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Alterations to the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)

Introduction

The Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision) [1] was published in 1992, and it is freely available on the Internet: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=icnb.

According to Rule 1b, alterations to this Code have been made by the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) and the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP). Of course, such changes do not appear in the online edition of the Code. In oder to help bacteriologists, this file provides the published changes proposed by the Judicial Commission [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and accepted by the ICSB/ICSP at one of its plenary sessions [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13].
The General consideration 5, and Rules 18a, 18f, and 30 have been altered several times, but only the last changes are listed below.
From January 2000, beginning with volume 50, the title of the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (IJSB) is changed to International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM) [14]. As a consequence of this change, the acronym 'IJSB' must be changed to 'IJSB/IJSEM'.

References

1 LAPAGE (S.P.), SNEATH (P.H.A.), LESSEL (E.F.), SKERMAN (V.B.D.), SEELIGER (H.P.R.) and CLARK (W.A.): International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1990 Revision). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1992.
Online edition
2 FREDERIKSEN (W.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 2 and 6 July 1994, Prague, Czech Republic. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 195-196.
Original article in IJSB Online
3 LABEDA (D.P.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, VIIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22 August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 240-241.
4 DE VOS (P.) and TRÜPER (H.G.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. IXth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 14, 15 and 18 August 1999, Sydney, Australia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2239-2244.
Original article in IJSEM Online
5 DE VOS (P.), TRÜPER (H.G.) and TINDALL (B.J.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 525-532.
Original article in IJSEM Online
6 TINDALL (B.J.), DE VOS (P.) and TRÜPER (H.G.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes XIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 23, 24 and 27 July 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1737-1745.
Original article in IJSEM Online
7 GARRITY (G.M.), LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2775-2780.
Original article in IJSEM Online
8 GOODFELLOW (M.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, XVIth International Congress of Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 2, 3, and 5 July 1994, Prague, Czech Republic. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1995, 45, 613-615.
Original article in IJSB Online
9 LABEDA (D.P.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology, VIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17, 18, and 22 August 1996, Jersusalem, Israel. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 597-600.
Original article in IJSB Online
10 LABEDA (D.P.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. IXth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 14 and 17 August 1999, Sydney, Australia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 2000, 50, 2245-2247.
Original article in IJSEM Online
11 SADDLER (G.S.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, Xth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 28 and 30 July 2002, Paris, France. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2005, 55, 533-537.
Original article in IJSEM Online
12 LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes XIth International (IUMS) Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology. Minutes of the meetings, 23, 24, 26 and 28 July 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58, 1746-1752.
Original article in IJSEM Online
13 LABEDA (D.P.) and OREN (A.): International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. XIIth International (IUMS) Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4, 5 and 7 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2011, 61, 2781-2789.
Original article in IJSEM Online
14 STACKEBRANDT (E.) and TINDALL (B.J.): International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology will become International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology from January 2000. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 1999, 49, 1323.
Original article in IJSEM Online

 

GENERAL CONSIDERATION 5

Original wording

This Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria applies to all bacteria. The nomenclature of certain other microbial groups is provided for by other Codes: fungi and algae by the Botanical Code, protozoa by the Zoological Code, and viruses by the Virological Code when it is approved (see Appendix 1).

New wording

This Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes applies to all Prokaryotes. The nomenclature of eukaryotic microbial groups is provided for by other codes: fungi and algae by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, protozoa by the Zoological Code. The nomenclature of viruses is provided for by the Virological Code when it is approved (see Appendix 1).

Note. 'Prokaryotes' covers those organisms that are variously recognized as e.g. Schizomycetes, Bacteria, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Archaeobacteria, Archaea, Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria. 

Remark

As a logical consequence, the proposal to rename the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria to International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes was unanimously accepted by the ICSB (now ICSP).
As a consequence of this change, the list of necessary changes of the word 'bacteria' to 'prokaryotes' throughout the Code and the Statutes of the ICSB, including the name of the ICSB itself to 'International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes', was unanimously accepted by the ICSB (now ICSP).


NEW GENERAL CONSIDERATION: GENERAL CONSIDERATION 8

The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes is an instrument of scientific communication. Names have meaning only in the context in which they were formed and used.


PRINCIPLE 1

Original wording

The essential points in nomenclature are as follows.

      (1) Aim at stability of names.

      (2) Avoid or reject the use of names which may cause error or confusion.

      (3) Avoid the useless creation of names.
      Note"Name" in this Code is used to refer to scientific names applied to bacteria (see Chapter 3, Section 3)

New wording

The essential points in nomenclature are as follows.

      (1) Aim at stability of names.

      (2) Avoid or reject the use of names which may cause error or confusion.

      (3) Avoid the useless creation of names.
      Note"Name" in this Code is used to refer to scientific names applied to prokaryotes (see Chapter 3, Section 3)

      (4) Nothing in this Code may be construed to restrict the freedom of taxonomic thought or action.


PRINCIPLE 2

Original wording

The nomenclature of bacteria is independent of botanical nomenclature, except for algae and fungi, and of zoological nomenclature, except protozoa. For these exceptions and for relationships with virological nomenclature, see General Consideration 5 and Rule 51b(4).
"Independent" means that the same name may be validly used for a taxon of bacteria as well as a taxon of plants or animals with the exceptions noted above.

