combination is ¤ Halomonas aquamarina (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Dobson and Franzmann 1996.
Reference: TINDALL (B.J.): The nomenclatural type of the genus Deleya and the consequences of Deleya aesta and Alcaligenes aquamarinus being synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2003, 53, 1699-1700.
Original article in IJSEM Online

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Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis Schroll et al. 2001, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain G = CCUG 48316 = CIP 106866 = DSM 13975.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ242986.
Etymology: Gr. prep. para, beside, alongside of, near, like; N.L. adj. faecalis, specific epithet; N.L. masc. adj. parafaecalis, intended to mean alongside of the species Alcaligenes faecalis.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 82. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2001, 51, 1619-1620. [SCHROLL (G.), BUSSE (H.J.), PARRER (G.), RÖLLEKE (S.), LUBITZ (W.) and DENNER (E.B.M.): Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis subsp. nov., a bacterium accumulating poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from acetone-butanol bioprocess residues. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2001, 24, 37-43.]
Validation List no. 82 in IJSEM Online (PDF Format) - Effective publication Online

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Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus Rehfuss and Urban 2006, subsp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain J = DSM 16503 = NRRL B-41076.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AY296718.
Etymology: N.L. n. phenol, common name for industrial solvent hydroxybenzene; L. suff. -icus -a -um, used in adjectives with the sense of belonging to; N.L. masc. adj. phenolicus, pertaining to phenol.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 107. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2006, 56, 1-6. [REHFUSS (M.) and URBAN (J.): Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus subsp. nov. a phenol-degrading, denitrifying bacterium isolated from a graywater bioprocessor. Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 2005, 28, 421-429.]
Validation List no. 107 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Alcaligenes latus Palleroni and Palleroni 1978, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 29712 = CIP 103458 = DSM 1122 = IAM 12599 = LMG 3321 = NBRC 102462.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB188125.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. latus, broad.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [PALLERONI (N.J.) and PALLERONI (A.V.): Alcaligenes latus, a new species of hydrogen-utilizing bacteria. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1978, 28, 416-424.]

¤ Azohydromonas lata (Palleroni and Palleroni 1978) Xie and Yokota 2005, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes pacificus corrig. Baumann et al. 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 62 = ATCC 27122 = CIP 103200 = DSM 4742 = JCM 20633 = LMG 3446.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: L42616.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. pacificus, pacific, pertaining to the Pacific Ocean.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [BAUMANN (L.), BAUMANN (P.), MANDEL (M.) and ALLEN (R.D.): Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 110, 402-429.]

Note: The original spelling, Alcaligenes pacifus (sic), has been corrected by Hill et al. 1984.
Reference: HILL (L.R.), SKERMAN (V.B.D.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.): Corrigenda to the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names edited for the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 508-511.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Deleya pacifica (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, comb. nov.

¤ Halomonas pacifica (Baumann et al. 1972) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes paradoxus Davis 1969, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 17713 = CCUG 1777 = CIP 103459 = DSM 30034 = IFO (now NBRC) 15149 = JCM 20526 = JCM 20895 = LMG 1797 = VKM B-1329.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ420329.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. paradoxus, strange, contrary to all expectation, in reference to the chemolithotrophic and/or organotrophic metabolism of the organism.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [DAVIS (D.H.). In: DAVIS (D.H.), DOUDOROFF (M.), STANIER (R.Y.) and MANDEL (M.): Proposal to reject the genus Hydrogenomonas. Taxonomic implications. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1969, 19, 375-390.]

¤ Variovorax paradoxus (Davis 1969) Willems et al. 1991, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes piechaudii Kiredjian et al. 1986, sp. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Hugh 366-5 = ATCC 43552 = CCUG 724 = CIP 60.75 = DSM 10342 = IAM 12591 = LMG 1873 = NBRC 102461 = NCTC 11970.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB010841.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. piechaudii, of Piechaud, to honor M. Piechaud, a bacteriologist at the Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter piechaudii (Kiredjian et al. 1986) Yabuuchi et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac 1955) Aragno and Schlegel 1977, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 15749 = CIP 77.26 = DSM 653 = LMG 1866 = VKM B-1333.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AB010840.
Synonyms: "Hydrogenomonas ruhlandii" Packer and Vishniac 1955, "Pseudomonas ruhlandii" (Packer and Vishniac 1955) Davis in Davis et al. 1969.
Etymology: N.L. gen. masc. n. ruhlandii, of Ruhland, named for the German microbiologist W. Ruhland, who studied the physiology of the hydrogen bacteria.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 PACKER (L.) and VISHNIAC (W.): Chemosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and characteristics of hydrogenase in resting cell suspensions of Hydrogenomonas ruhlandii nov. spec. Journal of Bacteriology, 1955, 70, 216-223. 2 ARAGNO (M.) and SCHLEGEL (H.): Alcaligenes ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., a peritrichous hydrogen bacterium previously assigned to Pseudomonas. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1977, 27, 279-281.]

¤ Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac 1955) Yabuuchi et al. 1998, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes venustus Baumann et al. 1972, species.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain 86 = ATCC 27125 = CCUG 16063 = CIP 103201 = DSM 4743 = JCM 20634 = LMG 3445.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ306894.
Etymology: L. masc. adj. venustus, lovely, beautiful.
References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [BAUMANN (L.), BAUMANN (P.), MANDEL (M.) and ALLEN (R.D.): Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 1972, 110, 402-429.]