New wording

The nomenclature of Prokaryotes is not independent of botanical and zoological nomenclature. When naming new taxa in the rank of genus or higher, due consideration is to be given to avoiding names which are regulated by the Zoological Code and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Note. This principle takes effect with publication of acceptance of this change by the ICSB (now ICSP) and is not retroactive*. Although not complete, an extensive list of names of zoological taxa is maintained by the Zoological Record, a list of botanical taxa, including higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria, botanical protists and fungi is maintained by the Index Nominum Genericorum (ING), the Names in Current Use and the International Mycological Institute (Bioscience index of fungi).

* This change was published in the November 2000 issue of the IJSEM.


RECOMMENDATION 6

Original wording

To form new bacterial names and epithets, authors are advised as follows.

      (1) Avoid names or epithets that are very long or difficult to pronounce.
      (2) Make names or epithets that have an agreeable form that is easy to pronounce when latinized.
      (3) Avoid combining words from different languages, hybrid names (nomina hybrida).
      (4) Do not adopt unpublished names or epithets found in authors' notes, attributing them to the authors of such notes, unless these authors have approved publication.
      (5) Give the etymology of new generic names and of new epithets.
      (6) Determine that the name or epithet which they propose is in accordance with the Rules.

New wording

To form new prokaryotic names and epithets, authors are advised as follows.

      (1) Avoid names or epithets that are very long or difficult to pronounce.
      (2) Make names or epithets that have an agreeable form that is easy to pronounce when latinized.
      (3) Words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. Exceptions: names derived from typical local items such as foods, drinks or geographical localities for which no Latin or Greek names exist.
      (4) Do not adopt unpublished names or epithets found in authors' notes, attributing them to the authors of such notes, unless these authors have approved publication.
      (5) Give the etymology of new generic names and of new epithets.
      (6) Determine that the name or epithet which they propose is in accordance with the Rules.
      (7) The Greek K and Z and the Medieval Latin J (for consonantic I) should be maintained to avoid confusion.
Examples: Akinetobacter instead of Acinetobacter, Acidijanus instead of Acidianus.
     (8) The abbreviation M.L. stands for 'Medieval Latin' not 'Modern Latin'. For the latter, N.L. ('Neo Latin') is to be used.
     (9) When arbitrary names (cf. Rules 10a and 12c) are formed, this has to be indicated and such names have to be easy in spelling and pronunciation.
     (10) Authors should not name organisms after themselves or after co-authors. If genus names or specific epithets are formed from personal names they should contain only the untruncated family (rarely the first) name of one person.


RULE 8

Original wording

The name of each taxon above the rank of order is a Latin or latinized word preferably in conformity with Recommendation 6. It is based by choice on a combination of characters of the taxon or from a single character of outstanding importance.

     Example: Kingdom - Procaryotae; Class - Schizomycetes.

New wording

The name of each taxon (covered by the Code) above the rank of order is a Latin or latinized word.

The name of a class is in the neuter gender, the plural number and written with an initial capital letter. The name is formed by the addition of the suffix -ia to the stem of the name of the type genus of the type order of the class.

The name of a subclass is in the feminine gender, the plural number and written with an initial capital letter. The name is formed by the addition of the suffix -idae to the stem of the name of the type genus of the type order of the subclass.


RULE 11

Original wording

The taxonomic categories section, subsection, series, and subseries are informal categories not regulated by the Rules of this Code. Their designations do not compete with the names of genera and subgenera as to priority and homonymy.

NotePriority (see Section 5A) means that the name or epithet first published in accordance with the Rules is the correct name, or epithet, for a taxon (see Rule 23a). Homonymy is the term applied when the same name is given to two or more different taxa of the same rank based on different types. The first published name is known as the senior homonym and any later published name as a junior homonym.

New wording

The taxonomic categories section, subsection, series, and subseries are informal categories not regulated by the Rules of this Code. Their designations do not compete with the names of genera and subgenera as to priority and homonymy.

NotePriority (see Section 5) means that the name or epithet first published in accordance with the Rules is the correct name, or epithet, for a taxon (see Rule 23a). Homonymy is the term applied when the same name is given to two or more different taxa of the same rank based on different types. The first published name is known as the earlier (senior) homonym and any later published name as a later (junior) homonym.


RULE 12a

Original wording

The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by a single specific epithet.

If a specific epithet is formed from two or more words, then the words are to be joined. If the words were not joined in the original publication, then the epithet is not to be rejected but the form is to be corrected by joining the words, which can be done by any author. If an epithet has been hyphenated, its parts should be joined. The name retains its validity and standing in nomenclature.

Example: Salmonella typhi murium should be corrected to Salmonella typhimurium.

New wording

The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by a single specific epithet.

If a specific epithet is formed from two or more words, then the words are to be joined. If the words were not joined in the effective publication, then the epithet is not to be rejected but the form is to be corrected by joining the words, which can be done by any author. If an epithet has been hyphenated, its parts should be joined. The name is considered to have been validly published and retains its standing in nomenclature.

Example: Salmonella typhi murium should be corrected to Salmonella typhimurium.


RECOMMENDATION 12c

Original wording

Authors should attend to the following Recommendations, and those of Recommendation 6, when forming specific epithets.
(1) Choose a specific epithet that, in general, gives some indication of a property or of the source of the species.
(2) Avoid those that express a character common to all, or nearly all, the species of a genus.
(3) Ensure that, if taken from the name of a person, it recalls the name of one who discovered or described it, or was in some way connected with it, and possesses the appropriate gender (see Appendix 9A).
(4) Avoid in the same genus epithets which are very much alike, especially those that differ only in their last letters.
(5) Avoid the use of the genitive and the adjectival forms of the same specific epithet to refer to two different species of the same genus.

New wording

Authors should attend to the following Recommendations, and those of Recommendation 6, when forming specific epithets.
(1) Choose a specific epithet that, in general, gives some indication of a property or of the source of the species.
(2) Avoid those that express a character common to all, or nearly all, the species of a genus.
(3) Ensure that, if taken from the name of a person, it recalls the name of one who discovered or described it, or was in some way connected with it, and possesses the appropriate gender (see Appendix 9A).
(4) Avoid in the same genus epithets which are very much alike, especially those that differ only in their last letters.
(5) Avoid the use of the genitive and the adjectival forms of the same specific epithet to refer to two different species of the same genus.
(6) If an ordinal adjective used for enumeration is chosen then they may include numbers up to ten.
Example: primus, secundus.


RULE 15

Original wording

A taxon consists of one or more elements. For each named taxon of the various taxonomic categories (listed below), there shall be designated a nomenclatural type. The nomenclatural type, referred to in this Code as "type", is that element of the taxon with which the name is permanently associated. The nomenclatural type is not necessarily the most typical or representative element of the taxon. The types are dealt with in Rules 16–22.

New wording

A taxon consists of one or more elements. For each named taxon of the various taxonomic categories (listed below), there shall be designated a nomenclatural type. The nomenclatural type, referred to in this Code as "type", is that element of the taxon with which the name is permanently associated, whether as a correct name or as a later heterotypic synonym. The nomenclatural type is not necessarily the most typical or representative element of the taxon. The types are dealt with in Rules 16–22.


RULE 16

Original wording

After the date of publication of this Code, the type of a taxon must be designated by the author at the time the name of the taxon is published in the IJSB (see Rule 27).
Note. Authors who intend to publish the name in the IJSB with reference to a previous effectively published description under Rule 27(2) are advised also to designate the type when publishing that description.

New wording

After the date of publication of this Code, the type of a taxon must be designated by the author at the time the name of the taxon is published in the IJSB/IJSEM (see Rule 27).
Note. If a previous effective publication does not designate a type then the type must be designated at the time of valid publication in IJSB/IJSEM, in accordance with the Rules of this Code.


RULE 18a

Original wording

Whenever possible, the type of a species or subspecies is a designated strain.

A type strain is made up of living cultures of an organism which are descended from a strain designated as the nomenclatural type. The strain should have been maintained in pure culture and should agree closely in its characters with those in the original description (see Chapter 4C). The type strain may be designated in various ways (see Rule 18b, c, and d).

For a species which has not so far been maintained in laboratory culture or for which a type strain does not exist, a description, preserved specimen, or illustration (see also Rule 18f) may serve as the type.

Example: Noncultivated, Oscillospira guilliermondii Chatton and Perard 1913.

New wording

Whenever possible, the type of a species or a subspecies is a designated strain. The type strain is made up of living cultures of an organism, which are descended from a strain designated as the nomenclatural type. The strain should have been maintained in pure culture and should agree closely to its characters with those in the original description (see Chapter 4C). The type strain may be designated in various ways (see Rules 18b, 18c and 18d).

      (1) Until the publication of the acceptance of these Minutes by the ICSB (now ICSP), for a species which has not so far been maintained in laboratory cultures or for which a type does not exist, a description, preserved specimen, or illustration (see also Rule 18f) may serve as the type.
Example: Non-cultivated, Oscillospira guilliermondii Chatton and Perard 1913.

      (2) As from the publication of the acceptance of these Minutes by the ICSB (now ICSP), a description, preserved (non-viable) specimen, or illustration may not serve as the type.


RULE 18b Designation by original author

Original wording

If the author in the original publication of the name of a species or subspecies definitely designated a type strain, then this strain shall be accepted as the type strain and may be referred to as the holotype.

New wording

If the author in the effective or valid publication of the name of a species or subspecies definitely designated a type strain, then this strain shall be accepted as the type strain and may be referred to as the holotype.


RULE 18C Designation as neotype

Original wording

If a strain on which the original description was based cannot be found, a neotype strain may be proposed.

A neotype strain must be proposed (proposed neotype) in the IJSB, together with citation of the author(s) of the name, a description or reference to an effectively published description, and a record of the permanently established culture collection(s) where the strain is deposited (see also Note 1 to Rule 24a).

The author should show that a careful search for the strains used in the original description has been made and that none of them can be found. The author should also demonstrate that the proposed neotype agrees closely with the description given by the original author.

The neotype becomes established (established neotype) two years after the date of its publication in the IJSB, provided that there are no objections, which must be referred within the first year of the publication of the neotype to the Judicial Commission for consideration.

New wording

If a strain on which the original description was based cannot be found, a neotype strain may be proposed.

A neotype strain must be proposed (proposed neotype) in the IJSB/IJSEM, together with citation of the author(s) of the name, a description or reference to an effectively published description, and a record of the permanently established culture collection(s) where the strain is deposited (see also Note 1 to Rule 24a).

The author should show that a careful search for the strains used in the original description has been made and that none of them can be found. The author should also demonstrate that the proposed neotype agrees closely with the description given by the original author.

The neotype becomes established (established neotype) two years after the date of its publication in the IJSB/IJSEM, provided that there are no objections, which must be referred within the first year of the publication of the neotype to the Judicial Commission for consideration.