¤ Deleya venusta (Baumann et al. 1972) Baumann et al. 1983, comb. nov.

¤ Halomonas venusta (Baumann et al. 1972) Dobson and Franzmann 1996, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Hugh 2838 = Yabuuchi KM 543 = ATCC 27061 = CCUG 12689 = CIP 71.32 = DSM 10346 = DSM 2402 = IFO (now NBRC) 15126 = JCM 9659 = KM543 = LMG 1863 = NCTC 10807 = NRRL B-4082.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y14908.
Basonym: ¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981.
Other synonyms: ¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984, "Achromobacter xylosoxidans" Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylosum (from Gr. n. xulon, wood), xylose, wood sugar; N.L. v. oxido (from Gr. adj. oxus, sour, acid), to oxidize; N.L. part. adj. xylosoxidans, oxidizing xylose.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Notes:
1 The spelling is xylosoxidans in the nomenclatural names Alcaligenes xylosoxidans and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981. However, the spelling is xylosoxydans in the nomenclatural name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984. In Latin, "y" is a letter borrowed from the Greek in order to represent the Greek upsilon (υ). The root of the word is the Greek adjective οςυζ (Latin transliteration oxys) and the spelling xylosoxydans seems better than xylosoxidans.
2 The name Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 should be used only for strains previously classified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981 or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, sp. nov., nom. rev. emend. Yabuuchi et al. 1998.

Note: The results of phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences and a difference of more 10% in GC contents of DNA demonstrate that ¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, the type species of the genus Achromobacter, and ¤ Alcaligenes faecalis Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980), the type species of the genus Alcaligenes, belong to the 2 distinct genera ¤ Achromobacter Yabuuchi and Yano 1981 emend. Yabuuchi et al. 1998 and Alcaligenes Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980), respectively.
References: VALIDATION LIST no. 67 (footnote ‡). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1998, 48, 1083-1084. [YABUUCHI (E.), KAWAMURA (Y.), KOSAKO (Y.) and EZAKI (T.): Emendation of the genus Achromobacter and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano) and proposal of Achromobacter ruhlandii (Packer and Vishniac) comb. nov., Achromobacter piechaudii (Kiredjian et al.) comb. nov., and Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1998, 42, 429-438.]
Validation List no. 67 in IJSEM Online - Effective publication Online

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Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain ATCC 15173 = CCUG 407 = CIP 77.15 = DSM 30026 = IFO (now NBRC) 15125 = JCM 5490 = JCM 9657 = LMG 1231 = NCTC 8582.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: AJ278451.
Basonym: ¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983.
Other synonyms: ¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, "Alcaligenes denitrificans" Leifson and Hugh 1954.
Etymology: N.L. part. adj. denitrificans, denitrifying.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983 is illegitimate because the epithet xylosoxidans has priority. Kiredjian et al. 1986 correct this error with the formal proposal of the proper combination: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.

¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983.

Note: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 are distinct species. Formal nomenclatural modifications are not required as both Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 were validly published.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Yabuuchi et al. 1998, comb. nov.

¤ Achromobacter denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Coenye et al. 2003, comb. nov.

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Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986, comb. nov.
Type strain: (see also StrainInfo.net) strain Hugh 2838 = Yabuuchi KM 543 = ATCC 27061 = CCUG 12689 = CIP 71.32 = DSM 10346 = DSM 2402 = IFO (now NBRC) 15126 = JCM 9659 = KM543 = LMG 1863 = NCTC 10807 = NRRL B-4082.
Sequence accession no. (16S rRNA gene) for the type strain: Y14908.
Basonym: ¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981.
Other synonyms: ¤ Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984, "Achromobacter xylosoxidans" Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971.
Etymology: N.L. n. xylosum (from Gr. n. xulon, wood), xylose, wood sugar; N.L. v. oxido (from Gr. adj. oxus, sour, acid), to oxidize; N.L. part. adj. xylosoxidans, oxidizing xylose.
Reference: KIREDJIAN (M.), HOLMES (B.), KERSTERS (K.), GUILVOUT (I.) and DE LEY (J.): Alcaligenes piechaudii, a new species from human clinical specimens and the environment. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 282-287.
Original article in IJSEM Online

Note: The name Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp. xylosoxydans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kersters and De Ley 1984 is illegitimate because the epithet xylosoxidans has priority. Kiredjian et al. 1986 correct this error with the formal proposal of the proper combination: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans.

¤ Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.

Note: Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (Rüger and Tan 1983) Kiredjian et al. 1986 are distinct species. Formal nomenclatural modifications are not required as both Alcaligenes denitrificans (ex Leifson and Hugh 1954) Rüger and Tan 1983, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986 were validly published. The name Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, however, should be used only for strains previously classified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981 or Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (Yabuuchi and Yano 1981) Kiredjian et al. 1986.
Reference: VANDAMME (P.), HEYNDRICKX (M.), VANCANNEYT (M.), HOSTE (B.), DE VOS (P.), FALSEN (E.), KERSTERS (K.) and HINZ (K.H.): Bordetella trematum sp. nov., isolated from wounds and ear infections in humans, and reassessment of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 849-858.
Original article in IJSEM Online

¤ Achromobacter xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans (ex Yabuuchi and Ohyama 1971) Yabuuchi and Yano 1981, comb. nov.

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