Note. The term 'strain' refers to the culture or subcultures of it, described in the original description. This is not restricted to the strain bearing the culture collection number mentioned in the valid publication, but refers to any culture knowingly derived from the original strain.


RULE 18f

Original wording

If a description or illustration constitutes, or a dead preserved specimen has been designated as, the type of a species (Rule 18a, para 3) and later a strain of this species is cultivated, then the type strain may be designated by the person who isolated the strain or by a subsequent author. This type strain shall then replace the description, illustration, or preserved specimen as the nomenclatural type.

New wording

If a description or illustration constitutes, or a dead preserved specimen has been designated as the type of a species [Rule 18a(1)] and a later strain of this species is cultivated, then the type strain may be designated by the person who isolated the strain or by a subsequent author. This type strain shall then replace the description, illustration or preserved specimen as the nomenclatural type. The designation of a type strain in this manner must be published in the IJSB/IJSEM, the authorship and date of priority of publication being determined by the effective and valid publication of the name by the original authors (Rule 24b).


RULE 20a

Original wording

The nomenclatural type of a genus or subgenus is the type species, that is, the single species or one of the species included when the name was originally validly published.

New wording

The nomenclatural type of a genus or subgenus is the type species, that is, the single species or one of the species included when the name was originally validly published. Only species whose names are legitimate may serve as types.


RULE 20b Designation by original author

Original wording

If the author of the original publication of a generic or subgeneric name designated a type species, that species shall be accepted as the type species.

New wording

If the author of the effective or valid publication of a generic or subgeneric name designated a type species, that species shall be accepted as the type species.


RULE 20e(1)

Original wording

      (1) If none of the species named by an author in the original publication of a generic name can be recognized, i.e., if no identifiable type species can be selected in accordance with the Rules, the Judicial Commission may issue an Opinion declaring such generic name to be a rejected name (nomen rejiciendum) and without standing in nomenclature (see Rule 23a, Note 4).

Example: Rejection of the generic name Gaffkya Trevisan 1885 (Opinion 39).

New wording

      (1) If none of the species named by an author in the effective or valid publication of a generic name can be recognized, i.e., if no identifiable type species can be selected in accordance with the Rules, the Judicial Commission may issue an Opinion declaring such generic name to be a rejected name (nomen rejiciendum) and without standing in nomenclature (see Rule 23a, Note 4).

Example: Rejection of the generic name Gaffkya Trevisan 1885 (Opinion 39).


RULE 20f Retention of type species on publication of a new generic name

Original wording

The publication of a new generic name as a deliberate substitute for an earlier one does not change the type species of the genus.

Example: The deliberate creation of Xanthomonas as a substitute for the name Phytomonas (not available, as it was already in use as the name of a protozoan genus) does not change the type species, which was Phytomonas campestris and which became Xanthomonas campestris.

New wording

The valid publication of a new generic name as a deliberate substitute for an earlier one does not change the type species of the genus.

Example: The deliberate creation of Xanthomonas as a substitute for the name Phytomonas (not available, as it was already in use as the name of a protozoan genus) does not change the type species, which was Phytomonas campestris and which became Xanthomonas campestris.


Rule 21a

Original wording

The nomenclatural type of a taxon above genus, up to and including order; is the genus on whose name the name of the relevant taxon is based. One taxon of each category must include the type genus. The names of the taxa which include the type genus must be formed by the addition of the appropriate suffix to the stem of the name of the type genus (see Rule 9).

New wording

The nomenclatural type of a taxon above genus, up to and including order; is the legitimate name of the included genus on whose name the name of the relevant taxon is based. One taxon of each category must include the type genus. The names of the taxa which include the type genus must be formed by the addition of the appropriate suffix to the stem of the name of the type genus (see Rule 9).


UNIFICATION OF THE TWO SUBSECTIONS FOR SECTION 5

Original wording

Section 5. Priority and publication of names

 A. Priority of Names

 B. Publication of Names

New wording

Section 5. Priority, effective and valid publication of names

Remark

Please, note that the two subsections are now united under the heading cited above.


NOTE 5 FOR RULE 23a

Original wording

Names and epithets may be:

legitimate - in accordance with the Rules;

illegitimate - contrary to the Rules;

effectively published - in printed matter made generally available to the scientific community (see Rule 25);

validly published - effectively published and accompanied by a description of the taxon or a reference to a description and certain other requirements (see Rules 27-32);

correct-the name which must be adopted for a taxon under the Rules.

New wording

Names and epithets may be:

legitimate - in accordance with the Rules;

illegitimate - contrary to the Rules;

effectively published - in printed and/or electronic matter made generally available to the scientific community (see Rule 25);

validly published - effectively published and accompanied by a description of the taxon or a reference to a description and certain other requirements (see Rules 27-32);

correct-the name which must be adopted for a taxon under the Rules. 

NOTES 2 AND 3 FOR RULE 24a

Original wording

Note 2. These Approved Lists may contain more than one name attached to the same type (objective synonyms) since the names on the list represent those names which are considered reasonable in the present state of bacteriological nomenclature and taxonomy and represent the views of many bacteriologists who may hold different taxonomic opinions.

Note 3. Synonyms may be objective synonyms (i.e., more than one name has been associated with the same type) or subjective synonyms (i.e., different names have been associated with different types that in the opinion of the bacteriologist concerned belong to the same taxon). The synonym first published is known as the senior synonym, and later synonyms are known as junior synonyms.

Publication of objective synonyms in the Approved Lists does not affect bacterial nomenclature any more than does the valid publication of objective synonyms in different works in the bacteriological literature at present.

Examples: Objective synonymsNocardia rhodochrous and Mycobacterium rhodochrous. Subjective synonyms—Leudemann (IJSB [1971] 21:240–247) regards Micromonospora fusca Jensen 1932 as a subjective synonym of Micromonospora purpureochromogenes (Waksman and Curtis 1916) Leudemann 1971. These two species have different types.

New wording

Note 2. These Approved Lists may contain more than one name attached to the same type (homotypic synonyms) since the names on the list represent those names which are considered reasonable in the present state of bacteriological nomenclature and taxonomy and represent the views of many bacteriologists who may hold different taxonomic opinions.

Note 3. Synonyms may be homotypic synonyms (i.e., more than one name has been associated with the same type) or heterotypic synonyms (i.e., different names have been associated with different types that in the opinion of the bacteriologist concerned belong to the same taxon). The synonym first published is known as the earlier (senior) synonym, and later synonyms are known as later (junior) synonyms.

Publication of homotypic synonyms in the Approved Lists does not affect prokaryotic nomenclature any more than does the valid publication of homotypic synonyms in different works in the bacteriological literature at present.

Examples: Homotypic synonymsNocardia rhodochrous and Mycobacterium rhodochrousHeterotypic synonyms—Leudemann (IJSB [1971] 21:240–247) regards Micromonospora fusca Jensen 1932 as a heterotypic synonym of Micromonospora purpureochromogenes (Waksman and Curtis 1916) Leudemann 1971. These two species have different types.


RULE 24b

Original wording

      (1) If two names compete for priority and if both names date from 1 January 1980 on an Approved List, the priority shall be determined by the date of the original publication of the name before 1 January 1980.

      (2) If two names published after 1 January 1980 (and therefore not included on the Approved Lists, 1980, or the Corrigenda, 1984) compete for priority, priority is determined by the date of the publication or announcement of the name in the IJSB. Where the two names appear in the same issue of IJSB, priority is determined by page number; a name appearing on a lower page number of the same issue is deemed to be the earlier. Where two names, previously published in other journals, are validated by announcement on the same Validation List in IJSB, priority is established by the sequence number on the List.

Note 1. In order to implement Rule 24b(2) in the fairest manner, names submitted for inclusion in the Validation List will include a sequence number that reflects the date of receipt of the validation request in the form that is accepted for publication.

New wording

      (1) If two names compete for priority and if both names date from 1 January 1980 on an Approved List, the priority shall be determined by the date of the effective publication of the name before 1 January 1980. Should the two names bear the same date, then priority shall be determined by page number. If this fails to determine priority then it shall be determined by the order of publication in the effective publication.
Example: Caulobacter halobacteroides (Poindexter 1964) and Caulobacter maris were described on the same page
.

      (2) If two names published after 1 January 1980 (and therefore not included on the Approved Lists, 1980, or the Corrigenda, 1984) compete for priority, priority is determined by the date of valid publication or announcement of the name in the IJSB/IJSEM. Where the two names appear in the same issue of IJSB/IJSEM, priority is determined by page number; a name appearing on a lower page number of the same issue is deemed to be the earlier. Should the page number not determine priority, this shall be determined by the order of valid publication of the names in original articles in IJSB/IJSEM. When two names effectively published in other journals, are validly published by announcement on the same Validation List in IJSB/IJSEM, priority is established by the sequence number on the list.

Note 1. In order to implement Rule 24b(2) in the fairest manner, names submitted for inclusion in the Validation List will include a sequence number that reflects the date of receipt of the validation request in the form that is accepted for publication.


RULE 25a Effective publication

Original wording

Effective publication is effected under this Code by making generally available, by sale or distribution, to the scientific community, printed material for the purpose of providing a permanent record.

Recommendation 25a

When a name of a new taxon is published in a work written in a language unfamiliar to the majority of workers in bacteriology, it is recommended that the author(s) include in the publication a description in a more familiar language.

New wording

Effective publication is effected under this Code by making generally available, by sale or distribution, to the scientific community, printed and/or electronic material for the purpose of providing a permanent record. When a name of a new taxon is published in a work written in a language unfamiliar to the majority of workers in bacteriology, it is recommended that the author(s) include in the effective publication a description in English.

Note: Electronic publication should follow the tradition of publication of printed matter acceptable to this Code.

Remark

Please, note that Recommendation 25a (with a new wording) is now included in Rule 25a.


Rule 25b

Original wording

No other kind of publication than that cited in Rule 25a is accepted as effective, nor are the following.
(1) Communication of new names at a meeting, in minutes of a meeting, or; after 1950, in abstracts of papers presented at meetings.
(2) Placing of names on specimens in collections or in listings or catalogues of collections.
(8) Distribution of microfilm, microcards, or matter reproduced by similar methods.
(4) Reports in ephemeral publications, newsletters, newspapers after 1900, or nonscientific periodicals.
(5) Inclusion of a name of a new taxon of bacteria in a published patent application or issued patent.

New wording

No other kind of publication than that cited in Rule 25a is accepted as effective, nor are the following.
(1) Communication of new names at a meeting, in minutes of a meeting, or; after 1950, in abstracts of papers presented at meetings.
(2) Placing of names on specimens in collections or in listings or catalogues of collections.
(8) Distribution of microfilm, microcards, or matter reproduced by similar methods.
(4) Reports in ephemeral publications, newsletters, newspapers after 1900, or nonscientific periodicals.
(5) Inclusion of a name of a new taxon of bacteria in a published patent application or issued patent.
(6) Making available electronic material in advance of publication (e.g. papers in press, or otherwise making unpublished manuscripts available in electronic format).


Rule 26a Date of publication

Original wording

The date of publication of a scientific work is the date of publication of the printed matter. The date given to the work containing the name or epithet must be regarded as correct in the absence of proof to the contrary.

New wording

The date of publication of a scientific work is the date of publication of the printed or electronic matter. The date given to the work containing the name or epithet must be regarded as correct in the absence of proof to the contrary.


RULE 27

Original wording

A name of a new taxon, or a new combination for an existing taxon, is not validly published unless the following criteria are met.

      (1) The name is published in the IJSB.

      (2) The publication of the name in the IJSB is accompanied by a description of the taxon or by a reference to a previous effectively published description of the taxon (see Rules 25a and 25b and, for genus and species, Rules 29–32).

      (3) The type is designated for a new taxon, or cited for a new combination, in the IJSB.

 Note. Valid publication of the name of a taxon requires publication in the IJSB of the name of the taxon and reference to an effectively published description whether in the IJSB or in another publication. The date of publication is that of publication in the IJSB. The name may be mentioned in a previously published description, but the name is not validly published until its publication in the IJSB.
If the initial proposal of the new name or new combination is not published in the IJSB, publication (announcement in a Validation List) of the name in the IJSB is the responsibility of the author of the name or combination together with the requirements of Rule 27(2) and (3) above.
In the case of a name of a new taxon (rather than a new combination for a taxon already described), a type must be designated in the publication. It is recommended that the type of a species or subspecies be deposited in a recognized culture collection (see Recommendation 30a) and that the description of the taxon conform to minimal standards (see Recommendation 30b).

New wording

A name of a new taxon, or a new combination for an existing taxon, is not validly published unless the following criteria are met.

      (1) The name is published in the IJSB/IJSEM.

      (2) The publication of the name in the IJSB/IJSEM is accompanied by a description of the taxon or by a reference to a previous effectively published description of the taxon (see Rules 25a and 25b and, for genus and species, Rules 29–32).
            a: The new name or new combination should be clearly stated and indicated as such (i.e. fam. nov., gen. nov., sp. nov., comb. nov., etc.).
            b: The derivation (etymology) of a new name (and if necessary of a new combination) must be given.
            c: The properties of the taxon being described must be given directly after (a) and (b). This may include reference to tables or figures in the same publication, or reference to previously effectively published work.
            d: All information contained in (c) should be accessible.
 

      (3) The type is designated for a new taxon, or cited for a new combination, in the IJSEM/IJSB. The type of the taxon must be designated (see Rule 16). In the case of species or subspecies (including new combinations) the type strains must be deposited according to Rule 30.
Rare exceptions can be accepted in those cases where maintenance conditions for the culture are so exceptional (e.g. obligate barophiles or extremely virulent pathogens) that not more than one culture collection can be found that is able to maintain the strain.

Note 1. Valid publication of the name of a taxon requires publication in the IJSB/IJSEM of the name of the taxon and reference to an effectively published description whether in the IJSB /IJSEM or in another publication. The date of valid publication is that of publication in the IJSB/IJSEM. The name may be mentioned in a previous effective publication, but the name is not validly published until its publication in the IJSB/IJSEM.
If the initial proposal of the new name or new combination is not effectively published in the IJSB/IJSEM, valid publication (announcement in a Validation List) of the name in the IJSB/IJSEM is the responsibility of the author of the name or combination together with the requirements of Rule 27(2) and (3) above. However, other individuals may also submit a new name or new combination for valid publication provided it conforms to the Rules of this Code. At the request of the Judicial Commission the IJSB/IJSEM provides a ”Notification List” which lists all nomenclatural changes as well as listing changes in taxonomic opinion that have occurred in an issue of the journal. This list has no formal status in prokaryote nomenclature except to allow for orthographic corrections to be made.
In the case of a name of a new taxon (rather than a new combination for a taxon already described), a type must be designated in the effective or valid publication. It is recommended that the type of a species or subspecies be deposited in a recognized culture collection (see Recommendation 30a) and that the description of the taxon conform to minimal standards (see Recommendation 30b).

Note 2. When a new species or a new combination results in the proposal of a new genus, both the genus name and the new species name or new combination must be validly published. Valid publication of the new species or new combination alone does not constitute valid publication of the new genus.


Rule 28a

Original wording

An author validly publishing a new name after 1 January 1980 may revive a name validly published prior to 1 January 1980 (see Rule 24a) but not listed in one of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names unless the name is a nomen rejiciendum. The name may be used whether or not the new taxon is related in any way to the taxon to which the name was originally applied.

Authority for the name must be claimed by the new author. However; if the author wishes to indicate that the name is a revived name and is used to describe a taxon with the same circumscription, position, and rank as that given by the original author, this may be done by appending the abbreviation "nom. rev." (revived name) to the name (see Rule 33c).

The proposal must contain a brief diagnosis, i.e., a statement or list of those features that led the author to conclude that the proposed taxon is sufficienfly different from other recognized taxa to justify its revival. The data included in the statement may be taken from the earlier description and may include newer data, when appropriate. The type must also be designated [see Rule 27(3)].
Note 1. Publication of a new name is not invalidated by previous publication of the name before 1 January 1980 unless the name is included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.
Note 2. Since revived names are treated as new names, they require valid publication in the IJSB, and the date of valid publication of a revived name is that of the publication in the IJSB (see Rule 27).
Note 3. Search for publication of names and effectively published descriptions prior to 1 January 1980 is no longer required. The Approved Lists of Bacterial Names form the foundation of a new prokaryotic/bacterial nomenclature and taxonomy.
 

New wording

An author validly publishing a new name after 1 January 1980 may revive a name published prior to 1 January 1980 (see Rule 24a) but not listed in one of the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names unless the name is a nomen rejiciendum. The name may be used whether or not the new taxon is related in any way to the taxon to which the name was originally applied.

Authority for the name must be claimed by the new author. However; if the author wishes to indicate that the name is a revived name and is used to describe a taxon with the same circumscription, position, and rank as that given by the original author, this may be done by appending the abbreviation "nom. rev." (revived name) to the name (see Rule 33c).

The proposal must contain a brief diagnosis, i.e., a statement or list of those features that led the author to conclude that the proposed taxon is sufficiently different from other recognized taxa to justify its revival. The data included in the statement may be taken from the earlier description and may include newer data, when appropriate. The description of the taxon and derivation of the name must conform to the requirements of Rule 27 (2). The type must also be designated [see Rule 27(3)].
Note 1. A new name, which was previously published before 1 January 1980 is only considered to be already validly published if the name was included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.
Note 2. Since revived names are treated as new names, they require valid publication in the IJSB/IJSEM, and the date of valid publication of a revived name is that of the publication in the IJSB/IJSEM (see Rule 27).
Note 3. Search for publication of names and effectively published descriptions prior to 1 January 1980 is no longer required. The Approved Lists of Bacterial Names form the foundation of a new prokaryotic/bacterial nomenclature and taxonomy.


RULE 30

Original wording

For the name of a species to be validly published, it must conform with the following conditions.

      (1) It must be published in conformity with Rules 27 and 28b.

      (2) It must be published as a binary combination consisting of a generic name followed by a single specific epithet (see Rule 12a).

New wording

For the name of species to be validly published it must conform with the following conditions.

      (1) It must be published in conformity with the Rules 27 and 28b.

      (2) It must be published as a binary combination consisting of a genus name followed by a single species epithet (see Rule 12a).

      (3a) Up to the publication of the acceptance of these Minutes by the IJSB/IJSEM, before publication of the name of a new species, a culture of the type strain (or, if the species is non-cultivable, type material, a photograph or an illustration) should be deposited in at least one of the permanently established culture collections from which it would be readily available. The designation allotted to the strain by the culture collections should be quoted in the published description.

      (3b) As of 1st January 2001 the description (of a new species, or new combinations previously represented by viable cultures) must include the designation of a type strain, and a viable culture of that strain must be deposited in at least two publicly accessible service collections in different countries from which subcultures must be available. The designations allotted to the strain by the culture collections should be quoted in the published description. Evidence must be presented that the cultures are present, viable, and available at the time of publication.

      (4) Organisms deposited in such a fashion that access is restricted, such as safe deposits or strains deposited solely for current patent purposes, may not serve as type strains.
Note: In exceptional cases, such as organisms requiring specialised facilities (e.g. Risk Group/Biological Safety Level 3, high pressure requirements etc.), exceptions may be made to this Rule. Exceptions will be considered on an individual basis, by a committee consisting of the chairman of the ICSP, the chairman of the Judicial Commission, and the editor in chief of the IJSEM. Exceptions will be made known at the time of publication.


RECOMMENDATION 30a

Original wording

Before publication of the name of a new species, a culture of the type strain (or, if the species is noncultivable, type material, a photograph, or an illustration) should be deposited in at least one of the permanently established culture collections from which it would be readily available. The designation allotted to the strain by the culture collection should be quoted in the published description.

New wording

This Recommendation is deleted.


RECOMMENDATION 30b

Original wording

Before publication of the name and description of a new species, the examination and description should conform at least to the minimal standards (if available) required for the relevant taxon of bacteria.

Note. Lists of minimal standards are being prepared for each group of bacteria by experts at the request of the Judicial Commission for consideration by the Judicial Commission and the ICSB for publication in the IJSB (see Appendix 6). Such standards include tests for the establishment of generic identity and for the diagnosis of the species, i.e., an indication of characters which would distinguish the species from others.

New wording

Before publication of the name and description of a new species, the examination and description should conform at least to the minimal standards (if available) required for the relevant taxon of prokaryotes.

Note a. Lists of minimal standards are being prepared for each group of prokaryotes by experts at the request of the Judicial Commission for consideration by the Judicial Commission and the ICSB (now ICSP) for publication in the IJSB/IJSEM (see Appendix 6). Such standards include tests for the establishment of generic identity and for the diagnosis of the species, i.e., an indication of characters which would distinguish the species from others.

Note b. It is the aim of minimal standards to provide guidance on the description of taxa for taxonomists seeking such advice. However, these standards are not to be applied in such a way as to contradict Principle 1(4).


RULE 31a

Original wording

The name of a species or subspecies is not validly published if the description is based upon studies of a mixed culture of more than one species or subspecies. This does not apply to descriptions based chiefly on morphology (e.g., Achromatium oxaliferum Schewiakoff 1893).

New wording

The name of a species or a subspecies is not validly published if the description is demonstrably ambiguous and cannot be critically identified for purposes of the precise application of the name of a taxon. (Examples: 'Methanobacillus omelianskii', whose description included all component species, was treated as a single species and was thus illegitimate. Syntrophobacter wolinii (Boone and Bryant 1984) is legitimate, because the species description applies to one member of the syntrophic association with a hydrogen-producing organism.


RULE 40d (formerly Rule 46)

Original wording

The valid publication of a subspecific name which excludes the type of the species automatically creates another subspecies which includes the type and whose name bears the same specific and subspecific epithets as the name of the type.

     Example: Publication of Bacillus subtilis subsp. viscosus Chester 1904 automatically created a new subspecies, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis.

The author of the species name is to be cited as the author of such an automatically created subspecific name.

     Example: Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872.

New wording

The valid publication of a subspecific name which excludes the type of the species automatically creates another subspecies which includes the type and whose name bears the same specific and subspecific epithets as the name of the type.

     Example: Publication of Bacillus subtilis subsp. viscosus Chester 1904 automatically created a new subspecies, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis.

The authorship of such an automatically created subspecific name is cited to the original author of the epithet followed by the author of the subspecies.

     Example: Vibrio subtilis Ehrenberg ---> Bacillus subtilis comb. nov. Cohn ---> Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis subsp. nov. Nakamura. The correct authorship of the subspecies is Bacillus subtilis subspecies subtilis (Ehrenberg) Nakamura [Ehrenberg for the epithet and Nakamura for the new subspecies].


RULE 46

Rule 46 is relocated as Rule 40d under the 'Division of a Species into Species or Subspecies, and of a Subspecies into Subspecies'.


RULE 52

Original wording

The following are not to be regarded as specific or subspecific epithets.

      (1) A word or phrase which is not intended as a specific epithet.

      Example: Bacillus nova species Matzuschita.

      (2) A word which is merely an ordinal adjective used for enumeration.

      Example: primus, secundus.

      (3) A number or letter

      Example: α in Bacillus α von Freudenreich.

New wording

Original wording

The following are not to be regarded as specific or subspecific epithets.

      (1) A word or phrase which is not intended as a specific epithet.

      Example: Bacillus nova species Matzuschita.

      (2) A word which is an ordinal adjective higher than ten used for enumeration.

      Example: undecimus, duodecimus etc.

      (3) A number or letter

      Example: α in Bacillus α von Freudenreich.


RULE 61 (paragraph 2)

Original wording

An unintentional typographical or orthographic error later corrected by the author is to be accepted in its corrected form without affecting its validity and original date of publication. It can also be corrected by a subsequent author who may or may not mention that the spelling is corrected, but the abbreviation "corrig." (corrigendum) may be appended to the name if an author wishes to draw attention to the correction. Succeeding authors may be unaware that the original usage was incorrect and use the spelling of the original author(s). Other succeeding authors may follow the correction of a previous author or may independently correct the spelling themselves, but in no case is the use of corrig. regarded as obligatory. None of these corrections affects the validity and original date of publication.

New wording

An unintentional typographical or orthographic error later corrected by the author is to be accepted in its corrected form without affecting the status and date of valid publication. It can also be corrected by a subsequent author who may or may not mention that the spelling is corrected, but the abbreviation "corrig." (corrigendum) may be appended to the name if an author wishes to draw attention to the correction. Succeeding authors may be unaware that the original usage was incorrect and use the spelling of the original author(s). Other succeeding authors may follow the correction of a previous author or may independently correct the spelling themselves, but in no case is the use of corrig. regarded as obligatory. None of these corrections affects the status and date of valid publication.


NOTE FOR RULE 61

Original wording

The liberty of correcting a name or epithet under Rules 61, 62a, and 62b must be used with reserve especially if the change affects the first syllable and above all the first letter of the name or epithet.

New wording

The liberty of correcting a name or epithet under Rules 61, 62a and 62b must be used with reserve, especially if the change affects the first syllable and above all the first letter of the name or epithet. Except for changes of gender in specific epithets when species are transferred to other genera (nov. comb.) no grammatical or orthographic corrections will be accepted for names on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, the Validation Lists and the Notification Lists.


APPENDIX 8

The wording of Appendix 8 (Request for an Opinion) must be altered so that it is clear that the Judicial Commission should publish an Opinion irrespective of whether or not the proposal is accepted.


APPENDIX 9

The Judicial Commission agreed that Appendix 9 should be more strongly incorporated in the Code, and should, therefore take the form of a Recommendation.

Remark

A new edition of the Appendix 9 (accepted at the Plenary Meetings of the Judicial Commission and the ICSP during the IUMS Congress in San Francisco, CA, USA, July 23-29, 2005) is available online: http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/59/8/2107.


OTHER APPENDICES

The other Appendices must be updated in order to reflect newer literature, more recent “minimal standards” etc. Also all lists of rejected or conserved names, and the list of opinions must be updated.


NEW APPENDIX

The concept of Candidatus should be added to the Code as an Appendix as decided by the ICSB (now ICSP) in 1996 in Jerusalem. As Appendices of the Code have the function to explain specific areas of the Code, the Judicial Commission feels that this should also be mentioned in the main body of the Code, despite the fact that such names have no standing in nomenclature, and proposes that this is to be done in Rule 18a and/or 18f as a note indicating that ‘The concept of Candidatus is defined in Minute 11 of the 1996 meetings of the ICSB (now ICSP) [Int J Syst Bacteriol 47 (1997), 597–600] as recommended by the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology [Stackebrandt et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (2002), 1043–1047]’. An Appendix will include the regulations governing the category Candidatus.


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